Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below: https://encyclopedia.pub/user/video_add?id=27522
Check Note
2000/2000
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1000 2022-09-23 08:48:12 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1000 2022-09-23 09:53:27 |
Peer Reviewed
Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups
Upload a video

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected many aspects of our lives, including mental health. Identifying risk factors and risk groups associated with anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders for reasons related to the COVID-19 pandemic is highly relevant. This narrative review aims to summarize the evidence to date on risk factors for emotional disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in order to identify the risk groups of people in need of early psychiatric and psychological assistance, point out the controversial data on the influence of risk factors on emotional disorders in COVID-19, and finally offer recommendations for alleviating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders in such people. According to the current literature, being under the age of 40, being female, having contact with a COVID-infected person, and watching the news about COVID-19 for more than 3 h a day all increase the likelihood of anxiety, depression, and sleep disturbances. Healthcare workers, particularly nurses, working in the COVID-19 hot zone suffer more from sleep disorders, anxiety, and depression. It is also noted that people with a previous psychiatric history, in addition to increased risks of anxiety and depression, have an increased risk of relapse during the COVID-19 pandemic. The same is true for people who have had episodes of substance abuse in the past. Aside from socioeconomic factors, the mental wellbeing of those who have had COVID-19 is also impacted by biological factors (using anti-COVID-19 drugs, COVID-19-associated immunothrombosis and venous thromboembolism, interferon-gamma-related cytokine storm, etc.), resulting in a wide range of acute and long-term cognitive disorders. During the restricted resource time, the aforementioned risk groups should be prioritized for prevention, early identification, and proper treatment of potential emotional disorders. The risk factors that were found in this narrative review, as well as how they interact and change over time, will help understand why some studies of at-risk groups do not agree with each other, justify new preventive measures, and strengthen existing programs to keep people’s mental health in check during this pandemic and other emergencies.

COVID-19 risk factors self-isolation lockdown mental health emotional disorders anxiety depression stress disorder suicidal behavior
Information
Contributors : , , , , , , , , , ,
View Times: 117
Online Time: 23 Sep 2022
Table of Contents
    On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the start of a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) [1]. The COVID-19 pandemic was marked by the implementation of unprecedented restrictive measures around the world, such as self-isolation [2] and the use of personal protective equipment (PPE) in public places [3]. This led to a forced change in people’s behavior and, against this background, changes in their emotional state. These measures and other risk factors associated with the pandemic can negatively impact mental health and cause emotional disorders [4].
    Research from years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic suggests that depression, anxiety disorders, substance abuse, behavioral addictions, self-harm, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) commonly follow major economic crises, new pandemics, or natural disasters [5][6][7][8]. For example, the previous human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic and the emergence of new recombinant forms and strains of HIV [9][10] have been proven to contribute to the deterioration of mental health in society [11]. Another example is that the frequency of cigarette, alcohol, and psychoactive drug consumption in the US has significantly increased since the September 11 attacks [12]. It was found that stress plays a crucial role in provoking substance abuse [13].
    The drastic changes in people’s lives and the many aspects of the global, public, and private economy associated with the current COVID-19 pandemic have become a source of great stress for many people [14]. Financial instability and unemployment, death of loved ones and isolation, fear of infection, school and daycare closures, travel restrictions, the sudden shift to working from home, bans on social gatherings, and other changes in social life and everyday life have contributed to an increase in domestic violence [15], increasing dependence on psychoactive substances and video games [5][8][15], and the general deterioration in the mental health of citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic [16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24]. When the immediate threat of the virus wanes, the long-term effects of the COVID-19 pandemic could make it difficult for many people to return to a normal emotional state.
    One of the most studied and frequently observed effects of the COVID-19 pandemic is depression, which significantly increases the appearances of many somatic diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease (2.0 times), cardiovascular diseases (1.5–2.0 times), stroke (1.8 times), epilepsy (4.0–6.0 times), diabetes (1.6 times), and cancer (1.0–1.3 times) [25], and increases the risk of suicide by 25 times [26]. During the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a sharp increase in the use of drugs for depression, i.e., antidepressants. Antidepressants have many side-effects, including weight gain, sexual dysfunction, hypotension, and dyspeptic symptoms. Noncompliance or discontinuation of medication can lead to relapse of depression and increase the risk of suicide [25]. As a result, identifying risk groups for people who may be depressed is becoming more important. Adopting preventive measures against depression, anxiety, suicidal behavior, and other emotional disorders should become a public health priority to reduce the population’s economic and drug burden.
    Some risk groups are more vulnerable and require more support and attention during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unfortunately, a greater need for psychological help does not mean a greater appeal for it. A study among medical staff found that people with three psychological problems received less care than people without any disorders [27]. Thus, risk groups and risk factors for emotional disorders, especially anxiety and depression, during the COVID-19 pandemic/lockdown and beyond the post-COVID period have not yet been clearly defined. The identification of such risk factors and the identification of risk groups will allow the development of better recommendations for the prevention of emotional disorders and the improvement of mental health.
    Therefore, this narrative review aims to summarize the evidence to date on risk factors for emotional disorders during the COVID-19 pandemic in order (1) to identify the risk groups of people in need of early psychiatric and psychological assistance, (2) to point out the controversial data on the influence of risk factors on emotional disorders in COVID-19, and finally (3) to offer recommendations for alleviating symptoms of anxiety, depression, and other emotional disorders in such people.

