Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1880 2022-10-14 23:22:42 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1880 2022-10-17 02:56:41 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Soumare, A.;  Diedhiou, A.G.;  Thuita, M.;  Hafidi, M.;  Ouhdouch, Y.;  Gopalakrishnan, S.;  Kouisni, L. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/29446 (accessed on 13 July 2024).
Soumare A,  Diedhiou AG,  Thuita M,  Hafidi M,  Ouhdouch Y,  Gopalakrishnan S, et al. Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/29446. Accessed July 13, 2024.
Soumare, Abdoulaye, Abdala G. Diedhiou, Moses Thuita, Mohamed Hafidi, Yedir Ouhdouch, Subramaniam Gopalakrishnan, Lamfeddal Kouisni. "Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/29446 (accessed July 13, 2024).
Soumare, A.,  Diedhiou, A.G.,  Thuita, M.,  Hafidi, M.,  Ouhdouch, Y.,  Gopalakrishnan, S., & Kouisni, L. (2022, October 14). Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/29446
Soumare, Abdoulaye, et al. "Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture." Encyclopedia. Web. 14 October, 2022.
Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Agriculture
Edit

Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a natural process of changing atmospheric nitrogen (N2) into a simple soluble nontoxic form (NH4+ primarily) which is used by plant cell for synthesis of various biomolecules. Nitrogen fixation is one of the major sources of nitrogen for plants and a key step distributing this nutrient in the ecosystem. Optimization of BNF is critical to sustain both food production and environmental health. 

BNF biofertilizers legumes yield improvement

1. Inoculants for Legume Crops

N input through BNF is approximately 122 million tons of N per year of which 55 to 60 million tons is fixed by agricultural crops [1][2][3]. Soybean (Glycine max) legume has the highest contribution of BNF; this species fixes annually ~16.4 million tons of N [4]. The main microsymbionts of soybean belong to Bradyrhizobium species [5].
The potential of BNF providing nitrogen N in ecosystems is increasingly being exploited in agricultural practices, mostly through legume cultivation (Soybean, lupin, alfalfa, chickpea, cowpea, etc.). Legume–rhizobium symbiosis is an important facet of symbiotic nitrogen fixation [6][7]. Inoculation of legumes crops with Rhizobia is one of the success stories of biofertilizers in agriculture. The positive impact of diazotrophic microorganisms on agriculture has opened the biofertilizer market. In few years the biofertilizer market has grown and at present, many nitrogen-fixing microorganisms are marketed as biofertilizers (Table 1). Different products are available and some of them have shown great potential by improving crop growth and yield and could significantly reduce a farmer’s fertilizer bill (Table 1). For example, in Brazil, the economic benefit in terms of N-fertilizer saving was over USDA 2.5 billion per year by 2002 [8]. Use of BNF-based commercial inoculums has contributed to increase soybean yield in Brazil, and therefore helped to put the country in second place among the largest soybean producers behind the USA. In the USA, the contribution of BNF to the soybean N nutrition ranged from 23 to 65% [9]. In Spain, Pastor-Bueis et al. [10] showed that Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli LCS0306, formulated with perlite-biochar carriers, produced a significantly higher grain yield of common bean (3640 kg ha–1 versus 3165 kg ha–1 in the N-fertilized control plot). In Ghana, Ulzen et al. [11], by comparing urea application to two commercial biofertilizers (Biofix and Legumefix) on soybean and cowpea, reported that these inoculants were more profitable. They increase nodule dry weight (>two-fold), nodule number (90–118%), and grain yield (12–19%) compare to the control (urea). In northern Nigeria, Ronner et al. [12] also showed that soybean inoculation with rhizobia has increased yield by 447 kg/ha compared to the control. Similar results were reported by Thuita et al. [13] who recommended for sustainable soybean yield increase, to inoculate with Legumefix + sympal (a fertilizer blend for use with rhizobia inoculants) or biofix + sympal to raise yields from 2000 kg/ha to 4000 kg/ha. In poor soils, amendment with vermicompost in addition to Sympal and Legumefix has been shown to improve soybean yields [14]. Previously, in a study of several commercial rhizobial inoculum, Thuita et al. [15] reported that these products have potential to increase growth, yield, and nitrogen fixation legumes. A noteworthy contribution of the use of legume inoculants was also reported in the Zambian’s economy, with an input of more than US $23 million in eight years [16]. Recently “Nitragin” a pure culture of root-associated bacteria was improved and tested on soybeans and soyfoods in Germany. Results showed that soil inoculated with Nitragin gave a 3- to 4-fold increase in yield, plus an increase in protein in the roots and leaves [17].
Table 1. Some famous marketed microbe-based biofertilizers and target crops.

