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1 Chondrocyte sheet transplantation is a novel and promising approach to promote hyaline cartilage regeneration. + 412 word(s) 412 2020-01-06 03:28:24 |
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Toyoda, E.; Sato, M.; Takahashi, T.; Maehara, M.; Okada, E.; Wasai, S.; Iijima, H.; Nonaka, K.; Kawaguchi, Y.; Watanabe, M. Chondrocyte Sheets. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 11 December 2023).
Toyoda E, Sato M, Takahashi T, Maehara M, Okada E, Wasai S, et al. Chondrocyte Sheets. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 11, 2023.
Toyoda, Eriko, Masato Sato, Takumi Takahashi, Miki Maehara, Eri Okada, Shiho Wasai, Hiroshi Iijima, Ken Nonaka, Yuka Kawaguchi, Masahiko Watanabe. "Chondrocyte Sheets" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 11, 2023).
Toyoda, E., Sato, M., Takahashi, T., Maehara, M., Okada, E., Wasai, S., Iijima, H., Nonaka, K., Kawaguchi, Y., & Watanabe, M.(2020, January 11). Chondrocyte Sheets. In Encyclopedia.
Toyoda, Eriko, et al. "Chondrocyte Sheets." Encyclopedia. Web. 11 January, 2020.
Chondrocyte Sheets

Chondrocyte sheets can be created without using material such as animal-derived collagen by using temperature-responsive culture devices such as thermo-responsive polymer grafted culture dishes, where cells can adhere, proliferate, and form into a sheet.  Hyaline cartilage regeneration by autologous chondrocyte sheets has already been demonstrated in clinical research. Chondrocyte sheet transplantation is a novel and promising approach to treating patients who have cartilage defects associated with osteoarthritis.

regenerative medicine tissue engneering hyaline cartilage

1. Introduction

Chondrocyte sheets can be created without using material such as animal-derived collagen by using temperature-responsive culture devices such as thermo-responsive culture dishes[1][2], where cells can adhere, proliferate, and form into a sheet. The sheet can be harvested without enzymatic digestion by lowering the temperature. By using this technology, chondrocyte sheets can be collected and triple-layered and then transplanted onto cartilage lesions while retaining the extracellular matrix and adhesion molecules that are produced by the chondrocytes themselves[3]. Because chondrocyte sheets can adhere to the recipient site without sutures, the chondrocytes will remain at the site of implantation.

Chondrocyte sheet transplantation is a promising approach to treating articular cartilage lesions. Articular cartilage regeneration with hyaline cartilage, which is important for joint function, has been demonstrated using partial-thickness and osteochondral defect models of rats, rabbits, and pigs[3][4][5][6][7].

2. Treatment in Hyaline Cartilage Regeneration

Treatment with chondrocyte sheets using the patient’s own cells has been performed on 20- to 60-year-old patients who had knee joint cartilage damage caused by traumatic or OA degeneration. The articular cartilage was repaired to hyaline cartilage, and the treatment improved the clinical joint condition score[8]. These results suggest that cell sheet transplantation could become the definitive treatment for OA-associated articular cartilage lesions.

Based on years of experience with allograft transplantation, it is well known that cartilage tissue is immune tolerant. Allogeneic cartilage fragments are commercially available and have been widely transplanted in the United States[9]. It is therefore considered that the use of allogeneic chondrocyte sheets can be an applicable treatment. In considering the application of allogeneic chondrocyte sheets to the treatment of joint disease, the application of chondrocytes obtained from the surgical remains of juvenile polydactyly patients have been investigated. Polydactyly-derived chondrocytes have excellent proliferative capacities that allow them to establish a layered structure and to form sheets that have similar characteristics to autologous chondrocyte sheets, such as the expression of mesenchymal cell surface markers and the production of various cartilage anabolic factors[10]. Polydactyly derived chondrocyte sheets have demonstrated the effecacy for osteochondral defects in xenogeneic transplantation model involving immunosuppressant-treated rabbits[11].



