Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1594 2022-10-31 18:07:52 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1594 2022-11-01 01:59:09 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Georgiev-Hristov, T.;  García-Arranz, M.;  Trébol-López, J.;  Barba-Recreo, P.;  García-Olmo, D. Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 14 April 2024).
Georgiev-Hristov T,  García-Arranz M,  Trébol-López J,  Barba-Recreo P,  García-Olmo D. Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 14, 2024.
Georgiev-Hristov, Tihomir, Mariano García-Arranz, Jacobo Trébol-López, Paula Barba-Recreo, Damián García-Olmo. "Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 14, 2024).
Georgiev-Hristov, T.,  García-Arranz, M.,  Trébol-López, J.,  Barba-Recreo, P., & García-Olmo, D. (2022, October 31). Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation. In Encyclopedia.
Georgiev-Hristov, Tihomir, et al. "Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation." Encyclopedia. Web. 31 October, 2022.
Donor Factors for Allogenic Adipose-Derived Stem Cell Transplantation

Adipose tissue is a well-known source of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). The current research on adipose stem cell harvest describes quantitative and qualitative differences that could be influenced by different donor conditions and donor sites and could further modify the clinical results.

adipose-derived stem cells stem cell donor allogenic stem cells

1. Age

Ageing is known to have a negative impact on all the human tissues and cells, including stem cells. ASCs aging has been demonstrated by differential expression of miRNA in younger (<35 years-old) and older (>60 years-old) donors, and this translated into reduced regeneration capacity [1]. As most of the functions expressed by the ADSCs are cytokine-mediated, a possible alteration of the secretome could lead to further functional changes. It was found that secretory profile of ADSCs is altered in aged donors, with reduced secretion of VEGF, HGF, and SDF-1α, and increased TGF-β production. These findings could further explain the reduced immunomodulatory and angiogenic capacities found in ADSCs from aged donors [2][3][4]. ADSCs are found to express a senescence-associated profile that includes β-galactosidase activity, enlarged morphology, and p53 protein upregulation that could explain the decreased proliferation capacity observed in culture media [5][6][7]. However, ageing does not affect equally all ADSC properties, and some contradictory data have been published in the literature. Girolamo et al. showed that cell viability and in vitro adipocytic differentiation were not significantly affected by ageing, whereas osteoblastic differentiation capacity was hampered [8]. On the contrary, other authors did not find any significant donor age-related differences of the osteogenic properties [9][10]. In recent years, numerous studies have been conducted that analyzed the effect of the age of ADSC donors. In 2013, Wu et al. compared cells from infants, adults, and elderly, and demonstrated a loss of viability and regenerative potential associated with increasing donor age [10]. Similar results have been obtained by Zhang et al. in 2018 and Park et al. in 2022 [11][12].

2. Gender

Although earlier studies failed to prove any significant yield and functional differences between male and female ADSCs, more recent research has unveiled this issue by more sophisticated bioinformatic tools, analyzing the molecular and genetic dimorphism that could drive gender-related ADSC differences. Bianconiet al. recently performed a systematic meta-analysis of hMSC microarrays using the Transcriptome Mapper (TRAM) software [13]. They identified several chromosomal segments and differentially expressed genes in male and female ADSCs related to inflammation, differentiation capacity, and paracrine mechanisms. These findings could be further demonstrated mainly in vitro in other studies, strengthening the conclusion of the gender influence on the ADSC functionality. It was found that female ADSCs have a higher immunosuppression capacity compared to male ADSCs, coordinated by increased levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines IDO1, IL-1RA, and PGE-2, and lower levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as G-CSF [14]. The authors found that female (but not male) ADSCs downregulated IL-2 receptor and induced a sustained expression of CD69 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. On the other hand, their results suggest no need for gender matching, as the immunosuppressive effect of ADSCs remained stable after female-derived ADSCs were co-cultured with peripheral blood mononuclear cells of both sexes. Ogawa et al. found in an in vitro study that ADSCs from female donors have higher adipogenic differentiation capacity than male-derived ADSCs [15]. Gender was also identified to be an important factor that impacts the paracrine, differentiation, and proliferation capacity. In their study, Shu et al. found that ADSCs from female donors exhibit a better ability to differentiate towards bone, fat, and muscle tissue and higher secretion capacity of VEGF and HGF, with a lower apoptotic rate [16]. Although it seems that ADSCs from female donors could be functionally superior, in some studies, male ADSCs, especially from superficial fat tissue, obtained from abdominoplasty specimens proved to be more efficient in achieving osteogenesis [17].

