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Warguła, �.;  Kaczmarzyk, P. European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32714 (accessed on 17 June 2024).
Warguła �,  Kaczmarzyk P. European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32714. Accessed June 17, 2024.
Warguła, Łukasz, Piotr Kaczmarzyk. "European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32714 (accessed June 17, 2024).
Warguła, �., & Kaczmarzyk, P. (2022, November 03). European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32714
Warguła, Łukasz and Piotr Kaczmarzyk. "European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines." Encyclopedia. Web. 03 November, 2022.
European Air Pollution Restrictions on Internal Combustion Engines
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European Union (EU) legislators have laid out limits for emissions to air, grouping combustion engines by application, and then by power, displacement, engine type (spark ignited (SI) or compression-ignition (CI)), operating conditions and site, as well as the type of fuel used. The basic groups are cars and light trucks, heavy-duty truck and bus engines, and non-road engines. The regulations concerning road vehicles are more stringent than those for engines used in non-road machinery. EU law is considerably more liberal for small engine non-road equipment, which is defined as featuring engines below 56 kW. Some of the main reasons for this include the size and weight of those engines.

small engine non road combustion engine emission

1. European Laws Setting the Limits of Pollution Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines in Positive Pressure Ventilation Fans Used in Rescue Operations

The most popular group of positive pressure ventilation fans has been subject to regulations governing pollution from internal combustion engines across the European Union since 2002. The laws refer to spark-ignition combustion engines with a power of up to 19 kW for non-road usage. In 2016, currently applicable Stage V laws were enacted, and have been in full force and effect since 2019. The provisions are set out in Regulation (EU) 1628/2016. Under the regulation, engines applied in rescue positive pressure ventilation fans are placed in category NRS which includes SI engines having a reference power that is less than 56 kW, which are not intended for use in in handheld machinery (Table 1). SI engines with a power above 56 kW must meet emission standards for category NRE engines.
Table 1. Stage V emission standards for non-handheld SI engines below 56 kW (NRS), where: A—the availability of selected categories of engines used in fans for rescue operations on the European market, B—category, C—power (P), D—displacement (V), E—date of entry into force, F—emission limits for hazardous exhaust gas compounds during European type approval tests [1].
A B C D E F
kW cm3 CO HC + NOx
g/kWh
No NRS-vr/vi-1a P < 19 80 ≤ V < 225 2019 610 10
Yes NRS-vr/vi-1b V ≥ 225 2019 610 8
No NRS-v-2a 19 ≤ P < 30 V ≤ 1000 2019 610 8
No NRS-v-2b V > 1000 2019 4.40 * 2.70 *
Yes NRS-v-3 30 ≤ P < 56 any 2019
* Or any combination of values satisfying the equation (HC + NOx) × CO0.784 ≤ 8.57 and the conditions CO ≤ 20.6 g/kWh and (HC + NOx) ≤ 2.7 g/kWh.
Stage V emission limits for engines in non-road mobile machinery (category NRE) are shown in Table 2. These standards are applicable to CI engines from 0 to 56 kW and to all types of engines above 56 kW.
Table 2. Stage V emission standards for non-road engines (NRE), where: A—the availability of selected categories of engines used in fans for rescue operations on the European market [1].
A Category Ign. Net Power Date CO HC NOx PM PN
    kW   g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh g/kWh 1/kWh
No NRE-v/c-1 CI P < 8 2019 8.00 7.50 a,c 0.40 b -