    References

    1. World Health Organization. WHO Director-General’s Opening Remarks at the Media Briefing on COVID-19. 11 March 2020. Available online: https://www.who.int/director-general/speeches/detail/who-director-general-s-opening-remarks-at-the-media-briefing-on-covid-19---11-march-2020 (accessed on 27 April 2022).
    2. Belova, E.; Shashina, E.; Shcherbakov, D.; Zhernov, Y.; Sukhov, V.; Zabroda, N.; Makarova, V.; Isiutina-Fedotkova, T.; Mishina, S.; Simanovsky, A.; et al. Sanitary aspects of countering the spread of COVID-19 in Russia. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 12456.
    3. Belova, E.; Shashina, E.; Zhernov, Y.; Zabroda, N.; Sukhov, V.; Gruzdeva, O.; Khodykina, T.; Laponova, E.; Makarova, V.; Simanovsky, A.; et al. Assessment of hygiene indicators when using gloves by transport workers in russia during the COVID-19 pandemic. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2022, 19, 1198.
    4. Mitrokhin, O.V.; Reshetnikov, V.A.; Belova, E.V.; Jakovljevic, M. (Michael) Sanitary and hygienic aspects of the COVID-19 self-isolation. Open Public Health J. 2020, 13, 734–738.
    5. Ornell, F.; Moura, H.F.; Scherer, J.N.; Pechansky, F.; Kessler, F.H.P.; von Diemen, L. The COVID-19 pandemic and its impact on substance use: Implications for prevention and treatment. Psychiatry Res. 2020, 289, 113096.
    6. Beaglehole, B.; Mulder, R.T.; Frampton, C.M.; Boden, J.M.; Newton-Howes, G.; Bell, C.J. Psychological distress and psychiatric disorder after natural disasters: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Br. J. Psychiatry 2018, 213, 716–722.
    7. Parker, G.; Lie, D.; Siskind, D.; Martin-Khan, M.; Raphael, B.; Crompton, D.; Kisely, S. Mental health implications for older adults after natural disasters—A systematic review and meta-analysis. Int. Psychogeriatr. 2015, 28, 11–20.
    8. Sallie, S.N.; Ritou, V.J.; Bowden-Jones, H.; Voon, V. Assessing online gaming and pornography consumption patterns during COVID-19 isolation using an online survey: Highlighting distinct avenues of problematic internet behavior. Addict. Behav. 2021, 123, 107044.
    9. Moskaleychik, F.F.; Laga, V.Y.; Delgado, E.; Vega, Y.; Fernandez-Garcia, A.; Perez-Alvarez Kornilaeva, G.V.; Pronin, A.Y.; Zhernov, Y.V.; Thomson, M.M.; Bobkova, M.R.; et al. Rapid spread of the HIV-1 circular recombinant CRF02-AG in Russia and neighboring countries. Vopr. Virusol. 2015, 60, 14–19.
    10. Karamov, E.; Epremyan, K.; Siniavin, A.; Zhernov, Y.; Cuevas, M.T.; Delgado, E.; Sánchez-Martínez, M.; Carrera, C.; Kornilaeva, G.; Turgiev, A.; et al. HIV-1 genetic diversity in recently diagnosed infections in Moscow: Predominance of Afsu, frequent branching in clusters, and circulation of the Iberian subtype G variant. AIDS Res. Hum. Retrovir. 2018, 34, 629–634.
    11. Remien, R.H.; Stirratt, M.J.; Nguyen, N.; Robbins, R.N.; Pala, A.N.; Mellins, C.A. Mental health and HIV/AIDS. AIDS 2019, 33, 1411–1420.
    12. Vlahov, D.; Galea, S.; Resnick, H.; Ahern, J.; Boscarino, J.A.; Bucuvalas, M.; Gold, J.; Kilpatrick, D. Increased use of cigarettes, alcohol, and marijuana among Manhattan, New York, residents after the September 11th terrorist attacks. Am. J. Epidemiol. 2002, 155, 988–996.
    13. Sinha, R. How does stress increase risk of drug abuse and relapse? Psychopharmacology 2001, 158, 343–359.
    14. Lockdowns around the World Bring Rise in Domestic Violence. Available online: https://www.theguardian.com/society/2020/mar/28/lockdowns-world-rise-domestic-violence (accessed on 15 April 2022).
    15. Dubey, M.J.; Ghosh, R.; Chatterjee, S.; Biswas, P.; Chatterjee, S.; Dubey, S. COVID-19 and addiction. Diabetes Metab. Syndr. Clin. Res. Rev. 2020, 14, 817–823.
    16. Hawryluck, L.; Gold, W.L.; Robinson, S.; Pogorski, S.; Galea, S.; Styra, R. SARS control and psychological effects of quarantine, Toronto, Canada. Emerg. Infect. Dis. 2004, 10, 1206–1212.
    17. Hossain, M.M.; Sultana, A.; Purohit, N. Mental health outcomes of quarantine and isolation for infection prevention: A systematic umbrella review of the global evidence. Epidemiol. Health 2020, 42, e2020038.
    18. Lei, L.; Huang, X.; Zhang, S.; Yang, J.; Yang, L.; Xu, M. Comparison of prevalence and associated factors of anxiety and depression among people affected by versus people unaffected by quarantine during the COVID-19 epidemic in southwestern China. Med Sci. Monit. 2020, 26, e924609-1.
    19. Fitzke, R.E.; Wang, J.; Davis, J.P.; Pedersen, E.R. Substance use, depression, and loneliness among American veterans during the COVID-19 pandemic. Am. J. Addict. 2021, 30, 552–559.
    20. Nkire, N.; Mrklas, K.; Hrabok, M.; Gusnowski, A.; Vuong, W.; Surood, S.; Abba-Aji, A.; Urichuk, L.; Cao, B.; Greenshaw, A.J.; et al. COVID-19 pandemic: Demographic predictors of self-isolation or self-quarantine and impact of isolation and quarantine on perceived stress, anxiety, and depression. Front. Psychiatry 2021, 12, 553468.
    21. Ren, X.; Huang, W.; Pan, H.; Huang, T.; Wang, X.; Ma, Y. Mental health during the COVID-19 outbreak in China: A meta-analysis. Psychiatr. Q. 2020, 91, 1033–1045.
    22. Liang, L.; Ren, H.; Cao, R.; Hu, Y.; Qin, Z.; Li, C.; Mei, S. The effect of COVID-19 on youth mental health. Psychiatr. Q. 2020, 91, 841–852.
    23. Zhou, S.-J.; Zhang, L.-G.; Wang, L.-L.; Guo, Z.-C.; Wang, J.-Q.; Chen, J.-C.; Liu, M.; Chen, X.; Chen, J.-X. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of psychological health problems in Chinese adolescents during the outbreak of COVID-19. Eur. Child Adolesc. Psychiatry 2020, 29, 749–758.
    24. Lee, H.; Noh, Y.; Seo, J.Y.; Park, S.H.; Kim, M.H.; Won, S. Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the mental health of adolescent students in Daegu, Korea. J. Korean Med. Sci. 2021, 36, 46.
    25. Abdel-Bakky, M.S.; Amin, E.; Faris, T.M.; Abdellatif, A.A. Mental depression: Relation to different disease status, newer treatments and its association with COVID-19 pandemic (Review). Mol. Med. Rep. 2021, 24, 839.
    26. Sher, L. Post-COVID syndrome and suicide risk. QJM Int. J. Med. 2021, 114, 95–98.
    27. Liu, Z.; Han, B.; Jiang, R.; Huang, Y.; Ma, C.; Wen, J.; Zhang, T.; Wang, Y.; Chen, H.; Ma, Y. Mental Health Status of Doctors and Nurses during COVID-19 Epidemic in China (3 April 2020). Available online: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3551329 (accessed on 27 April 2022).
    More
    Information
    Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , , , , , ,
    View Times: 117
    Online Time: 23 Sep 2022
    Table of Contents
      1000/1000

