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Osmium (76Os) has seven naturally occurring isotopes, five of which are stable: 187Os, 188Os, 189Os, 190Os, and (most abundant) 192Os. The other natural isotopes, 184Os, and 186Os, have extremely long half-life (1.12×1013 years and 2×1015 years, respectively) and for practical purposes can be considered to be stable as well. 187Os is the daughter of 187Re (half-life 4.56×1010 years) and is most often measured in an 187Os/188Os ratio. This ratio, as well as the 187Re/188Os ratio, have been used extensively in dating terrestrial as well as meteoric rocks. It has also been used to measure the intensity of continental weathering over geologic time and to fix minimum ages for stabilization of the mantle roots of continental cratons. However, the most notable application of Os in dating has been in conjunction with iridium, to analyze the layer of shocked quartz along the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary that marks the extinction of the dinosaurs 66 million years ago. There are also 30 artificial radioisotopes, the longest-lived of which is 194Os with a half-life of six years; all others have half-lives under 94 days. There are also nine known nuclear isomers, the longest-lived of which is 191mOs with a half-life of 13.10 hours. All isotopes and nuclear isomers of osmium are either radioactive or observationally stable, meaning that they are predicted to be radioactive but no actual decay has been observed.

nuclear isomers radioisotopes cretaceous–paleogene
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    1. Uses of Osmium Isotopes

    The isotopic ratio of osmium-187 and osmium-188 (187Os/188Os) can be used as a window into geochemical changes throughout the ocean's history.[1] The average marine 187Os/188Os ratio in oceans is 1.06.[1] This value represents a balance of the continental derived riverine inputs of Os with a 187Os/188Os ratio of ~1.3, and the mantle/extraterrestrial inputs with a 187Os/188Os ratio of ~0.13.[1] Being a descendent of 187Re, 187Os can be radiogenically formed by beta decay.[2] This decay has actually pushed the 187Os/188Os ratio of the Bulk silicate earth (Earth minus the core) by 33%.[3] This is what drives the difference in the 187Os/188Os ratio we see between continental materials and mantle material. Crustal rocks have a much higher level of Re, which slowly degrades into 187Os driving up the ratio.[2] Within the mantle however, the uneven response of Re and Os results in these mantle, and melted materials being depleted in Re, and do not allow for them to accumulate 187Os like the continental material.[2] The input of both materials in the marine environment results in the observed 187Os/188Os of the oceans and has fluctuated greatly over the history of our planet. These changes in the isotopic values of marine Os can be observed in the marine sediment that is deposited, and eventually lithified in that time period.[4] This allows for researchers to make estimates on weathering fluxes, identifying flood basalt volcanism, and impact events that may have caused some of our largest mass extinctions. The marine sediment Os isotope record has been used to identify and corroborate the impact of the K-T boundary for example.[5] The impact of this ~10 km asteroid massively altered the 187Os/188Os signature of marine sediments at that time. With the average extraterrestrial 187Os/188Os of ~0.13 and the huge amount of Os this impact contributed (equivalent to 600,000 years of present-day riverine inputs) lowered the global marine 187Os/188Os value of ~0.45 to ~0.2.[1]

    Os isotope ratios may also be used as a signal of anthropogenic impact.[6] The same 187Os/188Os ratios that are common in geological settings may be used to gauge the addition of anthropogenic Os through things like catalytic converters.[6] While catalytic converters have been shown to drastically reduce the emission of NOx and CO2, they are introducing platinum group elements (PGE) such as Os, to the environment.[6] Other sources of anthropogenic Os include combustion of fossil fuels, smelting chromium ore, and smelting of some sulfide ores. In one study, the effect of automobile exhaust on the marine Os system was evaluated. Automobile exhaust 187Os/188Os has been recorded to be ~0.2 (similar to extraterrestrial and mantle derived inputs) which is heavily depleted (3, 7). The effect of anthropogenic Os can be seen best by comparing aquatic Os ratios and local sediments or deeper waters. Impacted surface waters tend to have depleted values compared to deep ocean and sediments beyond the limit of what is expected from cosmic inputs.[6] This increase in effect is thought to be due to the introduction of anthropogenic airborne Os into precipitation.

