Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 -- 1932 2022-03-29 12:58:04 |
2 format correct -12 word(s) 1920 2022-03-30 02:32:36 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Muthu, S.; Rajendran, R.L.; , .; Jeyaraman, N.; Jeyaraman, M.; Oh, E.; Choi, K.; Chung, H.Y.; Ahn, B.; Gangadaran, P. Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21144 (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Muthu S, Rajendran RL,  , Jeyaraman N, Jeyaraman M, Oh E, et al. Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21144. Accessed June 20, 2024.
Muthu, Sathish, Ramya Lakshmi Rajendran,  , Naveen Jeyaraman, Madhan Jeyaraman, Eunjung Oh, Kangyoung Choi, Ho Yun Chung, Byeong-Cheol Ahn, Prakash Gangadaran. "Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21144 (accessed June 20, 2024).
Muthu, S., Rajendran, R.L., , ., Jeyaraman, N., Jeyaraman, M., Oh, E., Choi, K., Chung, H.Y., Ahn, B., & Gangadaran, P. (2022, March 29). Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/21144
Muthu, Sathish, et al. "Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells." Encyclopedia. Web. 29 March, 2022.
Different Sources of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Edit

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are pluripotent stem cells found in the bone marrow and are important for making and repairing bone tissue such as cartilage, bone, and fat in the bone marrow. With age and disease, mesenchymal stem cells are primarily transformed into lipid-accumulating adipocytes.

mesenchymal stem cells Sources

1. Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs (BM-MSCs)

Mohamed-Ahmed et al. exhibited the cellular yield, harvest, proliferation, and differentiation of BM-MSCs as negatively affected by the age of the donor [1]. BM-MSCs, having the higher expression of STRO-1, show a higher proliferation rate than Adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSCs) [1]. BM-MSCs exhibit early osteogenesis due to the formation of type 1 collagen, along with the higher expression of RUNX-2 and ALP activity on day 14 of the passage. In vitro studies stated that BM-MSCs possess a more increased osteogenic capacity than AD-MSCs due to the osteogenic gene expression and calcium deposition [1]. Due to an increased expression of aggrecan on day 28, BM-MSCs differentiate into the chondrocyte lineage more than AD-MSCs [2][3]. The cross-talk between BM-MSC-derived osteogenesis and adipogenesis is due to bone morphogenetic proteins(BMPs). BMP through BMPR-1A activates c/EBP-α and PPAR-γ via the Smad/p-38-MAPK pathways to differentiate MSC into adipocyte, whereas through BMPR-1B, it activates Runx-1, OSX, and PPAR-γ via the Smad/p-38-MAPK pathways to differentiate MSC into osteocyte. The mechanism of osteocyte differentiation of MSC by PPAR-γ is poorly understood [4]. PPAR-γ induction inhibits the β-catenin pathway during adipogenesis [5].

2. Adipose Tissue-Derived MSCs (AD-MSCs)

A study showed an elevated expression of CD34 and CD49d in AD-MSCs where CD34 expression is known to help in the prolonged cellular proliferation of MSCs [1]. AD-MSCs express Runx-1 and ALP activity after day fourteen on the passage. These expressions lead to a prolonged proliferation, maturation, and, finally, differentiation of AD-MSCs. The osteogenic differentiation of AD-MSCs is potentiated when AD-MSCs are subjected to mechanical stimulation along with osteogenic markers, such as vitamin D3, PDGF, and BMP-2 [6][7]. AD-MSCs are shown to activate adipogenesis through the induction of adiponectin, LPL, leptin, perilipin, and fatty acid-binding protein-1 by PPAR-γ and in addition, raised the lipid vesicle formation more than BM-MSCs [8]. Due to the reduced expression of TGF-β-R1, BMP-2, and BMP-4, the chondrogenic potential of AD-MSCs is decreased [9][10]. The chondrogenicity of AD-MSCs is characterized by the type 2 and 10 collagen, biglycan, aggrecan, and decorin genes expression in the differentiated cells [11]. AD-MSCs hold a potentially higher adipogenic differentiation than chondrogenic and/or osteogenic differentiation when compared with BM-MSCs [1][12][13].

