Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below: https://encyclopedia.pub/user/video_add?id=23002
Check Note
2000/2000
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1318 2022-05-17 10:41:59 |
2 layout + 786 word(s) 2104 2022-05-17 10:48:41 | |
3 revised -94 word(s) 2010 2022-05-17 10:49:27 | |
4 layout Meta information modification 2010 2022-05-17 10:49:54 | |
5 grammar Meta information modification 2010 2022-05-17 12:09:54 | |
6 layout Meta information modification 2010 2022-05-19 08:14:56 |
Religion and Health in Macau
Edit
Upload a video

Macau, a Portuguese colony until 1999, remains a diversified culture because of its intermixed historical background from the East and the West. Through structural equation modelling, the analysis of data collected from a representative sample of Macau residents, using a multistage stratified sampling procedure, indicated a positive link between religiosity and health. Moreover, altruism and prejudice mediated a portion of the relationship between religiosity and health. Additionally, Macau residents who were more religious had a higher level of altruism and a lower level of prejudice. The link between religion and prejudice in Macau differs from that of many other cultures, indicating that the effect of religion on prejudice varies by cultural context.

religion altruism prejudice life satisfaction health Macau
Information
View Times: 261
Revisions: 6 times (View History)
Update Date: 14 Sep 2022
Table of Contents

    1. Introduction

    The link between religion and health has received increasing attention in recent decades. Most of the research has indicated that religious commitment serves as a protective factor for one’s overall health. Religion is an important component of many people’s lives, and it is represented by individuals’ beliefs and practices that make them feel connected to God or Sacred figures [1]. By health, people mean “a state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing” that is defined by the World Health Organization [2]. Some studies have discovered a positive relationship between religiosity and body functioning [3][4], self-rated health [5][6][7], life satisfaction [8][9], hope [10][11], optimism [12][13], and positive traits [14][15][16][17]. Religion has also been found to be negatively related to depression [18][19][20], anxiety [21][22], suicide [23][24], and substance abuse [25][26]. Furthermore, religious involvement is considered to provide “a favorable impact on a host of physical diseases and the response of those diseases to treatment” [27] (p. 9). This statement is supported by a host of studies showing that religion is negatively related to the presence of coronary heart disease [28][29], hypertension [30][31], cerebrovascular disease [32], Alzheimer’s disease or dementia [33][34], and cancer [35][36]. For instance, research that correlated religion with cancer treatments indicates that the provision of religious support to cancer patients can improve their recovery and reduce their malign symptoms [35]. The importance of religion to health is acknowledged in the suggestive adoption of religious practices in health care systems [37][38], and many countries have emphasized the integration of religious and spiritual aspects into nursing and health treatments.
    In fact, much of the prior research about the relationship between religion and health is undertaken in the continents of the world that contain the greatest proportion of religious believers. The understanding of religiosity and health is largely based on the evidence from western cultures, where a large segment of the population holds strong religious identities and beliefs. For example, in the United States (U.S.), about 65% of Americans consider religion an important part of their life; over 90% of them believe there is God or a higher being; 83% of them pray to God each week, and 43% of them report having attended religious services almost every week [39][40]. Some studies about the relationship between religion and health in the U.S. show that infrequent religious attenders are more likely than frequent attenders to have impaired physical functioning, chronic health conditions, and fair or poor self-rated health [5][41]. Furthermore, people with consistent religious service attendance display greater health outcomes and lower mortality rates [40][42].
    Comparable research in Europe has also explored the positive correlation between attending religious activities and health [43]. These studies add to the findings above, which present that individuals who have more religious service participation will have lower odds of chronic disease attacks, fewer functional impairments, higher health ratings, fewer hospitalizations, and better coping with diseases than those with lower religious service attendance [44][45][46][47][48]. A few related studies indicate that the practice of religion by any individuals with or without illnesses is beneficial because it provides them with a greater sense of mission, broader mindset, greater self-care, healthier lifestyles, and more positive emotional support for coping with unexpected health problems [40][49][50][51].
    Conversely, in non-Western settings, like China, a limited number of studies have examined the relationship between religion and health. Examples of these studies are based on small or religiously homogenous samples, which undermines the generalizability of the findings. Macau, located in the south of the Pearl River Delta area, is a special administrative region (SAR) of China, and it is recognized by many as the “Las Vegas of the East” because it arguably holds the world’s largest commercial gambling operation [52][53]. Indeed, Macau is a secular society that relies on commercial gambling for its government revenue and personal income. For people living in Macau, personal wealth and material success are highly valued due to the casino culture of reward-seeking and auspiciousness from wins and losses.
    Alongside Macau’s casino culture, religiosity exists in the lives of many Macau residents, even though it is a predominantly secular society. Macau was a former Portuguese colony that embraced both Western and Eastern traditions. Besides the religions originating from the East, like Buddhism, Daoism, and Mazuism, Macau also contains many followers of religions originating from the West, such as Catholicism and Protestantism. However, research on the relationship between religion and health among Macau residents is very limited because there are few studies relevant to the current topic. One of them describes the relationship between religious beliefs and sleep disturbance [54], while the second examines the mediating effect of religious belief and religious school attendance on death anxieties among adolescents [55]. According to prior surveys, at least 30% of Macau residents identify themselves as religious, and over 35.7% of them report attending religious activities at least once a week [56]. Additionally, Macau has a relatively high life expectancy of 84 years old [57], and its secular nature, along with its religious diversity, makes it an explorable context for delving into the relationship between religion and health.

