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1 Advertisements using emotional appeals can contribute to effective integration between multiple communication channels, thus, the use of emotions in advertising space can strengthen traditional communication models. + 934 word(s) 934 2020-10-10 11:48:34 |
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Vrtana, D.; Krizanova, A.; Skorvagova, E.; Valaskova, K. Emotional Advertising. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Vrtana D, Krizanova A, Skorvagova E, Valaskova K. Emotional Advertising. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed June 20, 2024.
Vrtana, David, Anna Krizanova, Eva Skorvagova, Katarina Valaskova. "Emotional Advertising" Encyclopedia, (accessed June 20, 2024).
Vrtana, D., Krizanova, A., Skorvagova, E., & Valaskova, K. (2020, October 15). Emotional Advertising. In Encyclopedia.
Vrtana, David, et al. "Emotional Advertising." Encyclopedia. Web. 15 October, 2020.
Emotional Advertising

The correlation and perception of advertising on adolescents have been shown to be a key factor in the survival of subjective emotional states, as emotions are evaluation patterns that influence consumer behaviour.

advertising emotions emotional states regions emotional appeal adolescents

1. Introduction

Any effective advertising should appropriately generate affective responses that can support the customer–brand relationship. Stout and Leckenby’s [1] research confirms the well-known fact that advertising using different emotions is more popular and influences consumer decision-making processes. The main goal of emotional advertising is to create and perceive the intensity of connections between the product, brand, and customer [2]. However, the most intensive connection occurs in the case of television advertising, regardless of age category. However, social networks also have an intense influence, which are now key in influencing adolescent behavior [3]. There are numbers of emotional expressions that businesses seek to promote in their advertisements. One of them may be the emotional appeal of the story, which may be completed by nostalgia. A typical period when it is possible to use the nostalgia associated with the story as an emotional appeal is Christmastime [4].

Quantitative studies determining the importance of emotional attitudes when watching advertising developed as early as the 1980s [5]. Research conducted in this area was conducted with adolescents, who seemed more emotional. The randomness of selected advertisements has led to potential interest from adolescents [3]. The problem in this area, however, was that the research focused on specific advertisements, not on adolescents’ reactions. This showed a problem in evaluating adolescents’ attitudes and perceptions. Since the 1980s, the focus on the subject area of research into emotions in advertising and the assessment of positive and negative attitudes toward the evaluation of advertising with an emotional appeal has declined considerably [3]. As there are currently decreases in the subject area of research into the impact of emotions in advertising on adolescents, we decided to examine this issue in the Slovak Republic. The credibility of the research is also proved by the lack of information, as similar research has not been carried out in the Slovak media market. According to the research, adolescents are more impulsive and conscious when watching advertisements than adults [6].

2. The Impact of Advertising on Adolescents

The impact of emotional activity through advertising on adolescents is crucial in influencing shopping behavior. The research by Barve et al. [7] shows that adolescents are intensely aware of the influences and effects of emotional appeals, which can also influence their behavior. The authors’ research problem was to analyze the negative and positive effects of television advertising on adolescents. Using questionnaire methods and structured interviews, the authors found more emotional reactions in girls and higher rationality in boys. The result was the finding that adolescents watched advertisements to create gender stereotypes and fostered aggressive behavior and social apathy [7].

Similar to Barve et al. [7], Sinigh and Pandey [8] also analyzed the impact of advertising on adolescents. The results of their research were identified with the statements of Barve et al. [7]. They found that TV advertisements with an emotional appeal have the greatest impact on the female segment. Research has also shown that adolescents are exposed to 400,000 advertisements a year, with various emotional influences [8]. Evidence of the influence of emotions in advertising space is also verified by the studies of Nadanyiova [9] and Kliestikova [10]. They argue that the use of emotions in advertising can lead to higher customer–business interaction. The research findings have generalized this statement, and, therefore, their view is acceptable in companies with different production sectors.