2. Inoculants for Non-Legume Crops

Several non-leguminous plants, mainly cereals, have developed multiple strategies in association with diazotrophs to cope with N deficiency. Some of these microorganisms have been used to make bacterial inoculants. Mexico was one of the first countries to commercialize maize seeds coated with Azospirillum [25], followed by Argentina. Field experiments in Sierra Mixe (region of Oaxaca, Mexico) using 15N natural abundance or 15N-enrichment assessments over 5 years indicated that atmospheric nitrogen fixation contributed to 29–82% of the nitrogen nutrition of maize [26]. In Egypt, El-Sayed et al. [21] showed significant increases (24.8 and 27.2% in the first season and 18.4 and 22.0% in the second season respectively compared to the un-inoculation) in grain yield of barley after inoculation with biofertilizers (Microbin and Azottein, constituted of a mixture of P-dissolving and N-fixing bacteria), and these results were comparable to those obtained with chemical fertilizers. More recently, Rose et al. [27] demonstrated that a commercial biofertilizer product known as “BioGro” (Table 1) can replace 23 to 52% of N chemical fertilizers without loss of yield in rice systems, in Southeast Asia. BNF contribute ~30 kg N ha−1 per year to rice systems [28]. According to Serna-Cock et al. [29], applying Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter chroccocum, and Trichoderma lignorum as biofertilizer in sugarcane plants (variety CC 934418) can replaces 60% of the nitrogen needed by this cultivar. Corroborating these results, Antunes et al. [30] showed that inoculation with Herbaspirillum seropedicaePseudomonas sp., and Bacillus megaterium increase sugarcane (variety RB92579) yield from 18% to 57.31%. Although cereals benefit significantly from diazotrophs, most microbes are unlikely to fix nitrogen in the presence of high rate of chemical fertilizers.

3. Success-Limiting Factors of BNF Application in Agriculture

The BNFs have the capacity to reduce the use of nitrogen fertilizers to ~0.160 billion tons per year, which corresponds to a reduction of 0.270 billion tons of coal consumed in the production process [19]. All these results show that BNF is directly proportional to agricultural sustainability. Despite the advantages of microbial inoculant technology, there still exist some success-limiting factors against a universal utilization. In fact, the efficiency of microbe-based biofertilizers depends on many factors including the targeted crop, edaphic (pH, salinity, and soil type), biotic (competition between introduced and indigenous strains, microbial parasites and predators), and climatic factors [31][32] that can make commercial inoculum counter-productive. Besides competition among microbial strains for resources and plant nodulation, partner fidelity and specificity mediated by genetic and molecular mechanisms are among the success-limiting factors against a universal utilization of microbial inoculants [33][34]. On the other hand, commercial inoculants were often made with one or at most two trains, while under field conditions, plants are associated with many strains which provide them diverse benefits through functional complementarity. Nevertheless, the poor performance of biofertilizers is primarily linked to inappropriate strains and inefficient production technology. Herrmann et al. [20], studying the microbial quality of 65 commercial inoculants manufactured in seven different countries, showed that only 36% of the products could be considered as “pure”. Among the remaining 64% some contained one or several strains of contaminants and some products did not contain any strains. However, the study does not specify the origin of this problem. Is it a loss of viability during the storage time or the quality of the product delivered by the manufacturer? Similarly, In India, the evaluation of the quality of legume inoculants showed that most of the products tested did not contain the optimal amount of rhizobium (< 108 rhizobia/g of inoculant) and were contaminated by a large amount of non-rhizobial organisms [35]. Therefore, it is a big challenge to maintain viability and purity of microbes in microbial inoculant [36]. In many regions across the world, farmers are not yet familiar with this type of fertilizer which is sensitive to temperature, humidity, time, and storage conditions; that is why they are sometimes confused about quality and expiry dates of biofertilizers [37]. In Africa, the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) has been working with regulatory authorities for biofertilizers in Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Ghana to establish standards for both registration and efficacy testing to protect farmers from fraudulent products in the market. Previously, N2Africa and MIRCEN worked together in order to test commercial inoculants and offer quality assurance to their distributors and customers. In this respect, there is a need, particularly in Africa, to strengthen farmers’ capacities and establish networks for sharing reference protocols and information about BNF. Furthermore, very few firms in many African countries are involved in inoculum production and commercialization, limiting therefore access at adequate timely to quality inoculants.