    2. The Relationship between Religion and Health in Macau

    Because of the confluence of Eastern and Western traditions, Macau has the most diverse population in China in terms of religious commitment and participation. Over 30 percent of the population aged 16 and above identified themselves as affiliated with at least one religion, with Buddhism, Catholicism, and Protestantism being the most frequently affiliated religions. While this percentage is high in the Greater China Region consisting of mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong, and Macau, it is considerably lower than many other regions in the world. For instance, about 75% of adults possess a religious faith in the U.S [58]. Compared to 36 percent in the United States and 72 percent in Indonesia for religious participation [59], roughly 11 percent of the respondents in the survey reported attending religious activities at least once a week. Therefore, Macau is a predominantly secular society with great cultural and religious diversity, making it a unique place to study the potential influences of religion on health.
    Prior research has documented interrelationships among religiosity, life satisfaction, and health, but there is more to be learned about the mechanisms underlying these relationships. Thus, to provide a better understanding of the ways in which religion might influence health, researchers proposed a theoretical model incorporating both direct and indirect effects of religiosity on health through altruism and prejudice. The findings obtained from the analysis of the data collected in the Macau Social Survey largely supported the hypotheses. The research results showed that religiosity was positively related to altruism and negatively related to prejudice among the residents in Macau. Moreover, those who had stronger altruistic attitudes and less prejudice also reported higher levels of satisfaction with life and overall health. Hence, altruism and prejudice operated as important mechanisms linking religiosity to health. While altruism and prejudice mediated much of the relationship between religiosity and satisfaction with life, they showed a lesser contribution to the link between religiosity and health, suggesting that religiosity might promote health conditions through other forms that were not accounted for in this research. Overall, consistent with the theoretical expectations, religiosity could contribute to individual health in multiple ways.
    The mediating role of prejudice is noteworthy. In many predominantly religious societies, such as the Islamic societies in the Middle East and selected regions of the United States, religious followers tend to uphold more conservative values, including a higher level of prejudice against non-religious people, individuals who maintain unconventional moral beliefs, or groups who engage in different lifestyles involving drug use and homosexuality [60][61]. The opposite seems to be true in Macau. The  results demonstrated that Macau residents who were more religious had a lower level of prejudice. This finding is consistent with the prior research showing that the minority status of religious believers fosters the acceptance of socially disadvantaged groups in Macau [56]. As a minority living in a society dominated by consumerism from the gambling industry, they felt that their ways of life and their value systems were increasingly marginalized, which led to more sympathy and acceptance for other minority groups who might have also experienced social or cultural marginalization. Moreover, the attempt to bring into harmony religious beliefs and moral values to neutralize the experience of social marginalization indicates that most Macau residents tend to be intrinsically religious believers. It is perhaps because of these reasons that religion serves to curtail prejudice and thereby contribute to overall health among Macau residents. Thus, the link between religion and prejudice in varying contexts and its effect on health are worthy of further exploration.
    Much of the knowledge about the relationship between religion and health is based on studies conducted in the societies where a large portion of the population is affiliated with only a few dominant religions. It is unclear if the results obtained from these societies apply to other societies that are either predominantly secular or more religiously diverse. Macau fits both descriptions because nearly 70 percent of its population self-identify as non-religious, with the rest considering themselves as religiously affiliated with many different kinds of Eastern and Western religions. Despite the secular context and the religious diversity, religion still contributed significantly to health among the residents in Macau. These findings are in line with the results of several other studies showing that religion might have a salutary effect on health outcomes in secular cultures. For instance, a longitudinal study of a Danish cohort born in 1914 found a negative correlation between church attendance and mortality among these elders in the secular culture [62]. A correlational study conducted in Denmark indicated that women who reported lower religiosity had poorer self-rated health and higher illness severity [63], whereas men displayed an inverse relationship between religious practice and health. The discrepancy is due to the fact that Danish women were more religiously attached than men, indicating that intrinsically religious individuals were more likely to benefit from religious commitment in terms of health outcomes [64]. Other research conducted in secular cultures also demonstrated that individuals who participated in religious activities developed more positive meaning-making systems, healthier dietary patterns, and lesser involvement in risky health behaviors, which could all contribute to improved health conditions [65][66]. These overlaps between the research findings from Macau and those from other regions lend credence to the proposition that religion can promote individual health in cultures that are secular in nature.
    Despite the contributions that it has made to the understanding of the relationship between religion and health, the results of the current research should be taken with caution. First, the research design was cross-sectional. Therefore, the relationships identified in the analysis are correlational in nature and should be interpreted as such. Second, the measures of overall health used in this research were based on the respondents’ perceptions through self-reported data. Although self-reporting represents a reasonable way to measure health, given the focus on overall health as a state of physical, mental, and social well-being [2], it may be biased by respondents’ interpretation of their own health status, especially when it needs to be compared with others. Third, confirmation bias could have played a role in influencing the respondents’ responses to the survey questions on prejudice and altruism, as some of them might have interpreted the questions in a way that partially reflected their existing beliefs or expectations [67]. Future research should employ a longitudinal design with an improved ability to draw a causal inference based on empirical findings to address these limitations. Furthermore, they should consider incorporating reports of multi-informants such as doctors, friends, and family members to improve the reliability of the health measures.

