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HandWiki. List of Landforms. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32841 (accessed on 24 June 2024).
HandWiki. List of Landforms. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32841. Accessed June 24, 2024.
HandWiki. "List of Landforms" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32841 (accessed June 24, 2024).
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HandWiki. "List of Landforms." Encyclopedia. Web. 04 November, 2022.
List of Landforms
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Landforms are categorised by characteristic physical attributes such as elevation, slope, orientation, rock exposure, and soil type.

physical attributes slope soil

1. Landforms by Process

Landforms organized by the processes that create them.

1.1. Aeolian

Coastal and oceanic landforms include:

  • Earth:Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Earth:Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Earth:Archipelago – Collection of islands
  • Earth:Atoll – Ring-shaped coral reef
  • Arch – Natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Earth:Barrier island – Coastal dune landform that forms by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast
  • Earth:Bay – Recessed, coastal body of water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Earth:Baymouth bar – Sandbank that partially or completely closes access to a bay
  • Earth:Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Earth:Raised beach – Emergent coastal landform
  • Earth:Beach cusps – Shoreline formations made up of various grades of sediment in an arc pattern
  • Earth:Beach ridge – Wave-swept or wave-deposited ridge running parallel to a shoreline
  • Bight – Shallowly concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature
  • Blowhole – Hole at the top of a sea-cave which allows waves to force water or spray out of the hole
  • Channel – Type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Cape – Large headland extending into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Earth:Calanque – Narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Earth:Cliff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Earth:Coast – Area where land meets the sea or ocean
  • Earth:Continental shelf – Coastal and oceanic landform
  • Earth:Coral reef – Outcrop of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of stony coral skeletons
  • Earth:Cove – Small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Earth:Cuspate foreland – Geographical features found on coastlines and lakeshores
  • Dune system – Hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Earth:Estuary – Partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water
  • Earth:Firth – Scottish word used for various coastal inlets and straits
  • Earth:Fjard – Glacially formed, broad, shallow inlet
  • Earth:Fjord – Long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Geo – Inlet, a gully or a narrow and deep cleft in the face of a cliff
  • Earth:Gulf – Large inlet from the ocean into the landmass
    • Earth:List of gulfs
  • Earth:Headland – Landform extending into a body of water, often with significant height and drop
  • Earth:Inlet – Indentation of a shoreline
  • Earth:Island – Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
  • Earth:Islet – Very small island
  • Earth:Lagoon – Shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform
  • Earth:Machair – Fertile low-lying grassy plain
  • Earth:Mid-ocean ridge – Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Earth:Oceanic basin – Geologic basin under the sea
  • Earth:Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Earth:Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Earth:Peninsula – Landform surrounded mostly, but not entirely by water
  • Earth:Ria – A coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley
  • Earth:Salt marsh – Coastal ecosystem between land and open saltwater that is regularly flooded
  • Earth:Sea cave – Cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Earth:Seamount – Mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Earth:Shoal – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Earth:Shore – The fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water
  • Sound – A long, relatively wide body of water, connecting two larger bodies of water
  • Spit – Coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift
  • Earth:Strait – Naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Earth:Strandflat – Type of landform found in high-latitude areas
  • Stack – Geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock, and stump
  • Earth:Submarine canyon – A steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope
  • Earth:Surge channel – Type of coastal landform
  • Earth:Tessellated pavement – Relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Earth:Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Earth:Tide pool – Rocky pool on a seashore, separated from the sea at low tide, filled with seawater
  • Earth:Tombolo – Deposition landform in which an island is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus
  • Earth:Volcanic arc – Chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate
  • Earth:Wave-cut platform – Narrow flat area created by erosion

1.2. Cryogenic Landforms

  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Earth:Lithalsa – Frost-induced raised land form in permafrost areas
  • Nivation hollow – Geomorphic processes associated with snow patches
  • Earth:Palsa – A low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates
  • Earth:Pingo – Mound of earth-covered ice
  • Earth:Rock glacier – Glacial landform
  • Earth:Solifluction lobes and sheets
  • Earth:Thermokarst

1.3. Erosion Landforms

Landforms produced by erosion and weathering usually occur in coastal or fluvial environments, and many also appear under those headings.

