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Wijaya, T.; Zhou, Y.; , .; Weinhandl, R.; Lavicza, Z.; Yusop, F.D. Digital Mathematics Textbooks. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/24147 (accessed on 11 August 2024).

Wijaya T, Zhou Y, , Weinhandl R, Lavicza Z, Yusop FD. Digital Mathematics Textbooks. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/24147. Accessed August 11, 2024.

Wijaya, Tommy, Ying Zhou, , Robert Weinhandl, Zsolt Lavicza, Farrah Dina Yusop. "Digital Mathematics Textbooks" *Encyclopedia*, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/24147 (accessed August 11, 2024).

Wijaya, T., Zhou, Y., , ., Weinhandl, R., Lavicza, Z., & Yusop, F.D. (2022, June 17). Digital Mathematics Textbooks. In *Encyclopedia*. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/24147

Wijaya, Tommy, et al. "Digital Mathematics Textbooks." *Encyclopedia*. Web. 17 June, 2022.

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Digital mathematics textbooks differ from traditional printed textbooks in, among other things, their dynamic structural elements, representing a potential that traditional textbooks cannot fulfil. Notably, dynamic structural elements, i.e., multimodal representations of mathematics, could be of particular importance for learning, which is why the scientific interest in digital mathematics textbooks has increased and many digital textbooks have been developed.

UTAUT model
digital textbook
technology adoption
mathematics teacher
future education

The rapid development of technology in the 21st century has led to the change of textbooks from paper-based to digital forms ^{[1]}^{[2]}. The OECD ^{[3]} defines digital textbooks as digital versions of paper-based books accessible on electronic platforms and mobile devices. Based on data released by Amazon, sales of digital textbooks now exceed those of printed books ^{[4]}^{[5]}. The popularity of smartphones, tablet PCs, and other digital devices has changed the perception of digital textbooks as effective learning media ^{[5]}^{[6]}^{[7]}. Interactive digital textbooks have more features which are usable by teachers in the classroom or by students at home ^{[8]}^{[9]}. Both parties can use digital textbooks to preview lessons, and as such, learning activities can be student-centered ^{[10]}^{[11]}. Additionally, after class, students can also use digital textbooks to review lessons ^{[12]}. Finally, digital textbooks can also facilitate interactive and adaptive learning ^{[13]}.

Digital textbooks significantly affect education and provide new experiences for teachers and students ^{[14]}^{[15]}^{[16]}. Research associated with this topic became far more widespread in early 2010 ^{[17]}. Furthermore, many countries have initiated programs to analyze the effect of using digital textbooks on students’ abilities ^{[18]}^{[19]}^{[20]}^{[21]}.

The development of digital textbook creation software coupled with the increase in the quantity of related research indicates that the world of education is now focusing on the usage of such resources ^{[22]}^{[23]}. In 2019, the International Conference of Mathematics Textbooks in Germany focused on the development of digital textbooks ^{[1]}. The themes raised at the International Conference on Mathematics Textbook Research and Development (ICMT) included the development of digital textbooks, their influence on students’ abilities, as well as evaluations on the use of such media. In Indonesia, the use of digital mathematics textbooks has led to a large body of research on their importance in mathematics lessons ^{[24]}^{[25]}. The purpose of developing digital mathematics textbooks is mostly focused on improving mathematical literacy, high order thinking skills (HOTS), and alternative learning resources for the 21st century. Amalia et al. ^{[26]} and Kusumadewi et al. ^{[27]} developed digital mathematics textbooks to support mathematics learning during the coronavirus pandemic. However, information on the determinants that influence mathematics teachers in Indonesia to use digital mathematics textbooks is still limited. Adequate information regarding the determinants of BI and the usage of the digital mathematics textbooks by mathematics teachers would help decision-makers at the school and local government levels to increase intention of usage by teachers.

According to the summary by Rezat and Pepin ^{[28]}, the opportunities for multimodal representations of mathematics, interactive elements, and opportunities for communication and collaboration are central elements of digital curricula resources. Although interactive elements and opportunities for communication and collaboration may be central elements of digital textbooks in general, opportunities for multimodal representations are specific to mathematics content. Following Klein and Kirkpatrick ^{[29]}, multimodal representations of mathematics mean that problems or issues are represented as text, mathematical equations, and graphs. As such, multimodal representations in digital mathematics textbooks could provide opportunities which are beyond the abilities of printed textbooks.

Bringing technology into the classroom has a positive impact on the quality of education ^{[30]}^{[31]}^{[32]}^{[33]}. Most teachers and students agree with the benefits of using digital mathematics textbooks ^{[26]}^{[34]}. The goal of developing such textbooks is to simplify and enhance the overall learning experience, making mathematics teaching and learning activities more interesting and efficient ^{[5]}^{[8]}.

In future education with digital resources, students will not be passive, i.e., merely listening to the teacher explain material, but rather, can actively participate in teaching and learning activities ^{[35]}. This student-centered learning process has been proven to positively affect students’ perspectives on mathematics lessons ^{[36]}. With a digital textbook, one device contains the syllabus for a semester or a year. Of course, digital textbooks can be used at all levels of education, from kindergartens to universities ^{[37]}.

Effective teaching and learning activities must ensure that students are active in the teaching and learning process ^{[35]}^{[38]}^{[39]}. Digital mathematics textbooks will bring about educational reforms which can help students learn more effectively ^{[8]}^{[40]}. Below are some of the benefits of digital textbooks in future education.