    References

    1. Godlove, T.F. Kant and the Meaning of Religion: The Critical Philosophy and Modern Religious Thought; Bloomsbury Publishing: London, UK, 2014.
    2. Callahan, D. The WHO definition of ‘health’. Hastings Cent. Stud. 1973, 1, 77–87.
    3. Park, N.S.; Klemmack, D.L.; Roff, L.L.; Parker, M.W.; Koenig, H.G.; Sawyer, P.; Allman, R.M. Religiousness and longitudinal trajectories in elders’ functional status. Res. Aging 2008, 30, 279–298.
    4. Berges, I.-M.; Kuo, Y.-F.; Markides, K.S.; Ottenbacher, K. Attendance at religious services and physical functioning after stroke among older Mexican Americans. Exp. Aging Res. 2007, 33, 1–11.
    5. Koenig, H.G.; George, L.K.; Titus, P. Religion, spirituality, and health in medically ill hospitalized older patients. J. Am. Geriatr. Soc. 2004, 52, 554–562.
    6. Reyes-Ortiz, C.A.; Pelaez, M.; Koenig, H.G.; Mulligan, T. Religiosity and self-rated health among Latin American and Caribbean elders. Int. J. Psychiatry Med. 2007, 37, 425–443.
    7. McCullough, M.E.; Laurenceau, J.-P. Religiousness and the trajectory of self-rated health across adulthood. Personal. Soc. Psychol. Bull. 2005, 31, 560–573.
    8. Levin, J.S.; Chatters, L.M.; Taylor, R.J. Religious effects on health status and life satisfaction among Black Americans. J. Gerontol. Ser. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 1995, 50, S154–S163.
    9. Greene, K.V.; Yoon, B.J. Religiosity, economics and life satisfaction. Rev. Soc. Econ. 2004, 62, 245–261.
    10. Sethi, S.; Seligman, M.E. The hope of fundamentalists. Psychol. Sci. 1994, 5, 58.
    11. Murphy, P.E.; Ciarrocchi, J.W.; Piedmont, R.L.; Cheston, S.; Peyrot, M.; Fitchett, G. The relation of religious belief and practices, depression, and hopelessness in persons with clinical depression. J. Consult. Clin. Psychol. 2000, 68, 1102.
    12. Ai, A.L.; Peterson, C.; Bolling, S.F.; Koenig, H. Private prayer and optimism in middle-aged and older patients awaiting cardiac surgery. Gerontologist 2002, 42, 70–81.
    13. Krause, N. Religious doubt and psychological well-being: A longitudinal investigation. Rev. Relig. Res. 2006, 47, 287–302.
    14. Okun, M.A. Predictors of volunteer status in a retirement community. Int. J. Aging Hum. Dev. 1993, 36, 57–74.
    15. Harris, A.H.; Thoresen, C.E. Volunteering is associated with delayed mortality in older people: Analysis of the longitudinal study of aging. J. Health Psychol. 2005, 10, 739–752.
    16. Saroglou, V.; Pichon, I.; Trompette, L.; Verschueren, M.; Dernelle, R. Prosocial behavior and religion: New evidence based on projective measures and peer ratings. J. Sci. Study Relig. 2005, 44, 323–348.
    17. Ecklund, E.H.; Park, J.Z. Religious diversity and community volunteerism among Asian Americans. J. Sci. Study Relig. 2007, 46, 233–244.
    18. Koenig, H.G.; George, L.K.; Peterson, B.L. Religiosity and remission of depression in medically ill older patients. Am. J. Psychiatry 1998, 155, 536–542.
    19. Koenig, H.G. Religion and remission of depression in medical inpatients with heart failure/pulmonary disease. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2007, 195, 389–395.
    20. Krause, N. Religious involvement, gratitude, and change in depressive symptoms over time. Int. J. Psychol. Relig. 2009, 19, 155–172.