  • Earth:Arête – Narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Earth:Badlands – Type of heavily eroded terrain
  • Earth:Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Earth:Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Earth:Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Earth:Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Earth:Cliff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Earth:Cuesta – Hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Earth:Dissected plateau – Plateaux area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Erg – Broad area of desert covered with wind-swept sand
  • Earth:Exhumed river channel – Ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Earth:Fjord – Long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Earth:Flared slope – Rock-wall with a smooth transition into a concavity at the foot zone
  • Flatiron – Steeply sloping triangular landform
  • Earth:Gulch – Deep V-shaped valley formed by erosion
  • Earth:Gully – Landform created by running water and/or mass movement eroding sharply into soil
  • Hogback – Long, narrow ridge
  • Hoodoo – Tall, thin spire of relatively soft rock usually topped by harder rock
  • Earth:Homoclinal ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Earth:Inselberg, also known as Monadnock – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Astronomy:Inverted relief – Landscape features that have reversed their elevation relative to other features
  • Earth:Lavaka – Type of gully, formed via groundwater sapping
  • Earth:Limestone pavement – Natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Earth:Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Earth:Mushroom rock – Naturally occurring rock whose shape resembles a mushroom
  • Earth:Natural arch – Natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Earth:Paleosurface – Surface made by erosion of considerable antiquity
  • Pediment – Very gently sloping inclined bedrock surface
  • Earth:Pediplain – Extensive plain formed by the diposition of pediments
  • Earth:Peneplain – Low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Earth:Planation surface – Large-scale surface that is almost flat
  • Potrero – Long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain
  • Earth:Ridge – Chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Earth:Rôche moutonnée
  • Earth:List of rock formations – Wikipedia list article
  • Strike ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Structural bench – Long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Structural terrace – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Tepui – Table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Earth:Tessellated pavement – Relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Earth:Truncated spur – Ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop on a gentle hill summit
  • Earth:Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Earth:Wave-cut platform – Narrow flat area created by erosion

1.4. Fluvial Landforms

 landforms include: 
  • Earth:Ait – Islands found on the River Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Earth:Alluvial fan – Fan-shaped deposit of sediment
  • Earth:Anabranch – A section of a river or stream that diverts from the main channel and rejoins it downstream.
  • Arroyo – Dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
  • Earth:Asymmetric valley – Valley that has steeper slopes on one side
  • Earth:Backswamp – Environment on a floodplain where deposits settle after a flood
  • Bar – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Earth:Bayou – French term for a body of water typically found in flat, low-lying area
  • Bench – Long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Braided channel – Network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands
  • Earth:Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Earth:Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Earth:Cliff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Earth:Cut bank – Outside bank of a water channel, which is continually undergoing erosion
  • Earth:Crevasse splay – Sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream which breaks its levees
  • Earth:Confluence – Meeting of two or more bodies of flowing water
  • Earth:Drainage basin – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Earth:Drainage divide – Elevated terrain that separates neighbouring drainage basins
  • Earth:Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Earth:Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Earth:Exhumed river channel – Ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Earth:Floodplain – Land adjacent to a river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Fluvial island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Gorge – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Earth:Gully – Landform created by running water and/or mass movement eroding sharply into soil
  • Natural Earth:Levee – Ridge or wall to hold back water
  • Earth:Marsh – Wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
  • Earth:Meander – One of a series of curves in a channel of a matured stream
  • Earth:Misfit stream – River too large or too small to have eroded the valley or cave passage in which it flows
  • Earth:Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake or pool
  • Earth:Point bar – Landform related to streams and rivers
  • Earth:Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall
  • Earth:Riffle – Shallow landform in a flowing channel
  • Earth:River – Natural flowing watercourse
  • Earth:River island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Rock-cut basin – Cylindrical depression cut into stream or river beds
  • Shut-in – Type of rock formation found in Ozarks streams
  • Earth:Thalweg – Line of lowest elevation in a watercourse or valley
  • Towhead – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Shoal – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Earth:Strath – Large valley
  • Earth:Stream – Body of surface water flowing down a channel
  • Earth:Stream pool – Stretch of a river or stream in which the water is relatively deep and slow moving
  • Earth:Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Earth:Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Earth:Wadi – River valley, especially a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain
  • Earth:Waterfall – Natural river formation
  • Watershed – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Earth:Yazoo stream – Hydrologic term
  • Earth:V-shaped valley

1.5. Impact Landforms

Landforms created by extraterrestrial impacts – Collision of two astronomical objects with measurable effects – include:

  • Astronomy:Complex crater – Large impact craters with uplifted centres
  • Astronomy:Impact crater – Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a smaller object's impact
  • Earth:Impact crater lake

1.6. Karst Landforms

Earth:Karst – Topography from dissolved soluble rocks – includes:

  • Earth:Abîme – Geographical term referring to vertical shaft in caves
  • Earth:Calanque – Narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Earth:Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Earth:Foiba – Type of deep natural sinkhole
  • Earth:Mogote – Steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Earth:Polje – Type of large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Earth:Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Turlough – Type of seasonal or periodic lake found in limestone areas of Ireland
  • Uvala – Toponym for a closed karst depression

1.7. Lacustrine Landforms

Lacustrine – associated with lakes – landforms include:

  • Earth:Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Earth:Raised beach – Emergent coastal landform
  • Earth:Dry lake – Basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body
  • Earth:Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Earth:Lacustrine plain – Lakes filled by sediment
  • Lacustrine terraces – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Lake – Large body of relatively still water
  • Earth:Oasis – Fertile area in a desert environment
  • Earth:Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake or pool
  • Earth:Pond – Relatively small body of standing water
  • Earth:Proglacial lake – Lake formed by the action of ice
  • Salt pan, also known as salt flat – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals

1.8. Mountain and Glacial Landforms

Mountain and Earth:Glacial landform – Landform created by the action of glacierss – include:

  • Earth:Arête – Narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Earth:Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Earth:Col – Lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Earth:Crevasse
  • Corrie – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion or cwm
  • Cove (mountain) – Small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Earth:Dirt cone – Depositional glacial feature of ice or snow with an insulating layer of dirt
  • Earth:Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Earth:Fjord – Long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Earth:Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Flyggberg – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Glacier – Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight
  • Earth:Glacier cave – Cave formed within the ice of a glacier
  • Earth:Glacier foreland – The region between the current leading edge of the glacier and the moraines of latest maximum
  • Earth:Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Earth:Inselberg, also known as monadnock – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Kame – Mound formed on a retreating glacier and deposited on land
  • Earth:Kame delta – Glacial melt water landform
  • Kettle – Depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Earth:Moraine – Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris
    • Earth:Rogen moraine, also known as Ribbed moraines – Landform of ridges deposited by a glacier or ice sheet transverse to ice flow
  • Moulin – Shaft within a glacier or ice sheet which water enters from the surface
  • Earth:Mountain – Large and tall landform
  • Earth:Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Earth:Mountain range – Geographic area containing several geologically related mountains
  • Earth:Nunatak – Landform within an ice field or glacier
  • Earth:Proglacial lake – Lake formed by the action of ice
  • Earth:Pyramidal peak, also known as Glacial horn – Angular, sharply pointed mountainous peak
  • Earth:Outwash fan – Fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Earth:Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Earth:Rôche moutonnée
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Side valley
  • Earth:Summit – Point on a surface with a higher elevation than all immediately adjacent points
  • Earth:Trim line – Clear line on the side of a valley marking the most recent highest extent of the glacier
  • Earth:Truncated spur – Ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Earth:Tunnel valley – Glacial-formed geographic feature
  • Earth:Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Earth:U-shaped valley – Valleys formed by glacial scouring

1.9. Slope Landforms

Slope landforms include:

  • Bluff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Earth:Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Earth:Cliff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Earth:Col – Lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Earth:Cuesta – Hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Dale – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Defile – Narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills
  • Dell – Small secluded hollow
  • Draw – Terrain feature formed by two parallel ridges or spurs with low ground in between
  • Earth:Escarpment, also known as scarp – Steep slope or cliff separating two relatively level regions
  • Earth:Flat (landform) – Relatively level surface of land within a region of greater relief
  • Earth:Glen – Name for valley commonly used in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man
  • Earth:Gully – Landform created by running water and/or mass movement eroding sharply into soil
  • Earth:Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Earth:Hillock, also known as Knoll – Small hill
  • Earth:Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Earth:Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Earth:Plain – Expanse of land which is mostly flat and treeless
  • Earth:Plateau – Highland area, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Ravine – Small valley, often due to stream erosion
  • Earth:Ridge – Chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Earth:Rock shelter – A shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff
  • Earth:Scree – Broken rock fragments at base of cliff
  • Earth:Solifluction lobes and sheets
  • Earth:Strath – Large valley
  • Earth:Summit – Point on a surface with a higher elevation than all immediately adjacent points
  • Terrace – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Terracette – Small natural step-arranged soil ridges on hillsides
  • Vale
  • Earth:Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it

1.10. Tectonic Landforms

Landforms created by tectonic activity include:

  • Earth:Asymmetric valley – Valley that has steeper slopes on one side
  • Dome – Geological deformation structure
  • Faceted spur – Ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Earth:Fault scarp – Small vertical offset on the ground surface
  • Earth:Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel normal faults
  • Horst – Raised fault block bounded by normal faults
  • Earth:Mid-ocean ridge – Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Earth:Mud volcano – Landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases
  • Earth:Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Earth:Pull-apart basin – Type of basin in geology
  • Earth:Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Earth:Sand boil – Cone formed by the ejection of sand on a surface from a central point

1.11. Volcanic Landforms

Volcanic landforms include:

  • Earth:Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the emptying of a magma chamber
  • Earth:Cinder cone – Steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Earth:Complex volcano – Landform of more than one related volcanic centre
  • Astronomy:Cryovolcano – Type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock
  • Earth:Diatreme – A volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion
  • Dike – A sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture of a pre-existing rock body
  • Earth:Geyser – Hydrothermal explosion of hot water
  • Earth:Guyot – Isolated, flat-topped underwater volcano mountain
  • Earth:Hornito – Conical structures built up by lava ejected through an opening in the crust of a lava flow
  • Earth:Kīpuka – Area of land surrounded by one or more younger lava flows
  • Earth:Lava – Molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption
  • Earth:Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Earth:Lava field, also known as lava plain – One or more flows of lava over a flat area of land, covering all or most of the area
  • Earth:Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Earth:Lava spine – Vertical growth of solid volcanic lava
  • Earth:Lava tube – Natural conduit through which lava flows beneath the solid surface
  • Earth:Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Malpais – Rough and barren landscape of relict and largely uneroded lava fields
  • Mamelon – Rock formation created by eruption of relatively thick or stiff lava through a narrow vent
  • Earth:Mid-ocean ridge – Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Earth:Pit crater – Depression formed by a sinking or collapse of the surface lying above a void or empty chamber
  • Earth:Pyroclastic shield – Shield volcano formed mostly of pyroclastic and highly explosive eruptions
  • Earth:Resurgent dome – Dome formed by swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber beneath it
  • Earth:Rootless cone, also known as pseudocrater – Volcanic landform
  • Earth:Seamount – Mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Earth:Shield volcano – Low-profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Earth:Stratovolcano – Type of conical volcano composed of layers of lava and tephra
  • Earth:Somma volcano – Volcanic caldera that has been partially filled by a new central cone
  • Earth:Volcanic crater lake – Lake formed within a volcanic crater
  • Earth:Subglacial mound – Volcano formed when lava erupts beneath a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Earth:Submarine volcano – Underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt
  • Earth:Supervolcano – Volcano that has erupted 1000 cubic km of lava in a single eruption
  • Earth:Tuya – Flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Earth:Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Earth:Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic dam – Natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism
  • Earth:Volcanic field – Area of Earth's crust prone to localized volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic group – Collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms
  • Volcanic island – Island of volcanic origin
  • Earth:Volcanic plateau – Plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic plug – Volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano
  • Earth:Volcano – Rupture in the crust of a planet that allows lava, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface

1.12. Weathering Landforms

Weathering landforms include:

  • Earth:Flared slope – Rock-wall with a smooth transition into a concavity at the foot zone
  • Flute
  • Earth:Inselberg – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Karst – Topography from dissolved soluble rocks
  • Nubbin – Small hill of bedrock with rounded residual blocks
  • Earth:Panhole – Depression or basin eroded into flat or gently sloping cohesive rock (Weathering pit)
  • Earth:Tafoni – Small to large indentations in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop on a gentle hill summit

2. Landforms by Shape

2.1. Positive Landforms

  • Earth:Cinder cone – Steep conical hill of loose pyroclastic fragments around a volcanic vent
  • Dome – Geological deformation structure
  • Earth:Drumlin – Geological feature formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine
  • Earth:Hillock – Small hill
  • Earth:Inselberg – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Earth:Lava spine – Vertical growth of solid volcanic lava
  • Earth:Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Earth:Mogote – Steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Nubbin – Small hill of bedrock with rounded residual blocks
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop on a gentle hill summit
  • Earth:Tower karst
  • Earth:Tuya – Flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Earth:Palsa – A low, often oval, frost heave occurring in polar and subpolar climates
  • Earth:Pingo – Mound of earth-covered ice
  • Earth:Pyroclastic shield – Shield volcano formed mostly of pyroclastic and highly explosive eruptions
  • Earth:Resurgent dome – Dome formed by swelling or rising of a caldera floor due to movement in the magma chamber beneath it
  • Earth:Seamount – Mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Earth:Shield volcano – Low-profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Earth:Stratovolcano – Type of conical volcano composed of layers of lava and tephra
  • Earth:Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape

2.2. Depressions

  • Earth:Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the emptying of a magma chamber
  • Earth:Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Earth:Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Earth:Crevasse
  • Doline – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Earth:Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel normal faults
  • Astronomy:Impact crater – Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a smaller object's impact
  • Kettle – Depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Earth:Lagoon – Shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform
  • Earth:Lake – Large body of relatively still water
  • Earth:Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Earth:Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Nivation hollow – Geomorphic processes associated with snow patches
  • Earth:Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake or pool
  • Earth:Panhole – Depression or basin eroded into flat or gently sloping cohesive rock
  • Earth:Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall
  • Earth:Pond – Relatively small body of standing water
  • Earth:Pull-apart basin – Type of basin in geology
  • Earth:Quarry – A place from which a geological material has been excavated from the ground
  • Rift – Part of a volcano where a set of linear cracks form
  • Earth:Sea cave – Cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Earth:Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Earth:Tafoni – Small to large indentations in vertical to steeply sloping granular rock
  • Earth:Thermokarst
  • Earth:Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic dam – Natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism

2.3. Flat Landforms

  • Earth:Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Earth:Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Bench – Long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Earth:Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Earth:Continental shelf – Coastal and oceanic landform
  • Cryoplanation terrace – Formation of plains, terraces and pediments in periglacial environments
  • Earth:Dissected plateau – Plateaux area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Earth:Floodplain – Land adjacent to a river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Earth:Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Inselberg plain – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Lacustrine terrace – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Lava field, also known as lava plain – One or more flows of lava over a flat area of land, covering all or most of the area
  • Earth:Oceanic basin – Geologic basin under the sea
  • Earth:Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Earth:Outwash fan – Fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Earth:Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Pediplain – Extensive plain formed by the diposition of pediments
  • Earth:Peneplain – Low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Earth:Plain – Expanse of land which is mostly flat and treeless
  • Earth:Planation surface – Large-scale surface that is almost flat
  • Earth:Plateau – Highland area, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Polje – Type of large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Earth:Raised beach, also known as Marine terrace – Emergent coastal landform
  • Earth:Salt marsh – Coastal ecosystem between land and open saltwater that is regularly flooded
  • Salt pan – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Strandflat – Type of landform found in high-latitude areas
  • Earth:Strath – Large valley
  • Earth:Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Table – Raised landforms that have a flat top
  • Earth:Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Earth:Tepui – Table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Earth:Volcanic plateau – Plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Wave-cut platform – Narrow flat area created by erosion

