Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1180 2022-08-09 11:11:58 |
2 format correct -3 word(s) 1177 2022-08-10 09:03:36 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Farage, M.A. Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25975 (accessed on 23 June 2024).
Farage MA. Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25975. Accessed June 23, 2024.
Farage, Miranda A.. "Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25975 (accessed June 23, 2024).
Farage, M.A. (2022, August 09). Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25975
Farage, Miranda A.. "Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome." Encyclopedia. Web. 09 August, 2022.
Physiological Contributors to Sensitive Skin Syndrome
Edit

Sensitive Skin Syndrome (SSS) has been the subject of intense research. Although certain phenotypes are more susceptible, anyone can suffer from SSS and this condition can manifest in all anatomic sites. A number of physiological differences have been identified in individuals with SSS.

Sensitive Skin Syndrome anatomic variations stress gender

1. Introduction

Sensitive Skin Syndrome (SSS) has been the subject of intense research in recent years. Anyone can suffer from SSS; however, there are certain characteristics, or host factors, that are more likely to be seen in SSS individuals. These include female gender, fair skin, higher susceptibility to sunburn and blushing, and skin phototypes I–IV [1]. Typically, there are no objective signs of skin irritation in subjects suffering from SSS. Rather the condition manifests as unpleasant sensations such as pruritus, stinging, burning, pain, and tingling sensations, in response to a wide variety of external and internal stimuli that normally should not provoke such sensations [2][3][4]. Due to the absence of consistent objective signs, such as redness or swelling, investigators have relied on a questionnaire-based approach to evaluate this condition. Several such studies have been conducted among populations around the world to evaluate the prevalence of SSS in the general population (reviewed in Farage, 2019 [5]). Chen et al.’s meta analysis representing 18 countries, and a total of 51,783 individuals showed around 71% of people self-reported SSS [6].
Sensitive skin can affect all anatomic sites including face, scalp, and the genital area [5][7].

2. Physiological Contributors to SSS

A number of physiological differences have been identified in individuals with SSS (Table 1). The epidermal layer of the skin of individuals with SSS has reduced barrier integrity due to differences in lipid composition with a decrease in ceramide and sphingolipid content [8]. This results in increasing the potential penetration of irritants and insufficient protection of nerve endings [5][8][9][10]. Increased vascular reactivity has been observed in individuals with SSS, resulting in more intense vascular reactions to irritants [11]. Roussaki–Schulze and colleagues reported that vascular reactions to methyl nicotinate in SSS subjects was 75 times higher compared to non-sensitive controls [12].
Table 1. Some Physiological Elements Contributing to SSS.
Neurosensory dysfunction is another physiological element that contributes to SSS. Biopsies from SSS subjects demonstrated a decrease of peptidergic C-fiber density [14]. These fibers are involved in pain, itching and temperature perception. Degeneration of these fibers can induce hyper-reactivity of the remaining nerve endings and a result in allodynia [11]. An additional neurosensory component is an increase in Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid-1 (TRPV1). This is a non-selective cation channel that responds to heat and low pH, and is related to nociception, neurogenic inflammation, and pruritus. TRPV-1 is also classically known as the capsaicin receptor [15][16]. Based on self-reported SSS skin biopsies, Ehnis–Pérez et al. found TRPV1 is dramatically upregulated in sensitive skin subjects [15].
Another important factor for SSS people is that they may also suffer from skin co-morbidities and additional skin disorders (Table 2). Just like SSS, rosacea is more common in individuals who are female with fair skin and hair, blue eyes, and lighter skin, i.e., phototypes I–III [17]. In a genome-wide association study (GWAS) involving 22,952 subjects, Chang and colleagues determined that rosacea is associated with several HLA alleles [18]. This is in line with the inflammatory nature of the syndrome. In a study involving 1000 individuals in Korea, 56.8% of whom had sensitive or very sensitive skin, Kim and colleagues found that the SSS group was over 3 times more likely to suffer from acne, atopic dermatitis, and facial blushing, and over 2 times more likely to suffer from seborrheic dermatitis compared to the non-sensitive group [19]. Brenaut and colleagues found a similar result in an Indian population [20]. In a study involving over 3000 individuals, SSS subjects were 2–4 times more likely to report atopic dermatitis, acne, psoriasis, vitiligo, rosacea, or contact dermatitis compared to the non-sensitive group [20].
Table 2. Some Skin Co-morbidities Associated with SSS.
Sensitive skin has also been linked to sensitive eyes and eyelids, and irritable bowel syndrome [26][27]. It is proposed that these conditions may be related to the neurosensory dysfunctions identified in SSS, i.e., hyperexcitability of nerve endings, hyperactivation of sensor proteins resulting from upregulation of TRP channels, and alterations in nerve fiber density [26]. The histological findings and clinical signs of small fiber impairment with SSS are similar to those experienced in small-fiber neuropathy [28].
As part of a GWAS, Farage et al. evaluated 23,426 subjects’ responses and found that SSS individuals reported other skin complaints, specifically, contact dermatitis, freckles, atopic dermatitis, acne, and seborrheic dermatitis [25]. These authors found an association between SSS and several specific loci also associated with genes for rosacea, pigmentation, and skin cancer [25].

