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Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis
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Rodents (Rodentia), due to their number and species diversity, are important elements of natural ecosystems. Some species of rodents are widely distributed. Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766) (Rodentia, Gliridae) is one such species. An overview of the parasites, bacteria and viruses of G. glis inhabiting the Western Palearctic is given.

ectoparasites Glis glis helminths overview protozoans viruses Western Palaearctic
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Subjects: Parasitology; Zoology
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Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Time: 08 Aug 2022
Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    Rodents (Rodentia), due to their number and species diversity, are important elements of natural ecosystems. Some species of rodents are widely distributed [1][2][3][4][5][6][7]. The European edible dormouse, Glis glis (Linnaeus, 1766) is one such species and is widespread across western Eurasia. This rodent species is found in most European countries and regions of western Asia: through northern Turkey to the Caucasus, northern Iran and Turkmenistan [8][9][10][11]. Glis glis is the largest member of the family Gliridae, arboreal rodent with a nocturnal lifestyle. This rodent has the longest period of hibernation among the mammals of Europe, up to 9 months [12].
    It is known that small wild rodents play an important role in the life cycles of the helminths of carnivorous mammals and birds of prey in higher trophic levels. Small rodents are involved in maintaining natural foci of zoonoses—diseases dangerous to humans and animals [4][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21]. In this regard, the study of the parasite fauna of G. glis is of great scientific (biodiversity monitoring) and practical importance (study of the dormouse’s role in the spread and preservation of zoonoses).
    The literature on parasites, viruses and protozoans of G. glis currently contains about 180 references, covering an approximately 200-year period. The first attempts to bring together data about the viruses, parasites and protozoans of G. glis were undertaken in the reviews by Rossolimo [22] and Kryštufek [23][24], which contained data on 64 species of ecto- and endoparasites found in the dormouse. Unfortunately, these reviews did not include most papers not indexed in electronic databases, so they are still inaccessible to most researchers.

    2. Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis in the Western Palaearctic

    At the present stage of research, 104 species (with subspecies) of viruses, protozoans, ectoparasites and helminths were recorded in G. glis: 4 viruses, 8 Protozoa, 6 Cestoda, 6 Trematoda, 4 Nematoda, 1 Heteroptera, 2 Anoplura, 39 Siphonaptera and 34 Acari.

    2.1. Viruses of Glis glis

    The study of viruses in G. glis has a short history spanning only the last decades. Four viruses of three families were found in the edible dormouse (Table 1).
    Table 1. Viruses of Glis glis in Western Palaearctic.
    Note: E—Europe.
    Encephalocarditis virus (EMCV) is found in many species of wild and domestic animals in various regions of the world [30]. The host-specific Polyomavirus found in G. glis belongs to a group of DNA viruses that infect mammals, birds and fish [31][32]. Hantaan orthohantavirus (formerly known as Hantaan virus) is a negative-sense RNA virus species. The edible dormouse is a reservoir host for the Hantaan orthohantavirus (HTNV). Dobrava-Belgrade virus (also known as Dobrava virus), found in the edible dormouse, is common in the former Yugoslavia, Germany, Estonia, Slovakia, European Russia and other Eastern European countries [33]. All viruses have a European range (Table 1).

    2.2. Protozoa of Glis glis

    Eight protozoan species from the five families are known in the edible dormouse (Table 2).
    Table 2. Protozoa of Glis glis in Western Palaearctic.
    Note: E—Europe, C—Cosmopolitan, H—Holarctic.
    Among the protozoa found in G. glis, Borellia spp. (family Spirochaetaceae) are most represented (four species). They belong to the Borrelia burgdorferi (Johnson et al., 1984) sensu lato species complex. The natural reservoir hosts of Borrelia are wild animals (rodents, birds and deer). Borrelia afzelii and B. bavariensis are associated with rodents [43][36][44]. Borrelia garinii is better adapted to birds [45].
    The obligate intracellular bacteria Rickettsia typhi (Wolbach and Todd, 1920) is best known as the causative agent of an endemic human typhus that occurs worldwide [46]. This protozoan species can be transmitted to a mammalian host by the bite of an infected flea or louse [47].