3. Immune Conditions

Having immunomodulatory activity, it seems logical that ADSC’s functions could be influenced by certain immune diseases. Crohn’s disease is currently one of the main target diseases for stem cell application. However, it has been found in previous studies that autologous ADSCs are less effective in the treatment of perianal fistulae compared to the allogenic ADSCs. Although ADSC yield from inflammatory bowel disease patients was higher [18], an in vitro study of mesenteric and subcutaneous fat tissue from Crohn’s disease patients and healthy donors found that Crohn’s disease patients’ ADSCs expressed more proinflammatory (IL6, TNFA, CCL2, and IL1B), invasive, and phagocytic phenotype and reduced immunosuppressive properties [19]. Similarly, ADSCs derived from ulcerative colitis patients express an altered immunosuppressive profile consisting of lower prostaglandin E2, idoleamine 2, 3-dioxygenase, and TNF-alfa-induced protein 6 [20]. These findings suggest that ADSCs from donors with immune conditions may not be appropriate due to their deficiency in terms of immunomodulatory capacity.

4. Diabetes

Donor metabolic conditions could also alter the immunomodulatory activity of the ADSCs. Serena et al. found that obesity and Type 2 Diabetes promote the expression of a proinflammatory profile by the ADSCs [21]. Furthermore, Diabetes Mellitus hampers the secretory (through reduced secretion of VEGF, adiponectin, and CXCL-12) and proliferative activity, exhibiting mitochondrial disfunction and senescence phenotype [22]. These findings suggest that ADSCs from diabetic donors should be avoided as their initial characteristics predict altered functionality. However, it seems that ADSCs from different sites are also different in their characteristics. Therefore, not surprisingly, ADSCs from peripancreatic fat tissue of diabetic patients were found to maintain the migration, immunomodulatory, chondrogenic differentiation capacities, stemness, and vitality as in non-diabetic subjects, while only adipogenic and osteogenic capacity were altered [23]. Osteogenic capacity of ADSCs from diabetic patients is a point of controversy, as other studies have suggested even increased osteogenic potential based on the mRNA level of BGLAP, ALP, and SPP1 [24].

5. Obesity

Obesity is a well-known proinflammatory state [25]. Although some studies have not found differences in the ADSC yields and proliferation capacity [26][27], more recent studies, based on gene expression, have found important alterations. The altered microenvironment in morbidly obese patients, characterized by increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, is found to impact the ADSC functionality [28]. Roldan et al. described a general short-circuit of the stemness gene network of ADSCs from obese donors [29]. Oñate et al. found that ADSCs from morbidly obese patients have a lower proliferation, differentiation, and proangiogenic capacity, as demonstrated by higher TSP-1 and VEGFR1 expression [30]. Although obesity is considered a factor that decreases the immunomodulation capacity of ADSCs [31], in a study of weight-discordant monozygotic twins, it was found that higher weight is related to a lower angiogenic capacity of the ADSCs, but the immunomodulatory activity was stronger, as well as the adipogenic differentiation capacity [32]. Furthermore, ADSCs from obese donors are found to induce an in vitro proinflammatory profile in murine macrophages and microglial cells [33]. ADSCs from obese donors (age and sex matched) produce smaller extracellular vesicles than lean ADSCs, with dysregulation of their miRNA cargo, which alters the cell capacity to modulate injury pathways [34]. These functional alterations caused by obesity seem to be donor site-dependent, as described in the paper of de Girolamo et al., where they found a higher degree of functional and stemness impairment within the visceral fat of obese patient [35]. The presence of metabolic syndrome in those patients could further worsen the ADSC osteogenic and proliferation capacity, which were generally found in obese patients [36][37].