4. Beneficial Mechanisms Other Than N-Fixation Provides by Diazotrophs Bacteria

In addition to their N-fixing abilities, diazotrophic bacteria are now recognized as also promoting plant growth (PGP) and yield and causing positive changes in soil structure and microbial community [38][39][40]. Many diazotrophic stains belonging to Rhizobia, Bradyrhizobia, Ensifer, Azotobacter, Azospirillum, Pseudomonas, Klebsiella, and Bacillus genera were reported to enhance the plant growth and grain yield of chickpea, bean, pea, wheat and rice through phytohormones and secondary metabolites production [40]. For instance, recent results from Gopalakrishnan et al. [41] have shown that rhizobia act also as PGP by producing indole acetic acid (IAA), siderophores, and organic acids, which leads to a stimulation of stems and roots growth of chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.). Some Bradyrhizobial strains isolated from rice rhizosphere and Azorhizobium caulinodans associated with Sesbania rostrate are capable of fixing nitrogen in the free-living state [42] under low-oxygen conditions [43]. Mia and Shamsuddin [44] have reported beneficial effects of rhizobium inoculation on different cereal crops as rice, maize, and wheat. On the other hand, Gopalakrishnan et al. [45] and Das et al. [46] reported that rhizobia can also act as biocontrol agents against pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia, Fusarium, Macrophomina, and Sclerotium), through hydrocyanic acid (HCN), antibiotics and/or mycolytic enzymes. The PGP traits of numerous other α-, β-, and γ-Proteobacteria inhabitants of legume nodules and contributing to N2 fixation were always neglected. These new aspects of diastrophic bacteria, especially rhizobia are avenues for research in order to select efficient BNFs, for their better contribution in crop yield.

5. Synergistic Benefits

Soil microorganisms such as arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are known to have significant positive effect on BNF by direct and/or indirect interaction with N-fixing microorganisms. Indeed, AMF play a significant role in uptake of water and nutrients from soil [47] necessary to generate energy required for BNF [48] Moreover, through their hyphal networks, AMF can facilitate the colonization of legume roots by symbiotic N-fixing bacteria [49], as well as the transfer of nutrients and symbiotically fixed N between similar or dissimilar plants [50][51]. On the other hand, bacteria can also be beneficial to AMF. After characterizing a commercial AMF inoculum (AEGIS, i.e., Atens, Agrotecnologias Naturales S.L), Agnolucci et al. [52] showed that this product harbors many bacteria with important functional PGP properties such as nitrogen fixation, inorganic phosphate solubilization AIA production, etc. The synergic effects between AM fungi and soil microbial communities increase plant biomass and N acquisition from organic matter.