Other Host Related Factors

Aging can be another physiologic factor in sensitive skin. As an individual ages, the skin changes as it becomes thinner and drier, as well as replacing itself at a slower rate [29]. The elderly skin is also more prone to higher permeability but a reduced elasticity, tensile strength, vascularization and cellularity [29]. These physiological changes might lead one to conclude that older skin is more susceptible to irritant effects, and more likely to be sensitive. However, clinical assessments using known irritant materials suggest that skin irritation susceptibility generally decreases with age, as does the capacity to produce visible physiological signs of dermatological irritation [9][29][30][31][32]. Several studies have shown that the prevalence of SSS in older individuals is no different or lower than in younger individuals [19][23][33][34]. A 2010 study with 1039 individuals evaluated SSS at several body sites in the US [29]. No consistent pattern with age was seen when subjects were asked about sensitive skin in general, of the face or body, specifically. However, genital area skin sensitivity demonstrated an increase from 53% in subjects ≤ 30 years old to 66% in subjects ≥ 50 years old. This difference was mainly due to the females.
Another critical factor is the impact of hormonal fluctuations during the different consumer life stages on skin sensitivity. In both the dermis and epidermis, the skin has highly sensitive estrogen receptors, and variation of female hormones can have an impact on the skin [35]. Decreased estrogen levels can adversely affect barrier function, elasticity, blood circulation and vasomotor function. Farage’s study which included 1039 individuals demonstrated that the menstrual cycle was contributing to unpleasant genital skin in 61% of women with SSS and 40% of the non-sensitive skin women (p < 0.00001) [36]. Falcone and colleagues reported that women with more intense perimenstrual symptoms perceived their skin as more sensitive during some phases of the menstrual cycle compared to women with lower intensity symptoms (p = 0.002) [37]. Furthermore, 70% of postmenopausal women claiming SSS perceived their skin sensitivity increasing after menopause [37]. In general, among SSS women, products used for menstrual protection and hygiene have been shown to trigger significantly greater symptoms than non-sensitive women [36].