      Confirm

      Are you sure to Delete?

      Video Upload Options

      Do you have a full video?
      Cite
      If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
      Kassaeva, P.; Belova, E.; Shashina, E.; Shcherbakov, D.; Makarova, V.; Ershov, B.; Sukhov, V.; Zabroda, N.; Sriraam, N.; Mitrokhin, O.; et al. Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/27522 (accessed on 08 December 2022).
      Kassaeva P, Belova E, Shashina E, Shcherbakov D, Makarova V, Ershov B, et al. Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/27522. Accessed December 08, 2022.
      Kassaeva, Polina, Elena Belova, Ekaterina Shashina, Denis Shcherbakov, Valentina Makarova, Boris Ershov, Vitaly Sukhov, Nadezhda Zabroda, Natarajan Sriraam, Oleg Mitrokhin, et al. "Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/27522 (accessed December 08, 2022).
      Kassaeva, P., Belova, E., Shashina, E., Shcherbakov, D., Makarova, V., Ershov, B., Sukhov, V., Zabroda, N., Sriraam, N., Mitrokhin, O., & Zhernov, Y. (2022, September 23). Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/27522
      Kassaeva, Polina, et al. ''Anxiety, Depression, and Other Emotional Disorders during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Narrative Review of the Risk Factors and Risk Groups.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 23 September, 2022.
      Top
      Feedback