References

  1. Vitousek, P.M.; Menge, D.N.L.; Reed, S.C.; Cleveland, C.C. Biological nitrogen fixation: Rates, patterns and ecological controls in terrestrial ecosystems. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 2013, 368, 1621.
  2. Figueiredo, M.V.B.; Mergulhão, A.E.S.; Sobral, J.K.; Junio, M.A.L.; Araújo, A.S.F. Biological Nitrogen Fixation: Importance, Associated Diversity, and Estimates. In Plant Microbe Symbiosis: Fundamentals and Advances; Arora, N.K., Ed.; Springer India: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2013; p. 267.
  3. Rao, D.L.N.; Balachandar, D. Nitrogen inputs from Biological Nitrogen Fixation in Indian Agriculture. In The Indian Nitrogen Assessment. Sources of Reactive Nitrogen, Environmental and Climate Effects, Management Options, and Policies; Abrol, Y.P., Ed.; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 117–132.
  4. Hungria, M.; Mendes, I.C. Nitrogen Fixation with Soybean: The Perfect Symbiosis? Biological Nitrogen Fixation; John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2015; Volume 2, pp. 1009–1024.
  5. Gyogluu, C.; Jaiswal, S.K.; Kyei-Boahen, S.; Dakora, F.D. Identification and distribution of microsymbionts associated with soybean nodulation in Mozambican soils. Syst. Appl. Microbiol. 2018, 41, 506–515.
  6. Aloril, E.T.; Babalola, O.O. Microbial Inoculants for Improving Crop Quality and Human Health in Africa. Front. Microbial. 2018, 9, 2213.
  7. Thilakarathna, M.S.; Chapagain, T.; Ghimire, B.; Pudasaini, R.; Tamang, B.B.; Gurung, K.; Choi, K.; Rai, L.; Magar, S.; Bishnu, B.K.; et al. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Rhizobium Inoculants and Micronutrients as Technologies for Nepalese Common Bean Smallholder Farmers in the Real-World Context of Highly Variable Hillside Environments and Indigenous Farming Practices. Agriculture 2019, 9, 20.
  8. Bruno, J.R.A.; Boddey, R.M.; Urquiaga, S. The success of BNF in soybean in Brazil. In Plant and Soil 660 FAO; Kluwer Academic Publishers: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2003; Volume 252, pp. 1–9.
  9. Córdova, S.C.; Castellano, M.J.; Dietzel, R.; Licht, M.A.; Togliatti, K.; Martínez-Feria, R.; Archontoulis, S.V. Soybean nitrogen fixation dynamics in Iowa, USA. Field Crops Res. 2019, 236, 165–176.
  10. Pastor-Bueis, R.; Sánchez-Cañizares, C.; James, E.K.; González-Andrés, F. Formulation of a Highly Effective Inoculant for Common Bean Based on an Autochthonous Elite Strain of Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. phaseoli, and Genomic-Based Insights Into Its Agronomic Performance. Front. Microbial. 2019, 10, 2724.
  11. Ulzen, J.; Abaidoo, R.C.; Mensah, N.E.; Masso, C.; AbdelGadir, A.H. Bradyrhizobium Inoculants Enhance Grain Yields of Soybean and Cowpea in Northern Ghana. Front. Plant Sci. 2016, 7, 1770.
  12. Ronner, E.; Franke, A.; Vanlauwe, B.; Dianda, M.; Edeh, E.; Ukem, B.; Giller, K. Understanding variability in soybean yield and response to P-fertilizer and rhizobium inoculants on farmers’ fields in northern Nigeria. Field Crops Res. 2016, 186, 133–145.
  13. Thuita, M.; Vanlauwe, B.; Mutegi, E.; Masso, C. Reducing spatial variability of soybean response to rhizobia inoculants in farms of variable soil fertility in Siaya Country of west Kenya. Biol. Fert. Soils 2018, 261, 153–160.
  14. Mathenge, C.; Thuita, M.; Masso, C.; Gweyi-Onyango, J.; Vanlauwe, B. Variability of soybean response to rhizobia inoculant, vermicompost, and a legume-specific fertilizer blend in Siaya County of Kenya. Soil Till. Res. 2019, 194, 104–290.
  15. Thuita, M.; Pypers, P.; Herrmann, L.; Okalebo, R.J.; Othieno, C.; Muema, E.; Lesueur, D. Commercial rhizobial inoculants significantly enhance growth and nitrogen fixation of a promiscuous soybean variety in Kenyan soils. Biol. Fertil. Soils 2012, 48, 87–96.
  16. Balla, A.; Karanja, N.; Murwira, M.; Lwimbi, L.; Abaidoo, R.; Giller, K. Production and Use of Rhizobial Inoculants in Africa, 2011, 21. Available online: www.N2Africa.org (accessed on 6 July 2020).
  17. William, S.; Akiko, A. History of Soybeans and Soyfoods in Eastern Europe (Including All of Russia) (1783–2020): Extensively Annotated Bibliography and Sourcebook; Soyinfo Center: Lafayette, CA, USA, 2020; ISBN1 1948436175. ISBN2 9781948436175.