    21. Harold, G.; Linda, K.G. Religion and anxiety disorder: An examination and comparison of associations in young, middle-aged, and elderly adults. J. Anxiety H’mnierr 1993, 7, 321–342.
    22. Azhar, M.Z.; Varma, S.L.; Dharap, A.S. Religious psychotherapy in anxiety disorder patients. Acta Psychiatr. Scand. 1994, 90, 1–3.
    23. Nisbet, P.A.; Duberstein, P.R.; Conwell, Y.; Seidlitz, L. The effect of participation in religious activities on suicide versus natural death in adults 50 and older. J. Nerv. Ment. Dis. 2000, 188, 543–546.
    24. Rasic, D.T.; Belik, S.-L.; Elias, B.; Katz, L.Y.; Enns, M.; Sareen, J.; Team, S.C.S.P. Spirituality, religion and suicidal behavior in a nationally representative sample. J. Affect. Disord. 2009, 114, 32–40.
    25. Steinman, K.J.; Ferketich, A.K.; Sahr, T. The dose-response relationship of adolescent religious activity and substance use: Variation across demographic groups. Health Educ. Behav. 2008, 35, 22–43.
    26. Harrell, Z.A.; Broman, C.L. Racial/ethnic differences in correlates of prescription drug misuse among young adults. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2009, 104, 268–271.
    27. Koenig, H.G. Religion, spirituality, and health: The research and clinical implications. Int. Sch. Res. Not. 2012, 2012, 278730.
    28. Hemmati, R.; Bidel, Z.; Nazarzadeh, M.; Valadi, M.; Berenji, S.; Erami, E.; Al Zaben, F.; Koenig, H.G.; Sanjari Moghaddam, A.; Teymoori, F. Religion, spirituality and risk of coronary heart disease: A matched case–control study and meta-analysis. J. Relig. Health 2019, 58, 1203–1216.
    29. Horne, B.D.; May, H.T.; Anderson, J.L.; Kfoury, A.G.; Bailey, B.M.; McClure, B.S.; Renlund, D.G.; Lappé, D.L.; Carlquist, J.F.; Fisher, P.W. Usefulness of routine periodic fasting to lower risk of coronary artery disease in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Am. J. Cardiol. 2008, 102, 814–819.
    30. Walsh, A. Religion and hypertension: Testing alternative explanations among immigrants. Behav. Med. 1998, 24, 122–130.
    31. Gillum, R.F.; Ingram, D.D. Frequency of attendance at religious services, hypertension, and blood pressure: The Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Psychosom. Med. 2006, 68, 382–385.
    32. Colantonio, A.; Kasl, S.V.; Ostfeld, A.M. Depressive symptoms and other psychosocial factors as predictors of stroke in the elderly. Am. J. Epidemiol. 1992, 136, 884–894.
    33. Van Ness, P.H.; Kasl, S.V. Religion and cognitive dysfunction in an elderly cohort. J. Gerontol. Ser. B Psychol. Sci. Soc. Sci. 2003, 58, S21–S29.
    34. Corsentino, E.A.; Collins, N.; Sachs-Ericsson, N.; Blazer, D.G. Religious attendance reduces cognitive decline among older women with high levels of depressive symptoms. J. Gerontol. Ser. A Biomed. Sci. Med. Sci. 2009, 64, 1283–1289.
    35. Jim, H.S.; Pustejovsky, J.E.; Park, C.L.; Danhauer, S.C.; Sherman, A.C.; Fitchett, G.; Merluzzi, T.V.; Munoz, A.R.; George, L.; Snyder, M.A. Religion, spirituality, and physical health in cancer patients: A meta-analysis. Cancer 2015, 121, 3760–3768.
    36. Reisi, S.; Ahmadi, S.M.; Sadeghi, K.; Reisi, S.; Ahmadi, S.M. The Effect of Religion and Spirituality on Anxiety and Depression in Cancer Patients: A Review Article. Medicine 2021, 6, 75–86.
    37. Gonçalves, J.P.d.B.; Lucchetti, G.; Menezes, P.R.; Vallada, H. Complementary religious and spiritual interventions in physical health and quality of life: A systematic review of randomized controlled clinical trials. PLoS ONE 2017, 12, e0186539.