3. Landforms, Alphabetic

  • Earth:Abîme – Geographical term referring to vertical shaft in caves
  • Earth:Abyssal fan – Underwater geological structures associated with large-scale sediment deposition
  • Earth:Abyssal plain – Flat area on the deep ocean floor
  • Earth:Ait – Islands found on the River Thames and its tributaries in England
  • Earth:Alluvial fan – Fan-shaped deposit of sediment
  • Earth:Anabranch – A section of a river or stream that diverts from the main channel and rejoins it downstream.
  • Arch – Natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Earth:Archipelago – Collection of islands
  • Earth:Arête – Narrow ridge of rock which separates two valleys
  • Arroyo – Dry creek or stream bed with flow after rain
  • Earth:Atoll – Ring-shaped coral reef
  • Earth:Badlands – Type of heavily eroded terrain
  • Bar – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Barrier bar – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Earth:Barrier island – Coastal dune landform that forms by wave and tidal action parallel to the mainland coast
  • Earth:Bay – Recessed, coastal body of water connected to an ocean or lake
  • Earth:Baymouth bar – Sandbank that partially or completely closes access to a bay
  • Earth:Bayou – French term for a body of water typically found in flat, low-lying area
  • Earth:Beach – Area of loose particles at the edge of the sea or other body of water
  • Earth:Beach cusps – Shoreline formations made up of various grades of sediment in an arc pattern
  • Earth:Beach ridge – Wave-swept or wave-deposited ridge running parallel to a shoreline
  • Bench – Long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Bight – Shallowly concave bend or curve in a coastline, river, or other geographical feature
  • Blowhole – Hole at the top of a sea-cave which allows waves to force water or spray out of the hole
  • Blowout – Depressions in a sand dune ecosystem caused by the removal of sediments by wind
  • Bluff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Braided channel – Network of river channels separated by small, and often temporary, islands
  • Earth:Butte – Isolated hill with steep, often vertical sides and a small, relatively flat top
  • Earth:Calanque – Narrow, steep-walled inlet on the Mediterranean coast
  • Earth:Caldera – Cauldron-like volcanic feature formed by the emptying of a magma chamber
  • Earth:Canyon – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Cape – Large headland extending into a body of water, usually the sea
  • Earth:Cave – Natural underground space large enough for a human to enter
  • Channel – Type of landform in which part of a body of water is confined to a relatively narrow but long region
  • Earth:Cirque – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion
  • Corrie – An amphitheatre-like valley formed by glacial erosion or cwm
  • Earth:Cliff – Tall, near vertical rock face
  • Earth:Coast – Area where land meets the sea or ocean
  • Earth:Col – Lowest point on a mountain ridge between two peaks
  • Astronomy:Complex crater – Large impact craters with uplifted centres
  • Earth:Complex volcano – Landform of more than one related volcanic centre
  • Earth:Confluence – Meeting of two or more bodies of flowing water
  • Earth:Continental shelf – Coastal and oceanic landform
  • Earth:Coral reef – Outcrop of rock in the sea formed by the growth and deposit of stony coral skeletons
  • Earth:Cove – Small sheltered bay or coastal inlet
  • Cove (mountain) – Small valley in the Appalachian Mountains between two ridge lines
  • Earth:Crevasse splay – Sediment deposited on a floodplain by a stream which breaks its levees
  • Earth:Crevasse
  • Astronomy:Cryovolcano – Type of volcano that erupts volatiles such as water, ammonia or methane, instead of molten rock
  • Earth:Cuesta – Hill or ridge with a gentle slope on one side and a steep slope on the other
  • Earth:Cuspate foreland – Geographical features found on coastlines and lakeshores
  • Earth:Cut bank – Outside bank of a water channel, which is continually undergoing erosion
  • Dale – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Defile – Narrow pass or gorge between mountains or hills
  • Dell – Small secluded hollow
  • Earth:Desert pavement – Type of desert earth surface
  • Earth:Diatreme – A volcanic pipe formed by a gaseous explosion
  • Dike – A sheet of rock that is formed in a fracture of a pre-existing rock body
  • Earth:Dirt cone – Depositional glacial feature of ice or snow with an insulating layer of dirt
  • Earth:Dissected plateau – Plateaux area that has been severely eroded so that the relief is sharp
  • Doline – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Dome – Geological deformation structure
  • Earth:Drainage basin – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Earth:Drainage divide – Elevated terrain that separates neighbouring drainage basins
  • Draw – Terrain feature formed by two parallel ridges or spurs with low ground in between
  • Earth:Dreikanter – Type of rock
  • Earth:Drumlin – Geological feature formed by glacial ice acting on underlying unconsolidated till or ground moraine
  • Earth:Dry lake – Basin or depression that formerly contained a standing surface water body
  • Earth:Dune – Hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Dune system – Hill of loose sand built by aeolian processes or the flow of water
  • Earth:Endorheic basin – Closed drainage basin that allows no outflow
  • Erg – Broad area of desert covered with wind-swept sand
  • Earth:Escarpment – Steep slope or cliff separating two relatively level regions (scarp)
  • Earth:Esker – Long, winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel associated with former glaciers
  • Earth:Estuary – Partially enclosed coastal body of brackish water
  • Earth:Exhumed river channel – Ridge of sandstone that remains when the softer flood plain mudstone is eroded away
  • Faceted spur – Ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Earth:Fault scarp – Small vertical offset on the ground surface
  • Earth:Firth – Scottish word used for various coastal inlets and straits
  • Earth:Fjard – Glacially formed, broad, shallow inlet
  • Earth:Fjord – Long, narrow inlet with steep sides or cliffs, created by glacial activity
  • Flat – Relatively level surface of land within a region of greater relief
  • Flatiron – Steeply sloping triangular landform
  • Earth:Floodplain – Land adjacent to a river which is flooded during periods of high discharge