Digital textbooks are easy to carry compared to bags full of text books ^{[41]}. Most students currently have their own mobile devices, be it smart phones, tablets or laptops; commonly, they are more proficient in using this technology than their parents ^{[42]}. With the portability of digital textbooks, students can take notes and open digital textbooks anywhere they want.

Digital mathematics textbooks are not just plain reading materials; rather, they are equipped with many features that can help students to write notes and highlight important information ^{[43]}^{[44]}. Such textbooks are equipped with annotations, pen tools, page zoom, search options, read aloud and many other features ^{[45]}. As such, they can be widely used to help students with special needs. Search tools are one of my favorite features because they can be used to quickly locate specific information. Bookmarks and chapters are also available, and are very helpful ^{[46]}^{[47]}. Online dictionaries can help students to find the meaning of new terms. In addition, students can change the font size and style and adjust the brightness of the device screen. In the end, a digital textbook is an all-in-one learning resource that can provide students with a whole new learning experience. According to Weinhandl et al. ^{[48]}, it is precisely such a single-source learning environment that could facilitate the learning of mathematics.

Methods for the modification of course content in digital textbooks are currently still being developed. In future, music, animation, video, micro-lectures and audio explanations will likely be included in learning modules ^{[16]}^{[22]}. Micro-lecture videos have been proven to improve students’ mathematical abilities and make learning more interesting ^{[49]}^{[50]}. Students can pause and rewind the video lecture when they do not understand something. Watching micro-lecture videos when learning new knowledge aids in terms of information retention, and may be better than students just reading and listening to a teacher’s explanation ^{[51]}. Many publishers are now focusing on inserting videos into digital textbooks to make students engage more in course material. Furthermore, animations can be fun and entertaining, and may further increase retention. In the end, video micro-lectures and animations add entertainment value which is informative. This can improve students’ abilities to learn new knowledge and recollect information.

Augmented reality and virtual reality are transforming the learning space at an incremental pace ^{[52]}^{[53]}^{[54]}. Bringing augmented reality and virtual reality experiences to digital mathematics textbooks provides students with an immersive learning experience ^{[17]}. Such technology can transform normal images into 3D images, whereby students can see shapes from all angles ^{[5]}^{[55]}. A 3D view can provide students with a compelling learning experience, e.g., in geometry lessons ^{[56]}. Sometimes teachers find it difficult to use dynamic mathematics software to explain geometric shapes ^{[57]}.

In the current era of education and in the future, technological developments will make paper-based materials obsolete ^{[58]}. This will have a positive impact on the environment, as millions of trees are cut down every year to produce books. In addition, the carbon footprint will be reduced. Additionally, not having to buy printed books every semester and every year will allow students to save money ^{[3]}^{[59]}.

Digital mathematics textbooks include self-assessments for students to test their knowledge ^{[5]}^{[60]}. As such, teachers will no longer need to do quizzes on each chapter. In addition, assessments in digital mathematics textbooks can provide instant results, so that after taking the test, students will immediately know the result ^{[47]}^{[61]}. According to Weinhandl et al. ^{[62]}, the instant feedback provided by digital approaches could be particularly helpful for students. Additionally, teachers can also view and analyze test results and provide immediate feedback.

In the end, digital mathematics textbooks can optimize teaching and learning activities and make learning activities more fun and engaging. Students do not need to sit quietly listening to teachers’ explanations for hours. Digital mathematics textbooks can make students proactive in terms of interacting with course material. These advantages have the potential to increase the academic performance of students.

A hypothesis was developed based on a strong foundation derived from contemporary research. The UTAUT model was used to achieve certain objectives based on empirical tests involving a sample of mathematics teachers in West Java Province, Indonesia. This research analyzes the teacher intentions and the actual use of digital textbooks in mathematics lessons at the Junior High School level.

Several researchers have used the technology acceptance (TAM) ^{[38]}^{[63]}^{[64]}, the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) models ^{[63]}^{[65]}^{[66]}. TAM was developed in 1989, while UTAUT was introduced in 2003 by Venkatesh et al. ^{[67]}. The TAM model is used to measure a user’s attitude toward technology. This model consists of four factors, namely: performance expectancy (PE), effort expectancy (EE), social influence (SI), and facilitating conditions (FC). It has been used by many researchers to measure user acceptance of technology in the field of education, with the main respondents being teachers. Conversely, UTAUT was designed based on eight theories, namely: the theory of reasoned action (TRA), TAM, the motivation model (MM), the theory of planned behavior (TPB), combined TAM and TPB (C-TAM-TPB), the model of PC utilization (MPCU), innovation diffusion theory (IDT), and social cognitive theory (SCT). The combination of these theories allows UTAUT to explain up to 70% of the variance in user intentions regarding technology, while TAM can only explain up to 40% ^{[67]}. Based on a review conducted from 2010 to 2020, the UTAUT model is becoming more popular and widely used to analyze technology acceptance and adoption. The research adopted the UTAUT model to measure teacher behavioral intentions (BI) and the actual use of digital textbooks for teaching mathematics.

The UTAUT model is used to analyze behavioral intention (BI) and use behavior (UB) among teachers regarding digital textbooks. The predictors studied as determinants of BI are PE, SI, EE, and FC. BI and FC are then studied as determinants of UB. Previous preliminary research used only a subset of the UTAUT model, and moderators were frequently dropped because there were no differences in the adoption and use of technology ^{[68]}^{[69]}. According to Moore and Benbasat ^{[70]}, there was no effect on user intention regarding the use of technology in terms of education, moderators’ gender, age, and experience, indicating that no further exploration of these parameters was needed. **Figure 1** shows a research model that explains teachers’ intention and technology usage regarding digital textbooks in mathematics lessons.

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