6. Lifestyle Habits

An increasing number of studies are linking different lifestyle habits to the quantity and quality of ADSCs obtained from liposuction. For example, the use of e-cigarettes [38] and tobacco by-products, such as nicotine, have been shown to have a detrimental effect on the obtained ADSCs and their differentiation capacities [39][40][41]. Another example is that regular alcohol consumption induces a lower potential, as well as a decrease in the number of mesenchymal stromal cells [42][43][44].

7. Donor Site

Multiple studies have addressed the search for an optimal donor site to obtain the highest quantity and functionality of ADSCs. Studies oriented towards obtaining of fat grafts for the plastic and esthetic procedure purposes mainly inform on the cellularity and viability, and only some papers study the differentiation capacity. The lower abdomen and inner thigh seem to yield higher cellularity with greater viability of the cells obtained from the upper abdomen [17][45][46][47], although the outer thigh has also been found to be favorable [48]. This fact itself would not necessarily translate into improved functionality. In fact, Jurgens et al. did not find any osteogenic differentiation capacity differences between different sites [47]. Other studies have found that ADSCs from flanks and thighs express an increased osteogenic and decreased adipogenic capacity compared to ADSCs from the abdomen [49]. ADSCs obtained from thigh subcutaneous fat were also found to have an increased angiogenic potential (higher VEGF, VEGF2, and CD31 expression) compared to abdominal fat tissue [50]. In the same study, the authors describe an increased adipogenic capacity in the thigh-derived ADSCs compared to the abdominal-derived ADSCs, in disagreement with findings from the paper cited above. Similar superior results were found with ADSCs from the gluteal fat tissue [51]. Within the abdominal subcutaneous tissue, it seems that superficial fat (above Scarpa’s fascia) could have higher yield and adipogenic capacity, as well as increased multipotency and stemness [52][53]. Other possible sources of ADSCs have also been explored. Omental, percicardial, mediastinal, synovial, and other specific localizations of fat tissue have been studied in a limited number of studies, and their characteristics seem favorable for treatment purposes of inflammatory, regenerative, or ischemic issues of nearly located organs [23][54][55]. Although ADSCs from different sites express the same surface markers, they are proven to be genetically different and express different capacities. For example, epicardial and omental ADSCs were found to have a higher osteogenic and adipogenic potential than pericardial ADSCs, but only the epicardial ADSCs exhibit a high cardyomyogenic potential [55][56]. However subcutaneous ADSCs have higher proliferation and adipogenic capacity than visceral ADSCs [56][57][58].