3. Hematopoietic Stem Cells (HSCs)

Bone marrow contains MSCs and HSCs. HSCs are committed to hematopoietic lineages (erythropoiesis, leukopoiesis, and thrombopoiesis). HSCs are characterized by the presence of CD-45+, -34+, -31+, GATA-1+ and -3+, c-myb+, flk-1+/KDR+, and SCL+/TAL-1+ [14][15]. The homing effect of HSCs is maintained by stromal-derived factor -1 or the chemokine C-X-CR4 axis [16][17]. Upon the addition of specific lineage factors, HSCs differentiate into the particular lineage. HSC bound osteogenesis is mediated by BMP-2 and -6 through activation of PTH, Jagged-1 and -2, Delta-1 and -4, Hes-1 and -5, and Deltex ligand signaling [18][19][20]. Osteoblast trafficking in the HSC pool is maintained by osteopontin, angiopoietin-1, cysteine protease, cathepsin X, and C-X-CL-12 [21]. Chotinantakul et al. named osteoblasts and spindle-shaped N-cadherin+ osteoblastic cells as “Endosteal niche” [22]. The adipogenic potential of HSCs was poorly understood, yet the researchers have found that adipocyte is derived from monocyte/macrophage progenitor cells [23]. HSC-based adipogenic cells possess a Mac-1low cell surface marker [24]. Gavin et al. explained the transition of hematopoietic lineage to adipogenic differentiation of HSCs by the integration of integrin-β1 [25]. There is no available literature on the role of HSC in chondrogenesis.

4. Placental Derived MSCs (Pl-MSCs)

Though an immunologically temporary organ, the placenta being primitive and pluripotent, contains cellular components with stem cell-like activity and with higher potentiality for self-renewal and differentiation than other sources of MSCs [26][27][28][29]. Mesodermal (osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic) lineage differentiation has been demonstrated by human Wharton’s jelly (hWJ), decidua, and fetal membrane (FM)-derived MSC [29][30], whereas ectodermal (neurogenic) and endodermal (hepatogenic) lineages have been reported by FM-derived MSC and hWJ-MSC [31][32][33]. Pl-MSCs with CD-271+ differentiate into the osteogenic lineage [34]. Minimal oxygen tension inhibits Pl-MSC osteogenic differentiation. In addition, IGF-2 enhances differentiation through a relayed signaling cascade by IGF-1R/IR, PI3K, MEK1/2, and RUNX-2 phosphorylation more than IGF-1 [35]. Intraperitoneal injection of chorionic stem cells in a mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta demonstrated a decreased number of fractures, as well as increased bone ductility and bone volume. Furthermore, the numbers of hypertrophic chondrocytes were increased and endochondral and intramembranous ossification-related endogenous genes were upregulated [36]. Increased secretion of glycosaminoglycans was observed when Pl-MSCs were seeded with the alginate/nCDHA/RGD mixed gel, which provides a 3D construct in the form of engineered cartilage tissue [37]. The TGF-β1-immobilized human fibroblast-derived extracellular matrix (ECM) with heparin provides a microenvironment for chondrogenic differentiation of Pl-MSCs in 3D collagen spheroid [38]. Chondrocyte ECM enriches the chondrogenesis of Pl-MSCs and is further enriched by preculture with chondrocyte-derived ECM [39].

5. Amniotic Fluid-Derived MSCs (Af-MSCs)

Af-MSC populations are a heterogeneous mixture with differentiated and undifferentiated progenitor cells derived from the fetus [40][41]. Af-MSCs are culture expandable and express CD-29, -44, -73, -90, -105, and SSEA4 with over 90% of the cells being positive for OCT-4 [40]. They express embryonic stems cell markers, such as TRA-1-60, TRA-1-81, SSEA3, and SSEA [42]. These fetal-derived cells retained their multi-differentiation capacities (adipogenic, chondrogenic, and osteogenic). They show a higher differentiation potential compared to adult stem cells [42]. Af-MSCs show similar characteristics with primordial germ cells expressing Sox17,c-Kit, STELLA, FGF-8, Nanos, DAZL, VASA, FRAGILIS, SSEA1, and Pum-2 [43]. Cloned lines of CD-117 selected Af-MSCs to modulate immune responses in chondrogenesis [44]. Compared to BM-MSCs, Af-MSCs cells generated less cartilaginous matrix after three weeks of TGF-β1 supplementation in pellet and alginate-based culture and hence, Af-MSCs have the ability to differentiate along the chondrogenic lineage [45]. Human Af-MSCs act as an important source for the induction of chitosan-based chondrogenesis [46]. Activation of calcium-sensing receptors by calcimimetic R-568 induces the osteogenic differentiation of Af-MSCs [47]. Wnt signaling acts as a key regulator in an osteogenic lineage of Af-MSCs by the upregulation of disheveled-2 expression, and the adipogenic lineage of Af-MSCs by the downregulation of disheveled-2 expression [48]. SOX-2 and ID-2 are the key targets of Nanog and POUSF-1, which are involved in the ossification and adipogenesis of Af-MSCs [49]. The exosome, miR-26a mediates the adipogenic lineage of Af-MSCs via PTEN, CyclinE1, and CDK6 [50].

