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HandWiki. Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32665 (accessed on 23 April 2024).
HandWiki. Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32665. Accessed April 23, 2024.
HandWiki. "Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32665 (accessed April 23, 2024).
HandWiki. (2022, November 03). Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/32665
HandWiki. "Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle." Encyclopedia. Web. 03 November, 2022.
Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle
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The Light Armoured Vehicle II (LAV II) Coyote (and the related Bison) are armoured cars (or armoured personnel carriers) built by General Dynamics Land Systems Canada for the Canadian Forces. They are a later generation of the LAV-25 and of the same family as the Australian ASLAV, as all are part of the Light Armoured Vehicle family produced by General Dynamics Land Systems - Canada and based on the MOWAG Piranha 8x8.

lav-25 lav aslav

1. Coyote

The Coyote has been in service since 1996 for use in the light reconnaissance (scout) role. It was also initially used in the role of medium tank trainer within armoured cavalry squadrons in the same way as the AVGP Cougar it replaced.[1]

1.1. Origins

The Coyote Reconnaissance Vehicle is a non-amphibious armoured reconnaissance vehicle based on the design of the LAV-25 and the MOWAG Piranha II. The Canadian Forces ordered 203 of the vehicles in 1993 to replace the Lynx reconnaissance vehicle, and all were delivered and entered service by 1996.[2][3][4] The Coyote originally came in three variants: the "Mast" variant with a mast-mounted surveillance system, a variant with a remote surveillance suite, and a basic reconnaissance/command post variant.[2][5][6]

1.2. Armament

The Coyotes mount a 25×137mm M242 Bushmaster chain gun and two 7.62×51mm NATO C6 general purpose machine guns in an electrically-driven turret. The turret also features a laser-warning receiver, and mounts a total of eight grenade launchers in two clusters capable of firing smoke and fragmentation grenades.[7] One of the machine guns is mounted coaxial to the main gun while the other is pintle-mounted in front of the crew commander's hatch.[8] The main gun is equipped with dual ammunition feeds that allow for separate weapons effects, selectable by the gunner/crew commander; the standard load is a belt of armour-piercing sabot rounds and a belt of HE-T explosive/fragmentation rounds. The main gun and coax machine gun are 2-axis stabilized. The turret is equipped with a laser rangefinder, but no ballistic computer; elevation and lead corrections are applied manually by the gunner using multi-stadia reticules in the day, thermal, and image intensification sights.

1.3. Protection

The standard armour of the Coyote protects against small arms fire, anti-personnel mines, and shrapnel, with add-on armour kits able to protect against larger projectiles.[9] The Coyote is equipped with an NBC detector suite consisting of a GID-3 chemical detector and an AN/VDR-2 radiation monitor. Each vehicle is also equipped with an NBC ventilated respirator system.[10]

1.4. Sensors

The mast-mounted surveillance variants are equipped with a mast-mounted surveillance system that can be raised to 10 meters above the ground.[11] This system includes the AN/PPS-5C MSTAR Version 3 surface surveillance radar and an electro-optical/infrared surveillance system with a long-range video camera and laser rangefinder.[12] The remote surveillance variant consists of two tripod-mounted systems capable of being deployed up to 200 meters away from the vehicle. The surveillance systems can detect tank-sized targets at up to 12 kilometres away, and large truck-sized targets at up to 24 kilometres. In good conditions the visual surveillance system can detect personnel up to 20 kilometres away.[13]

1.5. Mobility

The Coyote is powered by a Detroit Diesel 6V53T engine developing 275 horsepower (205 kW), and can reach speeds of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) on road. The Coyote has a maximum road range of 660 kilometres (410 mi). Each vehicle is equipped with a tactical navigation system that includes a GPS receiver, a digital compass system, and a backup dead-reckoning system. A 15-tonne capacity hydraulic winch is also fitted to every vehicle to aid in self-recovery.[14] Unlike the LAV-25, the Coyote is equipped with extra fuel tanks in place of amphibious equipment.[15] The Coyote is air-transportable on Hercules C-130 aircraft but only with the turret removed first.[16]

1.6. Variants

Coyote from the 12e Régiment blindé du Canada

Coyotes come in three variants: Command, Mast, and Remote. The Mast and Remote variants have a sophisticated suite of electronic surveillance equipment including radar, video, and infrared surveillance night vision devices. The mast variant has this equipment mounted on a 10-metre telescoping mast that can be extended to raise the surveillance suite out from behind cover. The remote variant of the Coyote has its surveillance suite mounted on two short tripods, which crew can deploy remotely using a 200-metre spool of cable.

When first purchased, the Coyote was designated for service with both the Regular Force and Reserve Force, with the Mast variants earmarked for the Regular units and the Remotes designated for the Reserves. Shortly after taking delivery of the vehicles, but before they were assigned to the Reserve units, all Coyotes were reassigned to the Regular Force.

1.7. Service History

Since the introduction of the Coyote to the Canadian Armed Forces, the vehicle has served national interest domestically and abroad. The Coyote served during the United Nations/ NATO missions in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Macedonia, Kosovo, and in Afghanistan. Domestically, it has been deployed during "Operation Grizzly" to Kananaskis to secure the 28th G8 summit, the 36th G8 summit, and the G-20 Toronto summit,[17][18] in addition to a number of domestic emergency response incidents. The Coyote is currently being retired and is being replaced by a mix of TAPV and LAV VI armoured vehicles.[19][20]

2. Bison

The Light Armoured Vehicle II (LAV II) Bison is an armoured personnel carrier in operation since 1990.