    2.3. Helminths of Glis glis

    In total, 16 species of parasitic worms were recorded in G. glis: 6 Cestoda, 6 Trematoda and 4 Nematoda (Table 3). Most of the helminth species parasitise the edible dormouse at the mature stage (14 species). Only two species of helminths were noted at the larval stage: the trematode Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782) and the cestode Mesocestoides lineatus (Goeze, 1782), for which the dormice serve as paratenic hosts. The finding of a small number of larval stages of parasitic worms indicates an insignificant role of G. glis in the life cycles of helminths of vertebrates of high trophic levels.
    Table 3. Helminths of Glis glis in Western Palaearctic.

    Species

    Distribution

    Host Range

    Medical & Veterinary

    Significance

    Country

    References

    Family Dicrocoeliidae

    Dicrocoelium dendriticum (Rudolphi, 1819)

    C

    mammals (mainly ungulates)

    causative agent of dicroceliosis of livestock

    Belarus

    [48]

    Lyperosomum armenicum (Stcherbakova, 1942)

    E

    Glis glis

    Armenia

    [49]

    Belarus

    [48][50][51]

    Family Brachylaimidae

    Brachylaima recurva (Dujardin, 1845)

    P

    small rodents

    Russia

    [52]

    Family Plagiorchiidae

    Plagiorchis elegans (Rudolphi, 1802)

    H

    birds, small mammals, reptiles

    Belarus

    [48][50]

    Family Lecithodendriidae

    Lecithodendrium semen (Kirschenblatt, 1941)

    E

    Glis glis

    Belarus

    [48][50][53]

    Family Diplostomidae

    Alaria alata (Goeze, 1782), msc.

    C

    amphibians, reptiles, small mammals

    causative agent of alariasis of farmed fur animals

    Belarus

    [54]

    Family Hymenolepididae

    Armadolepis myoxi (sensu stricto) (Rudolphi, 1819) (syn.: Hymenolepis sulcata (von Linstow, 1879))

    E

    Glis glis

    Switzerland

    [55] reported as H. sulcata

    Slovakia

    [56][57][58][59][60] reported as H. sulcata

    Croatia

    [61] reported as H. sulcata, [62]

    Hungary

    [63] reported as H. sulcata

    Spain

    [64][65] reported as H. sulcata

    Germany

    [66][67] reported as H. sulcata

    Armadolepis longisoma Makarikov, Stakheev and Tkach, 2018

    E

    Glis glis

    Russia

    [68] reported as Armadolepis sp. 1, [69][70]

    Armadolepis genovi Makarikov and Georgiev, 2020

    E

    Glis glis

    Bulgaria

    [71] reported as H. myoxi, [72]

    Armadolepis sp.

    E

    Glis glis

    Russia

    [52] reported as H. myoxi

    Hymenolepididae sp.

    E

    Moldova

    [73][74] reported as Hymenolepis horrida (Linstow, 1901)

    Belarus

    [50] reported as H. horrida and Rodentolepis straminea (Goeze, 1782)

    Azerbaijan

    [75] reported as Hymenolepis diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819)

    Ukraine

    [76] reported as R. straminea

    Slovakia

    [59] reported as Rodentolepis sp.

    Family Mesocestoididae

    Mesocestoides lineatus (Goeze, 1782), tetrathyridia

    P

    reptiles, small mammals

    cause mesocestidosis in humans, carnivores

    Italy

    [77]

    Family Capillariidae

    Pterothominx sadovskoi (Morozov, 1956) (syn.: Thominx sadovskoi Morozov, 1956; Armocapillaria sadovskoi (Morozov, 1956))

    P

    small rodents

    Belarus

    [48][50][51]

    Family Heligmonellidae

    Paraheligmonina gracilis (Leuckart, 1842) (syn.: Heligmosomum gracile (Leuckart, 1842); Longistriata schulzi Schachnasarova, 1949; Longistriata elpatievskii Schachnasarova, 1949)