No NRE-v/c-2 CI 8 ≤ P < 19 2019 6.60 7.50 a,c 0.40 -
No NRE-v/c-3 CI 19 ≤ P < 37 2019 5.00 4.70 a,c 0.015 1 × 1012
No NRE-v/c-4 CI 37 ≤ P < 56 2019 5.00 4.70 a,c 0.015 1 × 1012
Yes NRE-v/c-5 All 56 ≤ P < 130 2019 5.00 0.19 c 0.40 0.015 1 × 1012
No NRE-v/c-6 All 130 ≤ P < 560 2019 3.50 0.19 c 0.40 0.015 1 × 1012
No NRE-v/c-7 All P > 560 2019 3.50 0.19 d 3.50 0.045 -
a HC + NOx b 0.60 for hand-startable, air-cooled direct injection engines c A = 1.10 for gas engines d A = 6.00 for gas engines.
Based on the summary of internal combustion engines (Table 3) applied in fans, and the European type-approval tests (Table 1 and Table 2) it can be noted that not all engine categories refer to fans. Category NRS-vr/vi-1a engines do not refer to fans used in rescue operations because, according the results of studies performed by Kaczmarzyk et al., (2022) they work at maximum power levels in real-life operation conditions [2], and the category concerns a test for intermediate speed applications. The right category for the engines of fans used in rescue operations in this power and displacement range is NRS-vr/vi-1b, which is tested for rated speed applications. Moreover, categories NRS-v-2a and NRS-v-2b for engines having power in the range of 19 kW to 30 kW and displacement below or above 1000 cm3 are also unusual, as no positive pressure ventilation fans with combustion engines with such power range have been identified. Two out of all the structures available on the European market are not classified as category NRS engines, but as category NRE engines, with a power above 56 kW intended for non-road machinery. The categories listed in Table 2 are intended for low-power CI engines with a power of up to 56 kW. However, as regards this power range, only fans with SI engines belonging to the NRS category are available on the European market. Categories covering both CI and SI engines are demonstrated further in Table 2. Positive pressure ventilation fans with engines with a power above 92 kW have also not been found, and thus, as regards NRE engines, only category NRE-v/c-5 engines, characterized by a power range of 56 kW to 130 kW, can be discussed in the context of positive pressure ventilation fans.
Table 3. Mobile positive pressure ventilation fans with internal combustion power units available on the European market.
Brand Fan Model Engine Model Displacement, cm3 Engine Power, kW Engine Type Literature Source
Ramfan GX 200 L/GX 200 Honda GXH50 49 1.6 SI [3]
Ramfan GF 165 Honda GX160 163 3.6 SI [3]
Ramfan GX 310 Honda GX160 163 3.6 SI [3]
Ramfan GX350 Honda GX200 196 4.1 SI [3]
Ramfan GX400 Honda GX200 196 4.1 SI [3]
Ramfan GX500 Honda GX270 270 6.3 SI [3]
Ramfan GX600 Briggs & Stratton Vanguard V-Twin OHV mod.35 570 13.4 SI [3]
Ramfan VX700 Honda GX630 688 17 SI [3]
Ramfan GF 164 SE Honda GC160 160 3.4 SI [3]
Rosenbauer Fanergy V16 513020 Briggs & Stratton 6.5 KM 420 4.41 SI [4]
Rosenbauer Fanergy V16 513022 Briggs & Stratton 6.5 KM 420 4.41 SI [4]
Rosenbauer Fanergy V22 Briggs & Stratton 6.5 KM 420 4.41 SI [4]
Rosenbauer Fanergy XL35 BMW 50 kW boxer type 850 50 SI [4]
Leader MT 215 L NEO Honda GXH50 49 1.47 SI [5]
Leader MT 225 NEO Honda GX120 118 2.21 SI [5]
Leader MT 236 NEO Honda GX160 163 2.94 SI [5]
Leader MT 240 NEO Honda GX200 196 3.68 SI [5]
Leader MT 245 Honda GX200 196 3.68 SI [5]
Leader MT 280 Honda GX390 389 0.74 SI [5]
Leader MT 296 Briggs & Stratton -Vanguard 479 11.77 SI [5]
Leader Easy 2000 Honda GX630 688 14.71 SI [5]
Leader Easy 4000 BMW 1170 84.58 SI [5]
Alusteel Kobra H34 Honda Gx160 163 3.4 SI [6]
Fogo Fogo MW 22 Briggs & Stration 6.0 KM 420 4.4 SI [7]
Alusteel Skorpion MAXI Honda GX 160 163 3.4 SI [6]
Pavliš PH VP 450 Honda GX 200 196 4.1 SI [8]
Pavliš PH VP 600 Honda GX 270 270 6.3 SI [8]
Rosenbauer Fanergy XL63 Deutz 92 kW 3620 92 CI [4]