References

  1. Farage, M.A. Understanding the Sensitive Skin Subject to Achieve a More Holistic Diagnosis. Cosmetics 2021, 8, 81.
  2. Bataille, A.; Gall-Ianotto, C.L.; Genin, E.; Misery, L. Sensitive Skin: Lessons from Transcriptomic Studies. Front. Med. 2019, 6, 115.
  3. Misery, L.; Ständer, S.; Szepietowski, J.C.; Reich, A.; Wallengren, J.; Evers, A.W.; Takamori, K.; Brenaut, E.; Gall-Ianotto, C.L.; Fluhr, J.; et al. Definition of Sensitive Skin: An Expert Position Paper from the Special Interest Group on Sensitive Skin of the International Forum for the Study of Itch. Acta Derm. Venereol. 2017, 97, 4–6.
  4. Berardesca, E.; Farage, M.; Maibach, H. Sensitive skin: An overview. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2013, 35, 2–8.
  5. Farage, M.A. The Prevalence of Sensitive Skin. Front. Med. 2019, 6, 98.
  6. Chen, W.; Dai, R.; Li, L. The prevalence of self-declared sensitive skin: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2019, 34, 1779–1788.
  7. Misery, L.; Jourdan, E.; Abadie, S.; Ezzedine, K.; Brenaut, E.; Huet, F.; Sayag, M.; Taieb, C. Development and validation of a new tool to assess the Burden of Sensitive Skin (BoSS). J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2018, 32, 2217–2223.
  8. Cho, H.J.; Chung, B.Y.; Lee, H.B.; Kim, H.O.; Park, C.W.; Lee, C.H. Quantitative study of stratum corneum ceramides contents in patients with sensitive skin. J. Dermatol. 2012, 39, 295–300.
  9. Cua, A.B.; Wilhelm, K.P.; Maibach, H.I. Cutaneous sodium lauryl sulphate irritation potential: Age and regional variability. Br. J. Dermatol. 1990, 123, 607–613.
  10. Pons-Guiraud, A. Sensitive skin: A complex and multifactorial syndrome. J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2004, 3, 145–148.
  11. Misery, L.; Weisshaar, E.; Brenaut, E.; Evers, A.; Huet, F.; Ständer, S.; Reich, A.; Berardesca, E.; Serra-Baldrich, E.; Wallengren, J.; et al. Pathophysiology and management of sensitive skin: Position paper from the special interest group on sensitive skin of the International Forum for the Study of Itch (IFSI). J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2020, 34, 222–229.
  12. Roussaki-Schulze, A.V.; Zafiriou, E.; Nikoulis, D.; Klimi, E.; Rallis, E.; Zintzaras, E. Objective biophysical findings in patients with sensitive skin. Drugs Exp. Clin. Res. 2005, 31, 17–24.
  13. Misery, L.; Loser, K.; Ständer, S. Sensitive skin. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2016, 30 (Suppl. 1), 2–8.
  14. Buhé, V.; Vié, K.; Guéré, C.; Natalizio, A.; Lhéritier, C.; Gall-Ianotto, C.; Huet, F.; Talagas, M.; Lebonvallet, N.; Marcorelles, P.; et al. Pathophysiological Study of Sensitive Skin. Acta Derm. Venereol. 2016, 96, 314–318.
  15. Ehnis-Pérez, A.; Torres-Álvarez, B.; Cortés-García, D.; Hernández-Blanco, D.; Fuentes-Ahumada, C.; Castanedo-Cázares, J.P. Relationship between transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 expression and the intensity of sensitive skin symptoms. J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2016, 15, 231–237.
  16. Kueper, T.; Krohn, M.; Haustedt, L.O.; Hatt, H.; Schmaus, G.; Vielhaber, G. Inhibition of TRPV1 for the treatment of sensitive skin. Exp. Dermatol. 2010, 19, 980–986.
  17. Mikkelsen, C.S.; Holmgren, H.R.; Kjellman, P.; Heidenheim, M.; Kappinnen, A.; Bjerring, P.; Huldt-Nystrøm, T. Rosacea: A Clinical Review. Dermatol. Rep. 2016, 8, 6387.
  18. Chang, A.L.S.; Raber, I.; Xu, J.; Li, R.; Spitale, R.; Chen, J.; Kiefer, A.K.; Tian, C.; Eriksson, N.K.; Hinds, D.A.; et al. Assessment of the genetic basis of rosacea by genome-wide association study. J. Investig. Dermatol. 2015, 135, 1548–1555.