Adolescents are also intensely affected by social networks. They seek to promote products and services through influencers to support shopping behavior and strengthen engagement. Emotions are a key factor in strengthening adolescents’ engagement or behavior change. Therefore, according to the authors, it is necessary to evaluate the impact of emotions on young people [11]. Berne-Manero and Marzo-Navarro [11] show that not only television commercials but also social media commercials can change adolescents’ behavior. Naskar et al. [12] also agree with this opinion. The research of Zollo et al. [13] and Gratiela [14] demonstrates that cognitive, personal integration, and social integration benefits mediate the relationship between the marketing impact of social media advertising and consumer brand awareness. Zollo et al. [13] also declare that emotional brand experiences can also help strengthen customer loyalty. It is possible to agree with the above statement, as advertisements with an emotional appeal can also affect the overall loyalty to the brand. Advertisements’ originality and appeal can lead to higher feedback [15]. Properly utilizing emotion in advertising can lead to a more positive attitude toward advertising and branding [16].

3. Conclusions

It is possible to claim that emotions are of fundamental importance in advertising space. They can evoke not only positive but also negative emotions in the customer. These can be associated with the loss of a family relative or friend, or other misfortune. It is all the more difficult to perceive such emotions during holidays such as Christmas, when people should be with each other and spend time together. Advertisements that emphasize negative emotions during the Christmas holiday, for example, can also make a customer feel brand-detached. Therefore, it is always necessary to consider what emotion in the advertising space the company will use.


  1. Stout, A.P.; Leckenby, D.J. Measuring Emotional Response to Advertising. J. Advert. 1986, 15, 35–42.
  2. Gavurova, B.; Bacik, R.; Fedorko, R.; Nastisin, L. The Customer´s Brand Experience in the Light of Selected Performance Indicators in the Social Media Environment. J. Compet. 2018, 10, 72–84.
  3. Cartwright, J.; McCormick, H.; Warnaby, G. Consumers’ emotional responses to the Christmas TV advertising of four retail brands. J. Retail. Consum. Serv. 2015, 29, 82–91.
  4. Hall, C.M. Will Climate Change Kill Santa Claus? Climate Change and High-Latitude Christmas Place Branding. Scand. J. Hosp. Tour. 2014, 14, 23–40.
  5. Höijer, B. Ontological Assumptions and Generalizations in Qualitative (Audience) Research. Eur. J. Commun. 2008, 23, 275–294.
  6. Pechmann, C.; Levine, L.; Loughlin, S.; Leslie, F. Impulsive and Self-Conscious: Adolescents’ Vulnerability to Advertising and Promotion. J. Public Policy Mark. 2005, 24, 202–221.
  7. Barve, G.; Sood, A.; Nithyia, S.; Virmani, T. Effects of Advertising on Youth (Age Group of 13–19 Years Age). J. Mass Commun. J. 2015, 5, 3–9.
  8. Sinigh, M.; Pandey, A. Effects of emotional appeal used in television ads on purchase decision of consumer a literature review. Int. Educ. Res. J. 2017, 3, 176–178.
  9. Nadanyiova, M. Neuromarketing—An opportunity or a threat? Commun. Sci. Lett. Univ. Zilina 2017, 19, 90–94.
  10. Kliestikova, J.; Durana, P.; Kovacova, M. Naked Consumer’s Mind Under Branded Dress: Case Study of Slovak Republic. Cent. Eur. Bus. Rev. 2019, 8, 15–32.
  11. Berne-Manero, C.; Marzo-Navarro, M. Exploring How Influencer and Relationship Marketing Serve Corporate Sustainability. J. Sustain. 2020, 12, 1–19.
  12. Naskar, D.; Sanasam, S.R.; Kumar, D.; Nandi, S. Emotion Dynamics of Public Opinions on Twitter. ACM Trans. Inf. Syst. 2020, 38, 1–24.
  13. Zollo, L.; Filieri, R.; Rialti, R.; Yoon, S. Unpacking the relationship between social media marketing and brand equity: The mediating role of consumers’ benetits and experience. J. Bus. Res. 2020, 117, 256–267.
  14. Grațiela, S. Self-Portraits in Social Media: Investigations Means of Communicating Emotion through Visual Content-Sharing Applications. Linguist. Philos. 2019, 18, 133–139.
  15. Klein, B. Commercial Art: Advertising as an Artistic Vehicle for Music Placement. In As Heard on TV: Popular Music in Advertising; Ashgate Publishing: Burlington, VT, USA , 2013; Volume 5, pp. 41–59.
  16. Holbrook, B.M.; O’Shaughnessy, J. The role of emotion in advertising. Psychol. Mark. 1984, 1, 45–64.
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