    The long half-life of 184Os with respect to alpha decay to 180W has been proposed as a radiometric dating method for osmium-rich rocks or for differentiation of a planetary core.[7]

    2. List of Isotopes

    Nuclide
    [8]
    Z N Isotopic mass (u)
    [9][10]
    Half-life
    [11]
    Decay
    mode
    [12]
    Daughter
    isotope
    [13][14]
    Spin and
    parity
    [15][16]
    Physics:Natural abundance (mole fraction)
    Excitation energy Normal proportion Range of variation
    161Os 76 85   0.64(6) ms α 157W      
    162Os 76 86 161.98443(54)# 1.87(18) ms α 158W 0+    
    163Os 76 87 162.98269(43)# 5.5(6) ms α 159W 7/2−#    
    β+, p (rare) 162W
    β+ (rare) 163Re
    164Os 76 88 163.97804(22) 21(1) ms α (98%) 160W 0+    
    β+ (2%) 164Re
    165Os 76 89 164.97676(22)# 71(3) ms α (60%) 161W (7/2−)    
    β+ (40%) 165Re
    166Os 76 90 165.972691(20) 216(9) ms α (72%) 162W 0+    
    β+ (28%) 166Re
    167Os 76 91 166.97155(8) 810(60) ms α (67%) 163W 3/2−#    
    β+ (33%) 167Re
    168Os 76 92 167.967804(13) 2.06(6) s β+ (51%) 168Re 0+    
    α (49%) 164W
    169Os 76 93 168.967019(27) 3.40(9) s β+ (89%) 169Re 3/2−#    
    α (11%) 165W
    170Os 76 94 169.963577(12) 7.46(23) s β+ (91.4%) 170Re 0+    
    α (8.6%) 166W
    171Os 76 95 170.963185(20) 8.3(2) s β+ (98.3%) 171Re (5/2−)    
    α (1.7%) 167W
    172Os 76 96 171.960023(16) 19.2(5) s β+ (98.9%) 172Re 0+    
    α (1.1%) 168W
    173Os 76 97 172.959808(16) 22.4(9) s β+ (99.6%) 173Re (5/2−)    
    α (.4%) 169W
    174Os 76 98 173.957062(12) 44(4) s β+ (99.97%) 174Re 0+    
    α (.024%) 170W
    175Os 76 99 174.956946(15) 1.4(1) min β+ 175Re (5/2−)    
    176Os 76 100 175.95481(3) 3.6(5) min β+ 176Re 0+    
    177Os 76 101 176.954965(17) 3.0(2) min β+ 177Re 1/2−    
    178Os 76 102 177.953251(18) 5.0(4) min β+ 178Re 0+    
    179Os 76 103 178.953816(19) 6.5(3) min β+ 179Re (1/2−)    
    180Os 76 104 179.952379(22) 21.5(4) min β+ 180Re 0+    
    181Os 76 105 180.95324(3) 105(3) min β+ 181Re 1/2−    
    181m1Os 48.9(2) keV 2.7(1) min β+ 181Re (7/2)−    
    181m2Os 156.5(7) keV 316(18) ns     (9/2)+    
    182Os 76 106 181.952110(23) 22.10(25) h EC 182Re 0+    
    183Os 76 107 182.95313(5) 13.0(5) h β+ 183Re 9/2+    
    183mOs 170.71(5) keV 9.9(3) h β+ (85%) 183Re 1/2−    
    IT (15%) 183Os
    184Os 76 108 183.9524891(14) 1.12(23)×1013 y[7] α[17] 180W 0+ 2(1)×10−4  
    185Os 76 109 184.9540423(14) 93.6(5) d EC 185Re 1/2−    
    185m1Os 102.3(7) keV 3.0(4) μs     (7/2−)#    
    185m2Os 275.7(8) keV 0.78(5) μs     (11/2+)    
    186Os[18] 76 110 185.9538382(15) 2.0(11)×1015 y α 182W 0+ 0.0159(3)  
    187Os[19] 76 111 186.9557505(15) Observationally Stable[20] 1/2− 0.0196(2)  
    188Os[19] 76 112 187.9558382(15) Observationally Stable[21] 0+ 0.1324(8)  
    189Os 76 113 188.9581475(16) Observationally Stable[22] 3/2− 0.1615(5)  
    189mOs 30.812(15) keV 5.81(6) h IT 189Os 9/2−    
    190Os 76 114 189.9584470(16) Observationally Stable[23] 0+ 0.2626(2)  
    190mOs 1705.4(2) keV 9.9(1) min IT 190Os (10)−    
    191Os 76 115 190.9609297(16) 15.4(1) d β 191Ir 9/2−    
    191mOs 74.382(3) keV 13.10(5) h IT 191Os 3/2−    
    192Os 76 116 191.9614807(27) Observationally Stable[24] 0+ 0.4078(19)  
    192mOs 2015.40(11) keV 5.9(1) s IT (87%) 192Os (10−)    
    β (13%) 192Ir
    193Os 76 117 192.9641516(27) 30.11(1) h β 193Ir 3/2−    
    194Os 76 118 193.9651821(28) 6.0(2) y β 194Ir 0+    
    195Os 76 119 194.96813(54) 6.5 min β 195Ir 3/2−#    
    196Os 76 120 195.96964(4) 34.9(2) min β 196Ir 0+    
    197Os 76 121   2.8(6) min          
    1. mOs – Excited nuclear isomer.
    2. ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
    3. # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
    4. Bold half-life – nearly stable, half-life longer than age of universe.
    5. Modes of decay:
      EC: Electron capture
      IT: Isomeric transition
      p: Proton emission
    6. Bold italics symbol as daughter – Daughter product is nearly stable.
    7. Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
    8. ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
    9. # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
    10. Theorized to also undergo β+β+ decay to 184W
    11. primordial radionuclide
    12. 12.0 12.1 Used in rhenium-osmium dating
    13. Believed to undergo α decay to 183W
    14. Believed to undergo α decay to 184W
    15. Believed to undergo α decay to 185W
    16. Believed to undergo α decay to 186W
    17. Believed to undergo α decay to 188W or ββ decay to 192Pt with a half-life over 9.8×1012 years