    WP

    Glis glis

    Russia

    [52][68][70]

    Belarus

    [48][50][51][54]

    Germany

    [78][79]

    Bulgaria

    [71]

    Ukraine

    [76][80][81]

    Azerbaijan

    [75][82]

    Armenia

    [83][84]

    Croatia

    [61][62]

    Spain

    [64]

    Italy, France

    [79]

    Slovakia

    [56][57]

    Family Rictulariidae

    Rictularia cristata (Frölich, 1802)

    E

    small rodents

    Central Europe

    [85][86][87]

    Rictularia amurensis Schulz, 1927

    P

    small rodents

    Belarus

    [48][50]

    Note: E—Europe, C—Cosmopolitan, H—Holarctic, P—Palaearctic, WP—Western Palaearctic.

    2.4. Ectoparasites of Glis glis

    In total, 76 species of ectoparasites were found on G. glis, belonging to Anoplura (2 species), Heteroptera (1), Siphonaptera (39) and Acari (34) (Table 4). Only eight species of ectoparasites are host-specific parasites of the edible dormouse: the lice Schizophthirus gliris (Blagoveshtchensky, 1965) and Schizophthirus pleurophaeus (Burmeister, 1839); the fleas Myoxopsylla jordani (Ioff and Argyropoulo, 1934) and Myoxopsylla laverani (Rothschild, 1911); and the mites Hirstionyssus gliricolus (Masan and Ambros, 2010), Hirstionyssus paulisimilis (Masan and Fenda, 2010), Gliricoptes glirinus (Canestrini, 1895) and Radfordia gliricola (Vesmanis and Lukoschus, 1978). Three species of ectopatasites are common parasites of arboreal rodents (squirrels and dormice): the fleas Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank, 1803) and Leptopsylla sciurobia (Wagner, 1934) and the mite Hirstionyssus sciurinus (Hirst, 1921). The other 65 species of ectoparasites are accidental and facultative dormouse parasites, which parasitise many species of mammals and birds.
    Table 4. Ectoparasites of Glis glis in the Western Palaearctic.

    Species

    Distribution

    Host Range

    Medical & Veterinary

    Significance

    Country

    References

    Family Hoplopleuridae

    Schizophthirus gliris Blagoveshtchensky, 1965

    E

    Glis glis

    Poland, Bulgaria, North Makedonia

    [88][89]

    Schizophthirus pleurophaeus (Burmeister 1839)

    WP

    dormice

    West Europe, Belarus

    [88][89]

    Hungary

    [90]

    Family Cimicidae

    Oeciacus hirundinis (Lamarck, 1816)

    P

    birds (mainly swallows)

    Slovenia

    [91]

    Slovakia

    [92]

    Family Pulicidae

    Pulex irritans Linnaeus, 1758

    C

    mammals (including humans), birds

    vector of plague bacteria Yersinia pestis;

    intermediate host of the cucumber tapeworm Dipylidium caninum (Linnaeus, 1758), which cause helminthiasis in dogs and cats

    Slovenia

    [93][94]

    Family Ceratophyllidae

    Amalareus penicilliger (Grube, 1851)

    P

    forest rodents

    Ukraine

    [95]

    Leptopsylla taschenbergi (Wagner, 1898)

    P

    forest rodents, insectivores

    Armenia

    [96]

    Russia

    [97]

    Leptopsylla segnis (Schönherr, 1811)

    C

    house mice, rats

    vector of plague and tularemia

    Croatia

    [93][94]

    Leptopsylla sciurobia (Wagner, 1934)

    P

    squirrels, dormice, Apodemus mice

    Serbia

    [93][94]

    Peromyscopsylla bidentata (Kolenati, 1863)

    P

    forest rodents

    Ukraine

    [95][98]

    Ceratophyllus sciurorum (Schrank, 1803)

    P

    squirrels, dormice

    vector of tularemia

    Russia

    [13][15][52][97][99][100][101][102][103]

    Italy

    [77][104][105]

    Germany

    [78][106][107]