    38. Blumenthal, J.A.; Babyak, M.A.; Ironson, G.; Thoresen, C.; Powell, L.; Czajkowski, S.; Burg, M.; Keefe, F.J.; Steffen, P.; Catellier, D. Spirituality, religion, and clinical outcomes in patients recovering from an acute myocardial infarction. Psychosom. Med. 2007, 69, 501–508.
    39. Li, S.; Stampfer, M.J.; Williams, D.R.; VanderWeele, T.J. Association of religious service attendance with mortality among women. JAMA Intern. Med. 2016, 176, 777–785.
    40. Williams, D.R.; Sternthal, M.J. Spirituality, Religion and Health: Evidence and Research Directions. 2007. Available online: https://www.mja.com.au/system/files/issues/186_10_210507/wil11060_fm.pdf (accessed on 10 February 2022).
    41. Koenig, H.G.; Larson, D.B.; Larson, S.S. Religion and coping with serious medical illness. Ann. Pharmacother. 2001, 35, 352–359.
    42. Koenig, H.G.; Hays, J.C.; Larson, D.B.; George, L.K.; Cohen, H.J.; McCullough, M.E.; Meador, K.G.; Blazer, D.G. Does religious attendance prolong survival? A six-year follow-up study of 3,968 older adults. J. Gerontol. Ser. A Biomed. Sci. Med. Sci. 1999, 54, M370–M376.
    43. VanderWeele, T.J. Religion and health in Europe: Cultures, countries, context. Eur. J. Epidemiol. 2017, 32, 857–861.
    44. Koenig, H.G. Religion, congestive heart failure, and chronic pulmonary disease. J. Relig. Health 2002, 41, 263–278.
    45. Powell, L.H.; Shahabi, L.; Thoresen, C.E. Religion and spirituality: Linkages to physical health. Am. Psychol. 2003, 58, 36.
    46. Cassibba, R.; Papagna, S.; Calabrese, M.T.; Costantino, E.; Paterno, A.; Granqvist, P. The role of attachment to God in secular and religious/spiritual ways of coping with a serious disease. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2014, 17, 252–261.
    47. Koenig, H.G.; George, L.K.; Titus, P.; Meador, K.G. Religion, spirituality, and acute care hospitalization and long-term care use by older patients. Arch. Intern. Med. 2004, 164, 1579–1585.
    48. Stavrova, O. Religion, self-rated health, and mortality: Whether religiosity delays death depends on the cultural context. Soc. Psychol. Personal. Sci. 2015, 6, 911–922.
    49. Guo, Q.; Liu, Z.; Tian, Q. Religiosity and prosocial behavior at national level. Psychol. Relig. Spiritual. 2020, 12, 55.
    50. Naghi, J.J.; Philip, K.J.; Phan, A.; Cleenewerck, L.; Schwarz, E.R. The effects of spirituality and religion on outcomes in patients with chronic heart failure. J. Relig. Health 2012, 51, 1124–1136.
    51. Hvidt, N.C.; Hvidtjørn, D.; Christensen, K.; Nielsen, J.B.; Søndergaard, J. Faith moves mountains—mountains move faith: Two opposite epidemiological forces in research on religion and health. J. Relig. Health 2017, 56, 294–304.
    52. Number of Casinos in Macao 2010–2020. Available online: https://www.statista.com/statistics/253763/number-of-casinos-in-macao/ (accessed on 27 January 2022).
    53. Loi, K.-I.; Kim, W.G. Macao’s casino industry: Reinventing Las Vegas in Asia. Cornell Hosp. Q. 2010, 51, 268–283.
    54. Wang, F.; Meng, L.-R.; Zhang, Q.E.; Li, L.; Nogueira, B.O.L.; Ng, C.H.; Ungvari, G.S.; Liu, L.; Zhao, W.; Jia, F.-J. Sleep disturbance and its relationship with quality of life in older Chinese adults living in nursing homes. Perspect. Psychiatr. Care 2019, 55, 527–532.