  18. Nguyen, T.H.; Phan, T.C.; Choudhury, A.T.M.A.; Rose, M.T.; Deaker, R.J.; Kennedy, I.R. BioGro: A Plant Growth-Promoting Biofertilizer Validated by 15 Years’ Research from Laboratory Selection to Rice Farmer’s Fields of the Mekong Delta. Agro-Environ. Sustain. 2017, 237–254.
  19. Lesueur, D.; Deaker, R.; Herrmann, L.; Bräu, L.; Jansa, J. Bioformulations: For Sustainable Agriculture; Kumar, A.N., Samina, M., Raffaella, B., Eds.; Springer India: New Delhi, India, 2016; pp. 71–92.
  20. Herrmann, L.; Atieno, M.; Brau, L.; Lesueur, D. Microbial Quality of Commercial Inoculants to Increase BNF and Nutrient Use Efficiency. In Molecular Microbial Ecology of the Rhizosphere; De Bruijn, F.J., Ed.; Wiley: Blackwell, UK; Hoboken, NJ, USA, 2015.
  21. El-Sayed, A.A.; Elenein, R.A.; Shalaby, E.E.; Shalan, M.A.; Said, M.A. Response of barley to biofertilizer with N and P application under newly reclaimed areas in Egypt. In Proceedings of the 3rd International Crop Science Congress (ICSC), Hamburg, Germany, 17–22 August 2000; pp. 17–22.
  22. Chien, Y.T.; Zinder, S.H. Cloning, functional organization, transcript studies, and phylogenetic analysis of the complete nitrogenase structural genes (nifHDK2) and associated genes in the archaeon Methanosarcina barkeri 227. J. Bacteriol. 1996, 178, 143–148.
  23. Owen, D.; Williams, A.P.; Griffith, G.W.; Withers, P.J.A. Use of commercial bio-inoculants to increase agricultural production through improved phosphrous acquisition. Appl. Soil Ecol. 2015, 86, 41–54.
  24. Parnell, J.J.; Berka, R.; Young, H.A.; Sturino, J.M.; Kang, Y.; Barnhart, D.M.; Di Leo, M.V. From the lab to the farm: An industrial perspective of plant beneficial microorganisms. Front Plant Sci. 2016, 7, 1110.
  25. Reis, V.M. Uso de Bactérias Fixadores de Nitrogênio omo Inoculante para Aplicação em Gramíneas. In Seropédica: Embrapa Agrobiologia; Embrapa Agrobiologia: Rodovia, Brasilia, 2007; Volume 232, p. 22. ISSN 1517-8498.
  26. Van Deynze, A.; Zamora, P.; Delaux, P.-M.; Heitmann, C.; Jayaraman, D.; Rajasekar, S.; Graham, D.; Maeda, J.; Gibson, D.; Schwartz, K.D.; et al. Nitrogen fixation in a landrace of maize is supported by a mucilage-associated diazotrophic microbiota. PLoS Biol. 2018, 16, e2006352.
  27. Rose, M.T.; Phuong, T.L.; Nhan, D.K.; Cong, P.T.; Hien, N.T.; Kennedy, I.R. Up to 52% N fertilizer replaced by biofertilizer in lowland rice via farmer participatory research. Agron. Sustain. Dev. 2014, 34, 857–868.
  28. Herridge, D.F.; Peoples, M.B.; Boddey, R.M. Global inputs of biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Plant Soil 2008, 311, 1–18.
  29. Serna-Cock, L.; Arias-García, C.; Valencia Hernandez, L.J. Effect of biofertilization on the growth of potted sugarcane plants (Saccharum officinarum). Rev. Biol. Agroind. 2011, 9, 85–95.
  30. Antunes, J.E.L.; De Freitas, A.D.S.; Oliveira, L.M.S.; De Lyra, M.D.C.C.P.; Fonseca, M.A.C.; Santos, C.E.R.S.; Oliveira, J.P.; De Araújo, A.S.F.; Figueiredo, M.V.B. Sugarcane inoculated with endophytic diazotrophic bacteria: Effects on yield, biological nitrogen fixation and industrial characteristics. Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências 2019, 91, e20180990.
  31. Ouma, E.W.; Asango, A.M.; Maingi, J.; Njeru, E.M. Elucidating the potential of native rhizobial isolates to improve biological nitrogen fixation and growth of common bean and soybean in smallholder farming systems of Kenya. Int. J. Agron. 2016, 1–7.
  32. Koskey, G.; Mburu, S.W.; Njeru, E.M.; Kimiti, J.M.; Omwoyo, O.; Maingi, J.M. Potential of Native Rhizobia in Enhancing Nitrogen Fixation and Yields of Climbing Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Contrasting Environments of Eastern Kenya. Front. Plant Sci. 2017, 8, 443.
  33. Douglas, A.E.; Werren, J.H. Holes in the hologenome: Why host–microbe symbioses are not holobionts. MBio 2016, 7, e02099-15.
  34. Wang, Q.; Liu, J.; Zhu, H. Genetic and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Symbiotic Specificity in Legume-Rhizobium Interactions. Front. Plant Sci. 2018, 9, 313.