    Lithuania

    [108]

    Serbia, Croatia,

    Montenegro,

    Slovenia, North

    Macedonia

    [39][93][94]

    Bosnia and

    Herzegovina

    [39][93][94][109]

    Ukraine

    [95][110]

    Armenia

    [96][111]

    Belarus

    [112]

    Moldova

    [73][74]

    Hungary

    [113]

    Poland

    [114]

    Bulgaria

    [115]

    Ceratophyllus sciurorum sciurorum (Schrank, 1803)

    P

    squirrels, dormice

    Slovenia

    [39]

    Germany

    [116]

    Ceratophyllus rusticus Wagner, 1903

    E

    birds

    Slovenia

    [93][94]

    Ceratophyllus carniolicus Brelih and Trilar, 2001

    E

    Glis glis

    Slovenia

    [117]

    Ceratophyllus hirundinis (Curtis, 1826)

    P

    birds

    Slovenia

    [93][94]

    Ceratophyllus gallinae (Schrank, 1803)

    C

    birds

    Slovenia

    [94]

    Germany

    [116]

    Lithuania

    [108]

    Ceratophyllus borealis Rothschild, 1907

    P, G

    birds

    Russia

    [52]

    Ceratophyllus (Monopsyllus) sp.

    E

    Slovenia

    [94]

    Dasypsyllus gallinulae gallinulae (Dale, 1878)

    C

    birds

    Slovenia

    [94]

    Megabothris turbidus (Rothschild, 1909)

    P

    forest rodents

    vector of viral hemorrhagic fever and tularemia

    Ukraine

    [95][98][110]

    Germany

    [116]

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Lithuania

    [108]

    Megabothris walkeri (Rothschild, 1902)

    P

    forest rodents

    vector of tularemia

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Myoxopsylla jordani Ioff and Argyropoulo, 1934

    E, I

    dormice

    Armenia

    [111]

    Russia

    [52][99][102][103]

    Georgia

    [118]

    Myoxopsylla laverani (Rothschild, 1911)

    WP

    dormice

    Germany

    [106][107][116]

    France

    [119]

    Nosopsyllus consimilis (Wagner, 1898)

    P

    forest rodents

    vector of plague and tularemia

    Armenia

    [96]

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Nosopsyllus fasciatus (Bosc d’Antic, 1800)

    C

    house mice, rats

    vector of the rat tapeworm H. diminuta

    Serbia

    [109]

    Orchopeas howardi (Baker, 1895) (syn.: Orchopeas wickhami (Baker, 1895))

    N

    Sciurus carolinensis Gmelin, 1788

    UK

    [120]

    Family Ctenophthalmidae

    Ctenophthalmus wagneri Tiflov, 1927

    P

    voles

    vector of tularemia

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Ctenophthalmus monticola (Kohaut, 1904)

    E

    insectivores

    Serbia

    [93][94]

    Ctenophthalmus agyrtes (Heller, 1896)

    E

    Apodemus mice

    vector of tularemia

    Ukraine

    [95][98]

    Germany

    [116]

    Ctenophthalmus agyrtes ohridanus Wagner, 1939

    E

    small mammals

    Croatia

    [93][94]

    Ctenophthalmus agyrtes wagnerianus Peus, 1950

    E

    small mammals

    Slovenia

    [93][94]

    Ctenophthalmus proximus (Wagner, 1903)

    E

    small mammals

    Russia

    [97]

    Ctenophthalmus assimilis (Taschenberg, 1880)

    P

    voles

    Ukraine

    [95]

    Ctenophthalmus congener Rothschild, 1907

    WP

    small mammals

    Slovenia

    [93][94]

    Ctenophthalmus nifetodes Wagner, 1933

    E

    Dinaromys bogdanovi (V. and E. Martino, 1922)

    Bosnia &

    Herzegovina,

    Montenegro

    [93][94][121]

    Ctenophthalmus nifetodes brelihi Rosicky and Carnelutti, 1959

    E

    Dinaromys bogdanovi

    Slovenia

    [93][94][121][122]