    References

    1. Peucker-Ehrenbrink, B.; Ravizza, G. (2000). "The marine osmium isotope record". Terra Nova 12 (5): 205–219. doi:10.1046/j.1365-3121.2000.00295.x. Bibcode: 2000TeNov..12..205P.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1046%2Fj.1365-3121.2000.00295.x
    2. Esser, Bradley K.; Turekian, Karl K. (1993). "The osmium isotopic composition of the continental crust". Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta 57 (13): 3093–3104. doi:10.1016/0016-7037(93)90296-9. Bibcode: 1993GeCoA..57.3093E. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/0016703793902969. 
    3. Hauri, Erik H. (2002). "Osmium Isotopes and Mantle Convection". Philosophical Transactions: Mathematical, Physical and Engineering Sciences 360 (1800): 2371–2382. doi:10.1098/rsta.2002.1073. PMID 12460472. Bibcode: 2002RSPTA.360.2371H. https://www.jstor.org/stable/pdf/3558902.pdf?casa_token=p6-bDQ9BM-MAAAAA:Yth2X1Fs8mkdzw_8F9zk2QZO-uKvrhqig3A1iJ_1LoMc2meSlwV7jIYXzgRy6is74M698rx6jq2dyYIZs-4LUOUtbKHdfHkjGF5jLRk1sYBoOZk4xM0V. 
    4. Lowery, Chistopher; Morgan, Joanna; Gulick, Sean; Bralower, Timothy; Christeson, Gail (2019). "Ocean Drilling Perspectives on Meteorite Impacts". Oceanography 32: 120–134. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2019.133.  https://dx.doi.org/10.5670%2Foceanog.2019.133
    5. Selby, D.; Creaser, R. A. (2005). "Direct Radiometric Dating of Hydrocarbon Deposits Using Rhenium-Osmium Isotopes". Science 308 (5726): 1293–1295. doi:10.1126/science.1111081. PMID 15919988. Bibcode: 2005Sci...308.1293S.  https://dx.doi.org/10.1126%2Fscience.1111081
    6. Chen, C.; Sedwick, P. N.; Sharma, M. (2009). "Anthropogenic osmium in rain and snow reveals global-scale atmospheric contamination". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 106 (19): 7724–7728. doi:10.1073/pnas.0811803106. PMID 19416862. Bibcode: 2009PNAS..106.7724C.  http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=2683094
    7. error
    8. mOs – Excited nuclear isomer.
    9. ( ) – Uncertainty (1σ) is given in concise form in parentheses after the corresponding last digits.
    10. # – Atomic mass marked #: value and uncertainty derived not from purely experimental data, but at least partly from trends from the Mass Surface (TMS).
    11. Bold half-life – nearly stable, half-life longer than age of universe.
    12. Modes of decay: EC: Electron capture IT: Isomeric transition p: Proton emission
    13. Bold italics symbol as daughter – Daughter product is nearly stable.
    14. Bold symbol as daughter – Daughter product is stable.
    15. ( ) spin value – Indicates spin with weak assignment arguments.
    16. # – Values marked # are not purely derived from experimental data, but at least partly from trends of neighboring nuclides (TNN).
    17. Theorized to also undergo β+β+ decay to 184W
    18. primordial radionuclide
    19. Used in rhenium-osmium dating
    20. Believed to undergo α decay to 183W
    21. Believed to undergo α decay to 184W
    22. Believed to undergo α decay to 185W
    23. Believed to undergo α decay to 186W
    24. Believed to undergo α decay to 188W or β−β− decay to 192Pt with a half-life over 9.8×1012 years
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