  35. Singleton, P.W.; Boonkerd, N.; Carr, T.J.; Thompson, J.A. Technical and market constraints limiting legume inoculant use in Asia. In Extending Nitrogen Fixation Research to Farmers’ Fields; Rupela, O.P., Johansen, C., Herridge, D.F., Eds.; ICRISAT: Pantacheru, India, 1997; pp. 17–38.
  36. Callaghan, M.O. Microbial inoculation of seed for improved crop performance: Issues and opportunities. Appl. Microbiol. Biotecnol. 2016, 100, 5729–5746.
  37. Herrmann, L.; Lesueur, D. Challenges of formulation and quality of biofertilizers for successful inoculation. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2013, 97, 8859–8873.
  38. Trabelsi, D.; Mhamdi, R. Microbial Inoculants and Their Impact on Soil Microbial Communities: A Review. BioMed Res. Int. 2013, 1–11.
  39. Gopalakrishnan, S.; Srinivas, V.; Prakash, B.; Sathya, A.; Vijayabharathi, R. Plant growth-promoting traits of Pseudomonas geniculata isolated from chickpea nodules. 3 Biotech 2015, 5, 653–661.
  40. Gopalakrishnan, S.; Srinivas, V.; Samineni, S. Nitrogen fixation, plant growth and yield enhancements by diazotrophic growth-promoting bacteria in two cultivars of chickpea (Cicero arietinum L.). Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2017, 11, 116–123.
  41. Gopalakrishnan, S.V.; Srinivas, A.; Vemula, S.; Samineni, A. Rathore, Influence of diazotrophic bacteria on nodulation, nitrogen fixation, growth promotion and yield traits in five cultivars of chickpea. Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2018, 15, 35–42.
  42. Yanni, Y.G.; Rizk, R.Y.; Corich, V.; Squartini, A.; Ninke, K.; Philip-Hollingsworth, S.; Orgambide, G.; de Bruijn, F.; Stoltzfus, J.; Buckley, D.; et al. Natural endophytic association between Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. trifolii and rice roots and assessment of its potential to promote rice growth. Plant Soil 1997, 194, 99–114.
  43. Gebhardt, C.; Turner, G.L.; Gibson, A.H.; Dreyfus, B.L.; Bergersen, F.J. Nitrogen-fixing Growth in Continuous Culture of a Strain of Rhizobium sp. Isolated from Stem Nodules on Sesbania rostrata. Microbiology 1984, 130, 843–848.
  44. Mia, M.A.B.; Shamsuddin, Z.H. Rhizobium as a crop enhancer and biofertilizer for increased cereal production. Afric. J. Biotechnol. 2010, 9, 6001–6009.
  45. Gopalakrishnan, S.; Sathya, A.; Vijayabharathi, R.; Varshney, R.K.; Gowda, C.L.L.; Krishnamurthy, L. Plant growth promoting rhizobia: Challenges and opportunities. 3 Biotech 2015, 5, 355.
  46. Das, K.; Prasanna, R.; Saxena, A.K. Rhizobia: A potential biocontrol agent for soilborne fungal pathogens. Folia Microbiologica 2017, 62, 425–435.
  47. Smith, S.E.; Read, D.J. Mycorrhizal Symbiosis; Academic Press: San Diego, CA, USA, 2008; p. 800. ISBN 9780123705266.
  48. Daniel, M.M.; Ezekiel, M.N.; Methuselah, M.N.; John, M.M. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Bradyrhizobium coinoculation enhances nitrogen fixation and growth of green grams (Vigna radiata L.) under water stress. J. Plant Nutr. 2020, 43, 1036–1047.
  49. De Novais, C.B.; Sbrana, C.; da Conceição Jesus, E.; Rouws, L.F.M.; Giovannetti, M.; Avio, L.; Siqueira, J.O.; Saggin Júnior, O.J.; da Silva, E.M.R.; de Faria, S.M. Mycorrhizal networks facilitate the colonization of legume roots by a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium. Mycorrhiza 2020, 30, 389–396.
  50. Parniske, M. Arbuscular mycorrhiza: The mother of plant root endosymbioses. Nat. Rev. Microbiol. 2008, 6, 763–775.
  51. Dellagi, A.; Quillere, I.; Hirel, B. Beneficial soil-borne bacteria and fungi: A promising way to improve plant nitrogen acquisition. J. Exp. Bot. 2020, eraa112.
  52. Agnolucci, M.; Avio, L.; Pepe, A.; Turrini, A.; Cristani, C.; Bonini, P.; Cirino, V.; Colosimo, F.; Ruzzi, M.; Giovannetti, M. Bacteria Associated With a Commercial Mycorrhizal Inoculum: Community Composition and Multifunctional Activity as Assessed by Illumina Sequencing and Culture-Dependent Tools. Front. Plant Sci. 2019, 9, 1956.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , ,
View Times: 1.5K
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 17 Oct 2022
1000/1000
Video Production Service