  1. Pandey, A.C.; Semon, J.A.; Kaushal, D.; O’Sullivan, R.P.; Glowacki, J.; Gimble, J.M.; Bunnell, B.A. MicroRNA profiling reveals age-dependent differential expression of nuclear factor κB and mitogen-activated protein kinase in adipose and bone marrow-derived human mesenchymal stem cells. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2011, 2, 49.
  2. Scruggs, B.A.; Semon, J.A.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, S.; Bowles, A.C.; Pandey, A.C.; Imhof, K.M.; Kalueff, A.V.; Gimble, J.M.; Bunnell, B.A. Age of the donor reduces the ability of human adipose-derived stem cells to alleviate symptoms in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis mouse model. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2013, 2, 797–807.
  3. Efimenko, A.; Dzhoyashvili, N.; Kalinina, N.; Kochegura, T.; Akchurin, R.; Tkachuk, V.; Parfyonova, Y. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stromal cells from aged patients with coronary artery disease keep mesenchymal stromal cell properties but exhibit characteristics of aging and have impaired angiogenic potential. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2014, 3, 32–41.
  4. Madonna, R.; Renna, F.V.; Cellini, C.; Cotellese, R.; Picardi, N.; Francomano, F.; Innocenti, P.; De Caterina, R. Age-dependent impairment of number and angiogenic potential of adipose tissue-derived progenitor cells. Eur. J. Clin. Investig. 2011, 41, 126–133.
  5. Kornicka, K.; Marycz, K.; Tomaszewski, K.A.; Marędziak, M.; Śmieszek, A. The Effect of Age on Osteogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potential of Human Adipose Derived Stromal Stem Cells (hASCs) and the Impact of Stress Factors in the Course of the Differentiation Process. Oxid. Med. Cell. Longev. 2015, 2015, 309169.
  6. Choudhery, M.S.; Badowski, M.; Muise, A.; Pierce, J.; Harris, D.T. Donor age negatively impacts adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell expansion and differentiation. J. Transl. Med. 2014, 12, 8.
  7. Liu, M.; Lei, H.; Dong, P.; Fu, X.; Yang, Z.; Yang, Y.; Ma, J.; Liu, X.; Cao, Y.; Xiao, R. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells from the Elderly Exhibit Decreased Migration and Differentiation Abilities with Senescent Properties. Cell. Transplant. 2017, 26, 1505–1519.
  8. de Girolamo, L.; Lopa, S.; Arrigoni, E.; Sartori, M.F.; Baruffaldi Preis, F.W.; Brini, A.T. Human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from young and elderly women: Their differentiation potential and scaffold interaction during in vitro osteoblastic differentiation. Cytotherapy 2009, 11, 793–803.
  9. Horinouchi, C.D.; Barisón, M.J.; Robert, A.W.; Kuligovski, C.; Aguiar, A.M.; Dallagiovanna, B. Influence of donor age on the differentiation and division capacity of human adipose-derived stem cells. World J. Stem Cells 2020, 12, 1640–1651.
  10. Wu, W.; Niklason, L.; Steinbacher, D.M. The effect of age on human adipose-derived stem cells. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2013, 131, 27–37.
  11. Zhang, M.; Wang, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Zhang, L.; Xu, L.; Cao, L.; He, W. The Effect of Age on the Regenerative Potential of Human Eyelid Adipose-Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cells Int. 2018, 2018, 5654917.
  12. Park, J.S.; Park, G.; Hong, H.S. Age affects the paracrine activity and differentiation potential of human adipose-derived stem cells. Mol. Med. Rep. 2021, 23, 160.
  13. Bianconi, E.; Casadei, R.; Frabetti, F.; Ventura, C.; Facchin, F.; Canaider, S. Sex-Specific Transcriptome Differences in Human Adipose Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Genes 2020, 11, 909.
  14. McKinnirey, F.; Herbert, B.; Vesey, G.; McCracken, S. Immune modulation via adipose derived Mesenchymal Stem cells is driven by donor sex in vitro. Sci. Rep. 2021, 11, 12454.
  15. Ogawa, R.; Mizuno, H.; Watanabe, A.; Migita, M.; Hyakusoku, H.; Shimada, T. Adipogenic differentiation by adipose-derived stem cells harvested from GFP transgenic mice-including relationship of sex differences. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2004, 319, 511–517.