    55. Lok, G.K.I.; Ng, M.W.I.; Zhu, M.M.X.; Chao, S.K.K.; Li, S.X. Mediating effect of religious belief on death anxiety in Chinese adolescents: A cross-sectional study. Int. J. Sch. Health 2019, 6, 14–20.
    56. Li, S.D.; Cai, T.; Wang, H.; Kuo, S.-Y. Macau Social Survey; Wu-Nan Book Inc: Miaoli County, Taiwan, 2020; ISBN 978-986-522-001-3.
    57. Life Expectancy at Birth, Total (Years). Available online: https://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.DYN.LE00.IN (accessed on 3 February 2022).
    58. Jones, J.M. How Religious are Americans? Available online: https://news.gallup.com/poll/358364/religious-americans.aspx (accessed on 30 April 2022).
    59. Pew Research Center. The Age Gap in Religion Around the World. Available online: https://www.pewresearch.org/religion/2018/06/13/the-age-gap-in-religion-around-the-world/ (accessed on 30 April 2022).
    60. Charles, K. When Religion Becomes Evil: Five Warning Signs; Harper Collins, SFO: San Francisco, CA, USA, 2008.
    61. Morone, J.A. Hellfire Nation; Yale University Press: London, UK, 2008.
    62. La Cour, P.; Avlund, K.; Schultz-Larsen, K. Religion and survival in a secular region. A twenty year follow-up of 734 Danish adults born in 1914. Soc. Sci. Med. 2006, 62, 157–164.
    63. La Cour, P. Existential and religious issues when admitted to hospital in a secular society: Patterns of change. Ment. Health Relig. Cult. 2008, 11, 769–782.
    64. Hvidtjørn, D.; Hjelmborg, J.; Skytthe, A.; Christensen, K.; Hvidt, N.C. Religiousness and religious coping in a secular society: The gender perspective. J. Relig. Health 2014, 53, 1329–1341.
    65. Svensson, N.H.; Hvidt, N.C.; Nissen, S.P.; Storsveen, M.M.; Hvidt, E.A.; Søndergaard, J.; Thilsing, T. Religiosity and Health-Related Risk Behaviours in a Secular Culture—Is there a Correlation? J. Relig. Health 2020, 59, 2381–2396.
    66. Hvidt, N.C.; Assing Hvidt, E. Religiousness, spirituality and health in secular society: Need for spiritual care in health care? In Spirituality, Religiousness and Health; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2019; pp. 133–152.
    67. Nickerson, R.S. Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Rev. Gen. Psychol. 1998, 2, 175–220.
    More
    Information
    Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , ,
    View Times: 261
    Revisions: 6 times (View History)
    Update Date: 14 Sep 2022
    Table of Contents
      1000/1000

      Confirm

      Are you sure you want to delete?

      Video Upload Options

      Do you have a full video?
      Cite
      If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
      Chen, Y.; Lu, J.Q.; Zhang, S.; Li, S. Religion and Health in Macau. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23002 (accessed on 30 January 2023).
      Chen Y, Lu JQ, Zhang S, Li S. Religion and Health in Macau. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23002. Accessed January 30, 2023.
      Chen, Yiyi, Jia Qi Lu, Shiyang Zhang, Spencer Li. "Religion and Health in Macau," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23002 (accessed January 30, 2023).
      Chen, Y., Lu, J.Q., Zhang, S., & Li, S. (2022, May 17). Religion and Health in Macau. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/23002
      Chen, Yiyi, et al. ''Religion and Health in Macau.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 17 May, 2022.
      Top
      Feedback