2. Allowable Limits of Emissions from Internal Combustion Engines Applied in Fans Used in Rescue Operations

Liberal European Union laws governing emissions from small non-road engines cover around 90% of fans available for sale on the European market. The provisions for fans with engines having a power of up to 19 kW allow CO emissions at the level of 610 g/kWh and HC + NOx emissions at the level of 8 g/kWh. More stringent emission limits are applicable to engines having higher power values (Figure 1). As regards fans with engines having a power with a range of 30 kW to 56 kW, accounting for a 3% market share in Europe, the allowable CO and HC + NOx emissions are lower by 99.3% and 66.2%, respectively (4.4 g/kWh and 2.7 g/kWh). The remaining 7% of the European market is taken by category NRE engines, which are not classified as category NRS, intended for higher-power drive units, notwithstanding the type of fuel or engine (SI and CI). Fans equipped with such engines are subject to the analysis of a greater number of air pollutants, and the set limits are relatively rigorous.
Figure 1. Limits of air pollution generated by internal combustion engines of fans, depending on the power-related engine category.
Assuming that internal combustion engines applied in ventilators are operated at maximum power [2], the values of exhaust gas emissions per hour can be estimated on the basis of engine power and allowable emission limits (Figure 2). It can be noted that low-power fan engines (between 0.7 kW and 17 kW), which are less technologically advanced, are characterized by a higher hourly pollutant emission than engines having substantially higher power (between 50 kW and 92 kW). An hour of operation of an engine with a power ranging from 0.7 kW to 17 kW may produce CO emissions at the level of 427 g/h to 10,370 g/h, while for engines having a higher power, between 50 kW and 92 kW, CO emissions should fall within the range of 220 g/h to 460 g/h. On the other hand, the HC + NOx emission increases with the engine power for units with a power from 0.7 kW to 17 kW in the range from 5.6 g/h to 136 g/h. Later, for the power from 50 kW to 85 kW, it decreases (from 135 g/h to 50 g/h), and then for the power of 92 kW, it starts to increase to 54 kW. The reduction of HC + NOx emissions for engines above 17 kW is not as large as the reduction of CO emissions for engines of the same power. For example, engines with a power of 85 kW to 92 kW may have HC + NOx emissions of 50 g/h to 54 g/h, as are engines of another 6.3 kW category, which may emit HC + NOx at the level of 50.4 g/h. For comparison, the permissible CO emission from these engines is from 425 g/h to 460 g/h (engines with power from 85 kW to 92 kW) and 2196 g/h for engines with a power of 6.3 kW. Based on the analysis, it can be concluded that the use of fans with higher-power engines, preferably above 19 kW, is more favorable in terms of air pollution as engines exceeding this power value belong to categories which are subject to relatively stringent emission limits. The assumptions are based on maximum emission values allowable during type-approval tests. According to the results of studies conducted by Warguła et al. in 2022, small engines SI, e.g., with a power of around 10 kW, are characterized by emission levels in type-approval tests which are close to the maximum allowable values. The research included engines with a classic carburetor fuel supply system (the most popular ones on the market) and the most innovative ones with electronically controlled carburetors, and they were characterized by CO emissions at the level of 408 g/kWh to 561 g/kWh and HC + NOx emission of 3.90 g/kWh to 4.53 g/kWh, respectively, compared with emission levels set in the European Union, namely CO 610 g/kWh and HC + NOx 8 g/kWh [1]. It should be borne in mind that along with the progressing wear and tear, engines are characterized by a greater loss of fuel dosage control precision and a higher probability that larger volumes of engine lubricating oil will be consumed, which might result in increased air pollution and in exceeding the emission limits applicable in type-approval tests.
Figure 2. Estimated emissions from internal combustion engines of fans used in rescue operations per hour of work, determined on the basis of maximum air pollution emission limits in force during type-approval tests in the European Union area.

References

  1. Regulation (EU). On Requirements for Emission Limit Values of Gaseous and Particulate Pollutants and Type-approval with Respect to Internal Combustion Engines for Mobile Machines Non-road, Amending Regulations (EU) No 1024/2012 and (EU) No 167/2013 and Amending and Repealing Directive 97/68/WE. No 2016/1628 of the European Parliament and of the Council of 14 September 2016. Off. J. Eur. Union. 2016, 252, 53–117.
  2. Kaczmarzyk, P.; Warguła, Ł.; Janik, P.; Krawiec, P. Influence of Measurement Methodologies for the Volumetric Air Flow Rate of Mobile Positive Pressure Fans on Drive Unit Performance. Energies 2022, 15, 3953.
  3. Ramfan. Available online: https://ramfan.pl/ (accessed on 30 December 2021).
  4. Rosenbauer. Available online: https://www.Rosenbauer.com (accessed on 30 December 2021).
  5. Leader. Available online: https://www.leader-group.company/en/firefighting-equipment/fire-ventilators (accessed on 30 December 2021).
  6. Alusteel. Available online: http://alusteel.pl/wentylatory (accessed on 30 December 2021).
  7. Fogo. Available online: https://www.fogo.pl/ (accessed on 30 December 2021).
  8. Pavliš. Available online: https://www.firefighting-phhp.com (accessed on 30 December 2021).
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