  16. Shu, W.; Shu, Y.T.; Dai, C.Y.; Zhen, Q.Z. Comparing the biological characteristics of adipose tissue-derived stem cells of different persons. J. Cell. Biochem. 2012, 113, 2020–2026.
  17. Aksu, A.E.; Rubin, J.P.; Dudas, J.R.; Marra, K.G. Role of gender and anatomical region on induction of osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. Ann. Plast. Surg. 2008, 60, 306–322.
  18. Mizushima, T.; Fukata, T.; Takeyama, H.; Takahashi, H.; Haraguchi, N.; Nishimura, J.; Hata, T.; Matsuda, C.; Yamamoto, H.; Doki, Y.; et al. The features of adipose-derived stem cells in patients with inflammatory bowel diseases. Surg. Today 2018, 48, 352–358.
  19. Serena, C.; Keiran, N.; Madeira, A.; Maymó-Masip, E.; Ejarque, M.; Terrón-Puig, M.; Espin, E.; Martí, M.; Borruel, N.; Guarner, F.; et al. Crohn’s Disease Disturbs the Immune Properties of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells Related to Inflammasome Activation. Stem Cell Rep. 2017, 9, 1109–1123.
  20. Wu, X.; Mu, Y.; Yao, J.; Lin, F.; Wu, D.; Ma, Z. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells From Patients With Ulcerative Colitis Exhibit Impaired Immunosuppressive Function. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 2022, 10, 822772.
  21. Serena, C.; Keiran, N.; Ceperuelo-Mallafre, V.; Ejarque, M.; Fradera, R.; Roche, K.; Nuñez-Roa, C.; Vendrell, J.; Fernández-Veledo, S. Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Alters the Immune Properties of Human Adipose Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2016, 34, 2559–2573.
  22. Alicka, M.; Major, P.; Wysocki, M.; Marycz, K. Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Show Reduced "Stemness" through an Altered Secretome Profile, Impaired Anti-Oxidative Protection, and Mitochondrial Dynamics Deterioration. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 765.
  23. Wang, L.; Zhang, L.; Liang, X.; Zou, J.; Liu, N.; Liu, T.; Wang, G.; Ding, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, B.; et al. Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells from Type 2 Diabetics Reveal Conservative Alterations in Multidimensional Characteristics. Int. J. Stem Cells 2020, 13, 268–278.
  24. Skubis-Sikora, A.; Sikora, B.; Witkowska, A.; Mazurek, U.; Gola, J. Osteogenesis of adipose-derived stem cells from patients with glucose metabolism disorders. Mol. Med. 2020, 26, 67.
  25. Saltiel, A.R.; Olefsky, J.M. Inflammatory mechanisms linking obesity and metabolic disease. J. Clin. Investig. 2017, 127, 1–4.
  26. Faustini, M.; Bucco, M.; Chlapanidas, T.; Lucconi, G.; Marazzi, M.; Tosca, M.C.; Gaetani, P.; Klinger, M.; Villani, S.; Ferretti, V.V.; et al. Nonexpanded mesenchymal stem cells for regenerative medicine: Yield in stromal vascular fraction from adipose tissues. Tissue Eng. Part C Methods 2010, 16, 1515–1521.
  27. Mojallal, A.; Lequeux, C.; Shipkov, C.; Duclos, A.; Braye, F.; Rohrich, R.; Brown, S.; Damour, O. Influence of age and body mass index on the yield and proliferation capacity of adipose-derived stem cells. Aesthetic Plast. Surg. 2011, 35, 1097–1105.
  28. Badimon, L.; Cubedo, J. Adipose tissue depots and inflammation: Effects on plasticity and resident mesenchymal stem cell function. Cardiovasc. Res. 2017, 113, 1064–1073.
  29. Roldan, M.; Macias-Gonzalez, M.; Garcia, R.; Tinahones, F.J.; Martin, M. Obesity short-circuits stemness gene network in human adipose multipotent stem cells. FASEB J. 2011, 25, 4111–4126.
  30. Oñate, B.; Vilahur, G.; Ferrer-Lorente, R.; Ybarra, J.; Díez-Caballero, A.; Ballesta-López, C.; Moscatiello, F.; Herrero, J.; Badimon, L. The subcutaneous adipose tissue reservoir of functionally active stem cells is reduced in obese patients. FASEB J. 2012, 26, 4327–4336.
  31. Zhu, X.Y.; Klomjit, N.; Conley, S.M.; Ostlie, M.M.; Jordan, K.L.; Lerman, A.; Lerman, L.O. Impaired immunomodulatory capacity in adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem/stromal cells isolated from obese patients. J. Cell. Mol. Med. 2021, 25, 9051–9059.