    Ctenophthalmus nifetodes tvrtkovici Brelih, 1986

    E

    Dinaromys bogdanovi

    Croatia

    [93][94][121]

    Palaeopsylla soricis (Dale, 1878)

    P

    insectivores

    vector and reservoir of tularemia

    Germany

    Russia

    [116]

    [13][101]

    Doratopsylla dasycnema dasycnema (Rothschild, 1897)

    P

    insectivores

    former Yugoslavia

    [123]

    Germany

    [116]

    Family Hystrichopsyllidae

    Hystrichopsylla talpae (Curtis 1826)

    P

    Talpa europaea

    vector and reservoir of tick-borne encephalitis

    Lithuania

    [108]

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Hystrichopsylla orientalis Smit, 1956

    E

    small rodents, insectivores

    Lithuania

    [124]

    Hystrichopsylla orientalis orientalis Smit, 1956

    E

    small rodents, insectivores

    Bosnia &

    Herzegovina

    [93][94]

    Family Ischnopsyllidae

    Ischnopsyllus intermedius (Rothschild, 1898)

    E

    bats

    Germany

    [116]

    Family Laelapidae

    Androlaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887) (syn.: Haemolaelaps casalis (Berlese, 1887)

    C

    birds

    cause human dermatitis

    Moldova

    [73][74]

    Ukraine

    [98]

    Belarus

    [125]

    Laelaps agilis C.L. Koch, 1836

    P

    forest mice, insectivores, carnivores

    vector of plague, tularemia, hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS), tick-borne encephalitis, leptospirosis, brucellosis

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Eulaelaps stabularis (C.L. Koch, 1836)

    C

    small mammals, birds

    vector of tularemia, Q fever, tick-borne encephalitis, brucellosis, leptospirosis

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Myonyssus gigas (Oudemans, 1912)

    P

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Haemogamasus horridus Michael, 1892

    WP

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Haemogamasus nidi Michael, 1892

    H

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    vector of tularemia

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Haemogamasus pontiger (Berlese, 1904)

    C

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Family Hirstionyssidae

    Hirstionyssus sciurinus (Hirst, 1921)

    P

    Sciurus vulgaris, Glis glis

    vector of tularemia, tick-borne encephalitis, brucellosis, leptospirosis

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Hirstionyssus gliricolus Masan and Ambros, 2010

    E

    Glis glis

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Hirstionyssus paulisimilis Masan and Fenda, 2010

    E

    Glis glis

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Hirstionyssus sunci Wang, 1962

    P

    small rodents, insectivores

    cause human dermatitis

    Slovakia

    [126]

    Family Glycyphagidae

    Labidophorus talpae Kramer, 1877

    E

    moles

    Europe

    [127]

    Family Ixodidae

    Ixodes (Ixodes) ricinus (Linnaeus, 1758)

    P

    mammals, birds

    vector of louping-ill virus of sheep, Lyme disease, ehrlichiosis (tick-borne fever) of cattle; transmits Babesia spp., which causes Redwater fever in cattle and sheep

    Russia

    [52]

    Moldova

    [73]

    Ukraine

    [98][110]

    Germany

    [35][37][128][129]

    Belarus

    [125]

    Ixodes (Ixodes) acuminatus Neumann, 1901 (syn. I. redikorzevi Olenev, 1927)

    P

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    vector of LD, tularemia, Q fever

    Europe

    [130]

    Ixodes (Ixodes) laguri Olenev, 1929 (syn.: I. laguri colchicus Pomerantzev, 1948)

    P

    small rodents, hedgehogs, small carnivores

    vector of plague and tularemia

    Russia

    [52][131][132]

    Ixodes (Exopalpiger) trianguliceps Birula, 1895

    P

    rodents, insectivores, carnivores

    vector of LD

    Ukraine

    [98][110]

    Germany

    [129]

    Family Amblyommidae

    Dermacentor marginatus (Sulzer, 1776)

    P

    mammals, insectivores, small carnivores

    vector of tick-borne Russian spring–summer encephalitis (TBRSSE), North Asian tick typhus