  • Fluvial island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Fluvial terrace – Elongated terraces that flank the sides of floodplains and river valleys
  • Earth:Foiba – Type of deep natural sinkhole
  • Geo – Inlet, a gully or a narrow and deep cleft in the face of a cliff
  • Earth:Geyser – Hydrothermal explosion of hot water
  • Glacial horn – Angular, sharply pointed mountainous peak
  • Earth:Glacier cave – Cave formed within the ice of a glacier
  • Earth:Glacier foreland – The region between the current leading edge of the glacier and the moraines of latest maximum
  • Earth:Glacier – Persistent body of ice that is moving under its own weight
  • Earth:Glen – Name for valley commonly used in Ireland, Scotland and the Isle of Man
  • Gorge – Deep ravine between cliffs
  • Earth:Graben – Depressed block of planetary crust bordered by parallel normal faults
  • Gulf
  • Earth:Gully – Landform created by running water and/or mass movement eroding sharply into soil
  • Earth:Guyot – Isolated, flat-topped underwater volcano mountain
  • Earth:Headland – Landform extending into a body of water, often with significant height and drop
  • Earth:Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain
  • Hogback – Long, narrow ridge
  • Earth:Homoclinal ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Hoodoo – Tall, thin spire of relatively soft rock usually topped by harder rock
  • Horst – Raised fault block bounded by normal faults
  • Astronomy:Impact crater – Circular depression on a solid astronomical body formed by a smaller object's impact
  • Earth:Inlet – Indentation of a shoreline
  • Astronomy:Inverted relief – Landscape features that have reversed their elevation relative to other features
  • Earth:Island – Any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water
  • Earth:Islet – Very small island
  • Earth:Kame delta – Glacial melt water landform
  • Earth:Kame – Mound formed on a retreating glacier and deposited on land
  • Earth:Karst – Topography from dissolved soluble rocks
  • Karst valley – Topography from dissolved soluble rocks
  • Kettle – Depression/hole in an outwash plain formed by retreating glaciers or draining floodwaters
  • Earth:Kīpuka – Area of land surrounded by one or more younger lava flows
  • Knoll – Small hill
  • Earth:Lacustrine plain – Lakes filled by sediment
  • Earth:Lagoon – Shallow body of water separated from a larger body of water by a narrow landform
  • Earth:Lake – Large body of relatively still water
  • Earth:Lava dome – Roughly circular protrusion from slowly extruded viscous volcanic lava
  • Earth:Lava – Molten rock expelled by a volcano during an eruption
  • Earth:Lava lake – Molten lava contained in a volcanic crater
  • Earth:Lava field, also known as lava plain – One or more flows of lava over a flat area of land, covering all or most of the area
  • Earth:Lava spine – Vertical growth of solid volcanic lava
  • Earth:Lava tube – Natural conduit through which lava flows beneath the solid surface
  • Earth:Lavaka – Type of gully, formed via groundwater sapping
  • Earth:Levee – Ridge or wall to hold back water, natural
  • Earth:Limestone pavement – Natural karst landform consisting of a flat, incised surface of exposed limestone
  • Earth:Loess – Sediment of accumulated wind-blown dust
  • Lacustrine terraces – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Maar – Low-relief volcanic crater
  • Earth:Machair – Fertile low-lying grassy plain
  • Malpaís – Rough and barren landscape of relict and largely uneroded lava fields
  • Mamelon – Rock formation created by eruption of relatively thick or stiff lava through a narrow vent
  • Marine terrace – Emergent coastal landform
  • Earth:Marsh – Wetland that is dominated by herbaceous rather than woody plant species
  • Earth:Meander – One of a series of curves in a channel of a matured stream
  • Earth:Mesa – Elevated area of land with a flat top and sides that are usually steep cliffs
  • Earth:Mid-ocean ridge – Basaltic underwater mountain system formed by plate tectonic spreading
  • Earth:Mogote – Steep-sided residual hill of limestone, marble, or dolomite on a flat plain
  • Monadnock – Isolated, steep rock hill on relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Moraine – Glacially formed accumulation of unconsolidated debris
  • Moulin – Shaft within a glacier or ice sheet which water enters from the surface
  • Earth:Mountain – Large and tall landform
  • Earth:Mountain pass – Route through a mountain range or over a ridge
  • Earth:Mountain range – Geographic area containing several geologically related mountains
  • Earth:Mud volcano – Landform created by the eruption of mud or slurries, water and gases
  • Earth:Mushroom rock – Naturally occurring rock whose shape resembles a mushroom
  • Earth:Natural arch – Natural rock formation where a rock arch forms
  • Earth:Nunatak – Landform within an ice field or glacier
  • Earth:Oasis – Fertile area in a desert environment
  • Earth:Oceanic basin – Geologic basin under the sea
  • Earth:Oceanic plateau – Relatively flat submarine region that rises well above the level of the ambient seabed
  • Earth:Oceanic trench – Long and narrow depressions of the sea floor
  • Earth:Outwash fan – Fan-shaped body of sediments deposited by braided streams from a melting glacier
  • Earth:Outwash plain – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Oxbow lake – U-shaped lake or pool
  • Pediment – Very gently sloping inclined bedrock surface
  • Earth:Pediplain – Extensive plain formed by the diposition of pediments
  • Earth:Peneplain – Low-relief plain formed by protracted erosion
  • Earth:Peninsula – Landform surrounded mostly, but not entirely by water
  • Earth:Pingo – Mound of earth-covered ice
  • Earth:Pit crater – Depression formed by a sinking or collapse of the surface lying above a void or empty chamber
  • Earth:Plain – Expanse of land which is mostly flat and treeless
  • Earth:Plateau – Highland area, usually of relatively flat terrain
  • Earth:Plunge pool – Depression at the base of a waterfall
  • Earth:Point bar – Landform related to streams and rivers
  • Earth:Polje – Type of large flat plain found in karstic geological regions
  • Earth:Pond – Relatively small body of standing water
  • Potrero – Long mesa that at one end slopes upward to higher terrain
  • Earth:Proglacial lake – Lake formed by the action of ice
  • Earth:Pull-apart basin – Type of basin in geology
  • Earth:Quarry – A place from which a geological material has been excavated from the ground
  • Earth:Raised beach – Emergent coastal landform
  • Earth:Ravine – Small valley, often due to stream erosion