  32. Juntunen, M.; Heinonen, S.; Huhtala, H.; Rissanen, A.; Kaprio, J.; Kuismanen, K.; Pietiläinen, K.H.; Miettinen, S.; Patrikoski, M. Evaluation of the effect of donor weight on adipose stromal/stem cell characteristics by using weight-discordant monozygotic twin pairs. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2021, 12, 516.
  33. Harrison, M.A.A.; Wise, R.M.; Benjamin, B.P.; Hochreiner, E.M.; Mohiuddin, O.A.; Bunnell, B.A. Adipose-Derived Stem Cells from Obese Donors Polarize Macrophages and Microglia toward a Pro-Inflammatory Phenotype. Cells 2020, 10, 26.
  34. Eirin, A.; Meng, Y.; Zhu, X.Y.; Li, Y.; Saadiq, I.M.; Jordan, K.L.; Tang, H.; Lerman, A.; van Wijnen, A.J.; Lerman, L.O. The Micro-RNA Cargo of Extracellular Vesicles Released by Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Modified by Obesity. Front. Cell. Dev. Biol. 2021, 9, 660851.
  35. De Girolamo, L.; Stanco, D.; Salvatori, L.; Coroniti, G.; Arrigoni, E.; Silecchia, G.; Russo, M.A.; Niada, S.; Petrangeli, E.; Brini, A.T. Stemness and osteogenic and adipogenic potential are differently impaired in subcutaneous and visceral adipose derived stem cells (ASCs) isolated from obese donors. Int. J. Immunopathol. Pharmacol. 2013, 26, 11–21.
  36. Oliva-Olivera, W.; Leiva Gea, A.; Lhamyani, S.; Coín-Aragüez, L.; Alcaide Torres, J.; Bernal-López, M.R.; García-Luna, P.P.; Morales Conde, S.; Fernández-Veledo, S.; El Bekay, R.; et al. Differences in the Osteogenic Differentiation Capacity of Omental Adipose-Derived Stem Cells in Obese Patients With and Without Metabolic Syndrome. Endocrinology 2015, 156, 4492–4501.
  37. Strong, A.L.; Hunter, R.S.; Jones, R.B.; Bowles, A.C.; Dutreil, M.F.; Gaupp, D.; Hayes, D.J.; Gimble, J.M.; Levi, B.; McNulty, M.A.; et al. Obesity inhibits the osteogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells. J. Transl. Med. 2016, 14, 27.
  38. Shaito, A.; Saliba, J.; Husari, A.; El-Harakeh, M.; Chhouri, H.; Hashem, Y.; Shihadeh, A.; El-Sabban, M. Electronic Cigarette Smoke Impairs Normal Mesenchymal Stem Cell Differentiation. Sci. Rep. 2017, 7, 14281.
  39. Aspera-Werz, R.H.; Ehnert, S.; Müller, M.; Zhu, S.; Chen, T.; Weng, W.; Jacoby, J.; Nussler, A.K. Assessment of tobacco heating system 2.4 on osteogenic differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells and primary human osteoblasts compared to conventional cigarettes. World. J. Stem Cells 2020, 12, 841–856.
  40. Nguyen, B.; Alpagot, T.; Oh, H.; Ojcius, D.; Xiao, N. Comparison of the effect of cigarette smoke on mesenchymal stem cells and dental stem cells. Am. J. Physiol. Cell. Physiol. 2021, 320, C175–C181.
  41. Aspera-Werz, R.H.; Chen, T.; Ehnert, S.; Zhu, S.; Fröhlich, T.; Nussler, A.K. Cigarette Smoke Induces the Risk of Metabolic Bone Diseases: Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling Impairment via Dysfunctional Primary Cilia Affects Migration, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2019, 20, 2915.
  42. Di Rocco, G.; Baldari, S.; Pani, G.; Toietta, G. Stem cells under the influence of alcohol: Effects of ethanol consumption on stem/progenitor cells. Cell. Mol. Life. Sci. 2019, 76, 231–244.
  43. Varlamov, O.; Bucher, M.; Myatt, L.; Newman, N.; Grant, K.A. Daily Ethanol Drinking Followed by an Abstinence Period Impairs Bone Marrow Niche and Mitochondrial Function of Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells in Rhesus Macaques. Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2020, 44, 1088–1098.
  44. Li, J.; Wang, Y.; Li, Y.; Sun, J.; Zhao, G. The effect of combined regulation of the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and calcitonin gene-related peptide on alcohol-induced adipogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Mol. Cell. Biochem. 2014, 392, 39–48.