    Croatia

    [133]

    Family Bdellidae

    Bdella muscorum Ewing, 1909

    H

    small mammals

    Bulgaria

    [134]

    Cyta latirostris (Hermann, 1804)

    C

    small mammals

    Bulgaria

    [134]

    Cyta coerulipes (Duges, 1834)

    C

    small mammals

    Bulgaria

    [134]

    Family Myocoptidae

    Gliricoptes glirinus (Canestrini, 1895) (syn.: Myocoptes glirinus Can. 1895)

    WP

    Glis glis

    Germany

    [107][135]

    Italy

    [136][137]

    France

    [136][137]

    Belgium

    [138]

    Armenia

    [137][139]

    Russia

    [140]

    UK

    [135]

    Family Myobiidae

    Radfordia (Graphiurobia) gliricola Vesmanis and Lukoschus, 1978

    WP

    Glis glis

    Germany

    [141]

    Russia

    [142]

    Family Trombiculidae

    Ascoschoengastia latyshevi (Schluger, 1955)

    P

    rodents, insectivores, birds

    Europe

    [143]

    Leptotrombidium europaeum (Daniel and Brelih, 1959) (syn.: Leptotrombidium intermedia europaea Daniel and Brelih, 1959

    P

    rodents, insectivores

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    former Czechoslovakia, former Yugoslavia, Bulgaria, Albania, Spain

    [144]

    Leptotrombidium sylvaticum Hushcha and Schluger, 1967

    P

    rodents, insectivores

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Ukraine

    [110][145]

    Miyatrombicula muris (Oudemans, 1910)

    E

    rodents, insectivores

    Central and South Europe, Russia

    [143]

    Neotrombicula vernalis (Willmann, 1942)

    WP

    rodents, insectivores

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Austria

    [144]

    Neotrombicula austriaca Kepka, 1964

    E

    rodents, insectivores

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Bulgaria, Moldova

    [143]

    Neotrombicula inopinata (Oudemans, 1909) (syn.: N. germanica Willmann, 1952; N. autumnalis germanica (Willmann, 1952)

    WP

    rodents, insectivores, birds

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi, cause human trombiculiasis

    Germany

    [107][143]

    Ukraine

    [143][145]

    Neotrombicula japonica (Tanaka, Kaiwa, Teramura & Kagaya, 1930) (syn.: Trombicula dubinini Schluger, 1955)

    P

    rodents, insectivores

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Ukraine

    [110][143]

    Neotrombicula nagayoi Sasa, Hayashi, Sato, Miura and Asahima, 1950

    P

    rodents

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Moldova

    [73][146]

    Neotrombicula vulgaris (Schluger, 1955)

    E

    rodents

    vector of rickettsiosis tsutsugamushi

    Ukraine

    [110]

    Hirsutiella zachvatkini (Schluger, 1948) (syn.: Trombicula zachvatkini Schluger, 1948; Neotrombicula zachvatkini)

    P

    rodents

    vector of diseases causes by Rickettsia spp.

    Moldova

    [73][74]

    Ukraine

    [110][143][145]

    Russia

    [13][101]

    Schoutedenichia sp.

    P

    Moldova

    [73]

    Note: E—Europe, C—Cosmopolitan, H—Holarctic, P—Palaearctic, WP—Western Palaearctic, G—Greenland, I—Iran, N—Nearctic.

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      Kirillov, A.A.; Kirillova, N.Y.; Ruchin, A.B. Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25927 (accessed on 01 December 2022).
      Kirillov AA, Kirillova NY, Ruchin AB. Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25927. Accessed December 01, 2022.
      Kirillov, Alexander A., Nadezhda Yu. Kirillova, Alexander B. Ruchin. "Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25927 (accessed December 01, 2022).
      Kirillov, A.A., Kirillova, N.Y., & Ruchin, A.B. (2022, August 07). Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/25927
      Kirillov, Alexander A., et al. ''Parasites, Bacteria and Viruses of Glis glis.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 07 August, 2022.
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