  • Earth:Ria – A coastal inlet formed by the partial submergence of an unglaciated river valley
  • Earth:Ridge – Chain of mountains or hills that form a continuous elevated crest for some distance
  • Earth:Riffle – Shallow landform in a flowing channel
  • Earth:Rift valley – Linear lowland created by a tectonic rift or fault
  • Earth:River – Natural flowing watercourse
  • Earth:River island – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Rôche moutonnée
  • Earth:Rogen moraine – Landform of ridges deposited by a glacier or ice sheet transverse to ice flow
  • Rock formations – Wikipedia list article
  • Earth:Rock shelter – A shallow cave-like opening at the base of a bluff or cliff
  • Earth:Rock-cut basin – Cylindrical depression cut into stream or river beds
  • Earth:Salt marsh – Coastal ecosystem between land and open saltwater that is regularly flooded
  • Salt pan – Flat expanse of ground covered with salt and other minerals (salt flat)
  • Earth:Sand boil, also known as sand volcano – Cone formed by the ejection of sand on a surface from a central point
  • Biology:Sandhill – Type of ecological community or xeric wildfire-maintained ecosystem
  • Sandur – Plain formed from glacier sediment that was transported by meltwater.
  • Earth:Scree – Broken rock fragments at base of cliff
  • Earth:Sea cave – Cave formed by the wave action of the sea and located along present or former coastlines
  • Earth:Seamount – Mountain rising from the ocean seafloor that does not reach to the water's surface
  • Earth:Shield volcano – Low-profile volcano usually formed almost entirely of fluid lava flows
  • Earth:Shoal – Natural submerged sandbank that rises from a body of water to near the surface
  • Earth:Shore – The fringe of land at the edge of a large body of water
  • Shut-in – Type of rock formation found in Ozarks streams
  • Earth:Side valley
  • Earth:Sinkhole – Depression or hole in the ground caused by collapse of the surface into an existing void space
  • Sound – A long, relatively wide body of water, connecting two larger bodies of water
  • Spit – Coastal bar or beach landform deposited by longshore drift
  • Stack – Geological landform consisting of a steep and often vertical column or columns of rock and stump
  • Earth:Strait – Naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water
  • Earth:Strandflat – Type of landform found in high-latitude areas
  • Earth:Strath – Large valley
  • Earth:Stratovolcano – Type of conical volcano composed of layers of lava and tephra
  • Earth:Stream pool – Stretch of a river or stream in which the water is relatively deep and slow moving
  • Earth:Stream – Body of surface water flowing down a channel
  • Strike ridge – Ridge with a moderate sloping backslope and steeper frontslope
  • Structural bench – Long, relatively narrow land bounded by distinctly steeper slopes above and below
  • Structural terrace – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Subglacial mound – Volcano formed when lava erupts beneath a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Earth:Submarine canyon – A steep-sided valley cut into the seabed of the continental slope
  • Earth:Submarine volcano – Underwater vents or fissures in the Earth's surface from which magma can erupt
  • Earth:Summit – Point on a surface with a higher elevation than all immediately adjacent points
  • Earth:Supervolcano – Volcano that has erupted 1000 cubic km of lava in a single eruption
  • Earth:Surge channel – Type of coastal landform
  • Earth:Swamp – A forested wetland
  • Earth:Tepui – Table-top mountain or mesa in the Guiana Highlands of South America
  • Terrace – A step-like landform
  • Earth:Terracette – Small natural step-arranged soil ridges on hillsides
  • Earth:Tessellated pavement – Relatively flat rock surface that is subdivided into more or less regular shapes by fractures
  • Earth:Thalweg – Line of lowest elevation in a watercourse or valley
  • Earth:Tidal marsh – Marsh subject to tidal change in water
  • Earth:Tide pool – Rocky pool on a seashore, separated from the sea at low tide, filled with seawater
  • Earth:Tombolo – Deposition landform in which an island is connected to the mainland by a sandy isthmus
  • Tor – Large, free-standing rock outcrop on a gentle hill summit
  • Tower karst – Topography from dissolved soluble rocks
  • Towhead – Exposed land within a river.
  • Earth:Trim line – Clear line on the side of a valley marking the most recent highest extent of the glacier
  • Earth:Truncated spur – Ridge that descends towards a valley floor or coastline that is cut short
  • Earth:Tunnel valley – Glacial-formed geographic feature
  • Turlough – Type of seasonal or periodic lake found in limestone areas of Ireland
  • Earth:Tuya – Flat-topped, steep-sided volcano formed when lava erupts through a thick glacier or ice sheet
  • Earth:U-shaped valley – Valleys formed by glacial scouring
  • Uvala – Toponym for a closed karst depression
  • Vale
  • Earth:Valley – Low area between hills, often with a river running through it
  • Earth:Ventifact – Rock that has been eroded by wind-driven sand or ice crystals
  • Earth:Volcanic arc – Chain of volcanoes formed above a subducting plate
  • Earth:Volcanic cone – Landform of ejecta from a volcanic vent piled up in a conical shape
  • Earth:Volcanic crater – Roughly circular depression in the ground caused by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic crater lake – Lake formed within a volcanic crater
  • Earth:Volcanic dam – Natural dam produced directly or indirectly by volcanism
  • Earth:Volcanic field – Area of Earth's crust prone to localized volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic group – Collection of related volcanoes or volcanic landforms
  • Volcanic island – Island of volcanic origin
  • Earth:Volcanic plateau – Plateau produced by volcanic activity
  • Earth:Volcanic plug – Volcanic object created when magma hardens within a vent on an active volcano
  • Earth:Volcano – Rupture in the crust of a planet that allows lava, ash, and gases to escape from below the surface
  • Earth:Wadi – River valley, especially a dry riverbed that contains water only during times of heavy rain
  • Earth:Waterfall – Natural river formation
  • Watershed – Area of land where precipitation collects and drains off into a common outlet
  • Earth:Wave-cut platform – Narrow flat area created by erosion
  • Earth:Wetland – Land area that is permanently or seasonally saturated with water
  • Earth:Yardang – Streamlined aeolian landform
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