  45. Padoin, A.V.; Braga-Silva, J.; Martins, P.; Rezende, K.; Rezende, A.; Grechi, B.; Gehlen, D.; Machado, D.C. Sources of processed lipoaspirate cells: Influence of donor site on cell concentration. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2008, 122, 614–618.
  46. Geissler, P.J.; Davis, K.; Roostaeian, J.; Unger, J.; Huang, J.; Rohrich, R.J. Improving fat transfer viability: The role of aging, body mass index, and harvest site. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2014, 134, 227–232.
  47. Jurgens, W.J.; Oedayrajsingh-Varma, M.J.; Helder, M.N.; Zandiehdoulabi, B.; Schouten, T.E.; Kuik, D.J.; Ritt, M.J.; van Milligen, F.J. Effect of tissue-harvesting site on yield of stem cells derived from adipose tissue: Implications for cell-based therapies. Cell Tissue Res. 2008, 332, 415–426.
  48. Tsekouras, A.; Mantas, D.; Tsilimigras, D.I.; Moris, D.; Kontos, M.; Zografos, G.C. Comparison of the Viability and Yield of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells (ASCs) from Different Donor Areas. In Vivo 2017, 31, 1229–1234.
  49. Levi, B.; James, A.W.; Glotzbach, J.P.; Wan, D.C.; Commons, G.W.; Longaker, M.T. Depot-specific variation in the osteogenic and adipogenic potential of human adipose-derived stromal cells. Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 2010, 126, 822–834.
  50. Li, W.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C.; Tian, W.; Wang, H. Increased Angiogenic and Adipogenic Differentiation Potentials in Adipose-Derived Stromal Cells from Thigh Subcutaneous Adipose Depots Compared with Cells from the Abdomen. Aesthet. Surg. J. 2019, 39, NP140–NP149.
  51. Iwen, K.A.; Priewe, A.C.; Winnefeld, M.; Rose, C.; Siemers, F.; Rohwedel, J.; Cakiroglu, F.; Lehnert, H.; Schepky, A.; Klein, J.; et al. Gluteal and abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue depots as stroma cell source: Gluteal cells display increased adipogenic and osteogenic differentiation potentials. Exp. Dermatol. 2014, 23, 395–400.
  52. Di Taranto, G.; Cicione, C.; Visconti, G.; Isgrò, M.A.; Barba, M.; Di Stasio, E.; Stigliano, E.; Bernardini, C.; Michetti, F.; Salgarello, M.; et al. Qualitative and quantitative differences of adipose-derived stromal cells from superficial and deep subcutaneous lipoaspirates: A matter of fat. Cytotherapy 2015, 17, 1076–1089.
  53. Schipper, B.M.; Marra, K.G.; Zhang, W.; Donnenberg, A.D.; Rubin, J.P. Regional anatomic and age effects on cell function of human adipose-derived stem cells. Ann. Plast. Surg. 2008, 60, 538–544.
  54. Siciliano, C.; Bordin, A.; Ibrahim, M.; Chimenti, I.; Cassiano, F.; Gatto, I.; Mangino, G.; Coccia, A.; Miglietta, S.; Bastianelli, D.; et al. The adipose tissue of origin influences the biological potential of human adipose stromal cells isolated from mediastinal and subcutaneous fat depots. Stem Cell Res. 2016, 17, 342–351.
  55. Wystrychowski, W.; Patlolla, B.; Zhuge, Y.; Neofytou, E.; Robbins, R.C.; Beygui, R.E. Multipotency and cardiomyogenic potential of human adipose-derived stem cells from epicardium, pericardium, and omentum. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2016, 7, 84.
  56. Russo, V.; Yu, C.; Belliveau, P.; Hamilton, A.; Flynn, L.E. Comparison of human adipose-derived stem cells isolated from subcutaneous, omental, and intrathoracic adipose tissue depots for regenerative applications. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2014, 3, 206–217.
  57. Kim, B.; Lee, B.; Kim, M.K.; Gong, S.P.; Park, N.H.; Chung, H.H.; Kim, H.S.; No, J.H.; Park, W.Y.; Park, A.K.; et al. Gene expression profiles of human subcutaneous and visceral adipose-derived stem cells. Cell Biochem. Funct. 2016, 34, 563–571.
  58. Shah, F.S.; Li, J.; Dietrich, M.; Wu, X.; Hausmann, M.G.; LeBlanc, K.A.; Wade, J.W.; Gimble, J.M. Comparison of Stromal/Stem Cells Isolated from Human Omental and Subcutaneous Adipose Depots: Differentiation and Immunophenotypic Characterization. Cells Tissues Organs 2014, 200, 204–211.
Subjects: Transplantation
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to : , , , ,
View Times: 347
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 04 Nov 2022