  1. Teruo Okano; Noriko Yamada; Hideaki Sakai; Yasuhisa Sakurai; A novel recovery system for cultured cells using plasma-treated polystyrene dishes grafted with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide). Journal of Biomedical Materials Research 1993, 27, 1243-1251, 10.1002/jbm.820271005.
  2. Teruo Okano; Noriko Yamada; Minako Okuhara; Hideaki Sakai; Yasuhisa Sakurai; Mechanism of cell detachment from temperature-modulated, hydrophilic-hydrophobic polymer surfaces. Biomaterials 1995, 16, 297-303, 10.1016/0142-9612(95)93257-e.
  3. Nagatoshi Kaneshiro; Masato Sato; Miya Ishihara; Genya Mitani; Hideaki Sakai; Joji Mochida; Bioengineered chondrocyte sheets may be potentially useful for the treatment of partial thickness defects of articular cartilage. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 2006, 349, 723-731, 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.08.096.
  4. Goro Ebihara; Masato Sato; Masayuki Yamato; Genya Mitani; Toshiharu Kutsuna; Toshihiro Nagai; Satoshi Ito; Taku Ukai; Miyuki Kobayashi; Mami Kokubo; et al.Teruo OkanoJoji Mochida Cartilage repair in transplanted scaffold-free chondrocyte sheets using a minipig model. Biomaterials 2012, 33, 3846-3851, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.01.056.
  5. Satoshi Ito; Masato Sato; Masayuki Yamato; Genya Mitani; Toshiharu Kutsuna; Toshihiro Nagai; Taku Ukai; Miyuki Kobayashi; Mami Kokubo; Teruo Okano; et al.Joji Mochida Repair of articular cartilage defect with layered chondrocyte sheets and cultured synovial cells. Biomaterials 2012, 33, 5278-5286, 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2012.03.073.
  6. Yoshiki Tani; Masato Sato; Miki Maehara; Hiroshi Nagashima; Munetaka Yokoyama; Miyuki Yokoyama; Masayuki Yamato; Teruo Okano; Joji Mochida; The effects of using vitrified chondrocyte sheets on pain alleviation and articular cartilage repair. Journal of Tissue Engineering and Regenerative Medicine 2017, 11, 3437-3444, 10.1002/term.2257.
  7. Naoki Takatori; Masato Sato; Eriko Toyoda; Takumi Takahashi; Eri Okada; Miki Maehara; Masahiko Watanabe; Cartilage repair and inhibition of the progression of cartilage degeneration after transplantation of allogeneic chondrocyte sheets in a nontraumatic early arthritis model. Regenerative Therapy 2018, 9, 24-31, 10.1016/j.reth.2018.07.003.
  8. Masato Sato; Masayuki Yamato; Genya Mitani; Tomonori Takagaki; Kosuke Hamahashi; Yoshihiko Nakamura; Miya Ishihara; Ryo Matoba; Hiroyuki Kobayashi; Teruo Okano; et al.Joji MochidaMasahiko Watanabe Combined surgery and chondrocyte cell-sheet transplantation improves clinical and structural outcomes in knee osteoarthritis.. npj Regenerative Medicine 2019, 4, 4, 10.1038/s41536-019-0069-4.
  9. Adam B. Yanke; Annemarie K. Tilton; Nathan G. Wetters; David B. Merkow; Brian J. Cole; DeNovo NT Particulated Juvenile Cartilage Implant. Sports Medicine and Arthroscopy Review 2015, 23, 125-129, 10.1097/jsa.0000000000000077.
  10. Miki Maehara; Masato Sato; Eriko Toyoda; Takumi Takahashi; Eri Okada; Tomomi Kotoku; Masahiko Watanabe; Characterization of polydactyly-derived chondrocyte sheets versus adult chondrocyte sheets for articular cartilage repair.. Inflammation and Regeneration 2017, 37, 22, 10.1186/s41232-017-0053-6.
  11. Eriko Toyoda; Masato Sato; Takumi Takahashi; Miki Maehara; Eri Okada; Shiho Wasai; Hiroshi Iijima; Ken Nonaka; Yuka Kawaguchi; Masahiko Watanabe; et al. Transcriptomic and Proteomic Analyses Reveal the Potential Mode of Action of Chondrocyte Sheets in Hyaline Cartilage Regeneration. International Journal of Molecular Sciences 2019, 21, 149, 10.3390/ijms21010149.
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