They were purchased and intended for operation by the Canadian Forces Primary Reserve, but were rapidly appropriated by the regular force of the Canadian Army.[21]

2.1. Design

By starting with a basic LAV-25, the Bison design process took only 7 days.[22] The Bison differs from the baseline LAV-25 by raising the height of the roof, removing the turret ring, placing a commander's cupola behind the driver, and incorporating a rail mount system in the cargo/passenger compartment to quickly change mission specific equipment. The driver is seated in the front-left of the crew compartment. The commander has a slightly raised position directly behind the driver with access to his own hatch and mounted machine gun. The engine is to the right of the crew compartment.

The Canadian Forces began upgrading the Bison between 2002 and 2008. The upgrades include improved engine power, new torsion bars, fittings for add-on armour, air conditioning, and the VRS respirator system for NBC defence.[23]

2.2. Variants

The Bison's rail mount system allows it to be adapted to a variety of roles without any major modifications. Bisons used by the Canadian Forces have been adapted for use as armoured personnel carriers (original configuration - mostly replaced in this role by the LAV III), 81mm mortar carriers, ambulances (32), Mobile Repair Team (MRT) vehicles (32), Armoured recovery vehicles (32), electronic warfare vehicles (25), engineer equipped with hydraulic tools and NBC reconnaissance vehicles (4).

2.3. Current Operators

Map of Bison operators in blue
  • Australia | Australian Army - 97[22] (See ASLAV Type II)
  •  Canada | Canadian Army - 199[22]
  •  United States | US National Guard - 12[22]

References

  1. Marteinson, John; McNorgan,Michael R. (2000). The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps: An Illustrated History. Montreal: Robin Brass Studio. ISBN 978-1896941172. 
  2. Maas, Frank (Spring 2011). "The Success of the Light Armoured Vehicle". https://www.canadianmilitaryhistory.ca/wp-content/uploads/2012/03/4-Maas-LAV.pdf. 
  3. "Coyote Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle | Military-Today.com". https://www.military-today.com/apc/coyote.htm. 
  4. "Exploring the Coyote". Department of National Defence. http://www.dnd.ca/menu/coyote/. 
  5. "Coyote LAV (Light Armored Vehicle) 8-Wheeled Battlefield Reconnaissance Vehicle" (in en-US). https://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=202. 
  6. Government of Canada, National Defence (2013-03-08). "Coyote Armoured Patrol Vehicle | Canadian Army". http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/vehicles/coyote.page. 
  7. "Exploring the Coyote". Department of National Defence. http://www.dnd.ca/menu/coyote/. 
  8. "Coyote Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle | Military-Today.com". https://www.military-today.com/apc/coyote.htm. 
  9. Government of Canada, National Defence (2013-03-08). "Coyote Armoured Patrol Vehicle | Canadian Army". http://www.army-armee.forces.gc.ca/en/vehicles/coyote.page. 
  10. "Exploring the Coyote". Department of National Defence. http://www.dnd.ca/menu/coyote/. 
  11. "Exploring the Coyote". Department of National Defence. http://www.dnd.ca/menu/coyote/. 
  12. "Canada orders ground surveillance radars". 27 July 2005. https://www.militaryaerospace.com/rf-analog/article/16713297/canada-orders-ground-surveillance-radars. 
  13. "Coyote Armored Reconnaissance Vehicle | Military-Today.com". https://www.military-today.com/apc/coyote.htm. 
  14. "Exploring the Coyote". Department of National Defence. http://www.dnd.ca/menu/coyote/. 
  15. "Coyote LAV (Light Armored Vehicle) 8-Wheeled Battlefield Reconnaissance Vehicle" (in en-US). https://www.militaryfactory.com/armor/detail.asp?armor_id=202. 
  16. Barry Cooper, Mercedes Stephenson, Ray Szeto (2004). "Canada's Military Posture: An Analysis of Recent Civilian Reports". The Fraser Institute. http://www.fraserinstitute.org/COMMERCE.WEB/product_files/CanadaMilitaryPosture.pdf. 
  17. Barr, Colonel David."The Kananaskis G8 Summit: A Case Study in Interagency Cooperation." journal.forces.gc.ca, 14 July 2008. Retrieved: 5 June 2010. http://www.journal.forces.gc.ca/vo4/no4/operatio-eng.asp
  18. Barr, Colonel David."Mosquitoes could be Huntsville weapon against protesters" thestar.com, 22 June 2010. Retrieved: 23 June 2010. https://www.thestar.com/news/canada/article/827138--mosquitoes-could-be-huntsville-weapon-against-protesters
  19. "Light Armoured Vehicle Reconnaissance Surveillance System (LRSS)". Government of Canada. 2015-02-01. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/procurement/lightly-armoured-vehicle-reconnaissance.html. 
  20. "Tactical armoured patrol vehicle". 2018-12-13. https://www.canada.ca/en/department-national-defence/services/procurement/tactical-armoured-patrol-vehicle.html. 
  21. "Bison Mobile Repair Team vehicle delivered to CF" (Press release). Department of National Defence (Canada). 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-07-27. http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/lf/English/6_1_1.asp?id=3504
  22. "Bison Armoured Personnel Carrier". Military-Today.com. http://www.military-today.com/apc/bison.htm. 
  23. Bison Armoured Vehicle". Department of National Defence (Canada). http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/land-terre/equipment-equipement/item-eng.asp?product=140. " id="ref_23">"Canadian Army > Bison Armoured Vehicle". Department of National Defence (Canada). http://www.army.forces.gc.ca/land-terre/equipment-equipement/item-eng.asp?product=140. 
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