  19. Kim, Y.R.; Cheon, H.I.; Misery, L.; Taieb, C.; Lee, Y.W. Sensitive skin in Korean population: An epidemiological approach. Skin Res. Technol. 2018, 24, 229–234.
  20. Brenaut, E.; Misery, L.; Taieb, C. Sensitive Skin in the Indian Population: An Epidemiological Approach. Front. Med. 2019, 6, 29.
  21. Wang, X.Y.; Liu, Y.Y.; Liu, Y.X.; Ma, W.W.; Zhang, J.W.; Liu, Z.J.; Liu, J.; Zhou, B.R.; Xu, Y. A predictive model for differential diagnosis between rosacea and sensitive skin: A cross-sectional study. Chin. Med. J. 2020, 133, 2132–2134.
  22. Willis, C.M.; Shaw, S.; De Lacharriere, O.; Baverel, M.; Reiche, L.; Jourdain, R.; Bastien, P.; Wilkinson, J.D. Sensitive skin: An epidemiological study. Br. J. Dermatol. 2001, 145, 258–263.
  23. Misery, L.; Jourdan, E.; Huet, F.; Brenaut, E.; Cadars, B.; Virassamynaïk, S.; Sayag, M.; Taieb, C. Sensitive skin in France: A study on prevalence, relationship with age and skin type and impact on quality of life. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2018, 32, 791–795.
  24. Farage, M.A.; Bowtell, P.; Katsarou, A. Self-diagnosed sensitive skin in women with clinically diagnosed atopic dermatitis. Clin. Med. Dermatol. 2008, 2, 21–28.
  25. Farage, M.A.; Jiang, Y.; Tiesman, J.P.; Fontanillas, P.; Osborne, R. Genome-Wide Association Study Identifies Loci Associated with Sensitive Skin. Cosmetics 2020, 7, 49.
  26. Misery, L.; Cochener, B.; Brenaut, E.; Séité, S.; Taieb, C. Association of sensitive skin with sensitive corneas and sensitive eyelids. J. Eur. Acad. Dermatol. Venereol. 2019, 33, 1358–1362.
  27. Misery, L.; Duboc, H.; Coffin, B.; Brenaut, E.; Huet, F.; Taieb, C. Association between two painful and poorly understood conditions: Irritable bowel and sensitive skin syndromes. Eur. J. Pain 2019, 23, 160–166.
  28. Huet, F.; Misery, L. Sensitive skin is a neuropathic disorder. Exp. Dermatol. 2019, 28, 1470–1473.
  29. Farage, M.A. Perceptions of Sensitive Skin with Age. In Textbook of Aging Skin, 2nd ed.; Farage, M.A., Miller, K.W., Maibach, H.I., Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2017.
  30. Robinson, M.K. Population differences in acute skin irritation responses. Race, sex, age, sensitive skin and repeat subject comparisons. Contact Dermat. 2002, 46, 86–93.
  31. Lejman, E.; Stoudemayer, T.; Grove, G.; Kligman, A.M. Age differences in poison ivy dermatitis. Contact Dermat. 1984, 11, 163–167.
  32. Grove, G.L.; Duncan, S.; Kligman, A.M. Effect of ageing on the blistering of human skin with ammonium hydroxide. Br. J. Dermatol. 1982, 107, 393–400.
  33. Misery, L.; Sibaud, V.; Merial-Kieny, C.; Taieb, C. Sensitive skin in the American population: Prevalence, clinical data, and role of the dermatologist. Int. J. Dermatol. 2011, 50, 961–967.
  34. Xiao, X.; Qiao, L.; Ye, R.; Zuo, F. Nationwide Survey and Identification of Potential Stress Factor in Sensitive Skin of Chinese Women. Clin. Cosmet. Investig. Dermatol. 2020, 13, 867–874.
  35. Farage, M.A.; Neill, S.; MacLean, A.B. Physiological changes associated with the menstrual cycle: A review. Obstet. Gynecol. Surv. 2009, 64, 58–72.
  36. Farage, M.A. Sensitive skin in the genital area. Front. Med. 2019, 6, 142–154.
  37. Falcone, D.; Richters, R.J.; Uzunbajakava, N.E.; Van Erp, P.E.; Van De Kerkhof, P.C. Sensitive skin and the influence of female hormone fluctuations: Results from a cross-sectional digital survey in the Dutch population. Eur. J. Dermatol. 2017, 27, 42–48.
More
Information
Subjects: Biology
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 237
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 10 Aug 2022
1000/1000
Video Production Service