6. Peripheral Blood-Derived MSCs (PB-MSCs)

PB-MSCs are obtained by mobilizing BM-MSCs to peripheral blood by giving G-CSF, which is called “blood mobilization” [51][52][53]. PB-MSCs constitute a heterogeneous population of cells containing MSCs, HSCs, immature blasts, and progenitor cells [54][55]. PB-MSCs possess CD-146 and 104b expression when compared with BM-MSCs [56]. The MSC count in PB-MSCs remains low when compared with other sources of MSCs. Though a higher cellular count prevails with BM-MSC, with 2 mL of peripheral blood, it is estimated that approximately 5 million cells PB-MSCs can be expanded in vitro for reparative procedures [57]. PB-MSCs express RUN-2, osterix, osteopontin, osteonectin, and COLIA1 during osteoblastic differentiation [58]. PB-MSCs upregulate the chondrogenic genes associated with the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs present in the infrapatellar fat pad, increase the number of MSCs, cause native chondrocyte migration, and accelerate the rate of cellular movement [59]. Lyahyai et al. [60] and Spaas et al. [61] demonstrated that BM-MSCs possess a higher differentiation potential for osteogenic and chondrogenic lineages than PB-MSCs. Chong et al. reported that PB-MSCs possess higher adipogenic differentiation than BM-MSCs and similar chondrogenic differentiation than BM-MSCs [53]. In a rat model, while comparing with BM-MSCs, PB-MSCs possess a greater chondrogenic differentiation ability, whereas BM-MSCs possess greater osteogenic, adipogenic, and proliferative ability [62]. PB-MSCs seeded with hydroxyapatite polylactic-glycolic acid induce osteogenesis at a 4 mm calvarial bone defect in a rat model, which was evaluated by micro-CT [63].

7. Synovium-Derived MSCs (Sy-MSCs)

The minimally explored source of MSC in cellular therapy remains the synovium-derived MSCs. Literature reported that the synovium lining (the outer layer contains type A macrophage-like synoviocytes) of the knee joint provides an excellent source of Sy-MSCs [64][65][66][67]. These type A cells stain positive for CD-68 & -14, and collagen III, V & VI [66]. Due to limited senescence, Sy-MSCs have to be expanded in monolayer culture in vitro. Sy-MSCs possess superior chondrogenicity due to increased expression of CD-44, SOX-9, COMP, aggrecan, and collagen 1, 10, and 11 [66][68][69]. The cross-talks between ERK1/2 and SOX-9 stimulate the chondrogenic differentiation of Sy-MSCs [70][71][72]. In pellet culture media, Sy-MSCs regenerate an increased number of cartilage pellets when matched with BM-MSCs. A study reported that under in vitro conditions, the chondrogenic capability of Sy-MSCs was greater than that of periosteum-derived MSCs [73]. In six OA patients, Mizuno et al. observed a greater proliferation and chondrogenesis in the MSCs present in the perivascular region of the synovium, whereas poorer chondrogenesis was observed in the MSCs from the stromal part of the synovium [74]. In a rabbit model, Bami et al. demonstrated osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, myogenesis, and ethnogenesis with Sy-MSCs [75]. Fibrous synovium contains more MSCs than adipose synovium. Though retarded potential for adipogenesis, Katagiri et al. demonstrated adipogenesis of Sy-MSCs with the synovial tissue harvested during total knee arthroplasty [76].

8. Dental Tissue-Derived MSCs (D-MSCs)

Stem cells of dental origin (dental pulp, periodontal ligament, human exfoliated deciduous teeth, apical papilla, dental follicle, and gingiva) form a good therapeutic concept in regenerating tissues, cartilage, and bones. In addition to specific growth factors, ECM proteins, and transcriptional factors, dental pulp-derived MSCs (DP-MSCs) differentiate into multilineages, namely adipogenesis, osteogenesis, chondrogenesis, neurogenesis, and dentinogenesis [77][78]. D-MSCs possess immunophenotypes, such as CD-44, -73, -90, -105, -271, and STRO-1 like BM-MSCs, AD-MSCs, and Sy-MSCs [79][80][81]. Scaffold-assisted chondrogenesis by D-MSCs increases the procollagen type 2 and 10, alkaline phosphatase, aggrecan, and SOX-9 genes; in addition, decreases the Nanog, Slug, Twist, and Snail genes [82][83]. Distal-less homeobox 5 (DLX5) and C8 (HOXC8) boosted the chondrogenic differentiation of stem cells of the apical papilla (SCAPs). DLX5 and HOXC8 overexpression lead to upregulation of transcriptional activity of COL2, COL5, and SOX-9, which induces chondrogenesis [84]. The BMP-4/Smad signaling cascade is necessary for the osteogenic differentiation of DP-MSCs. This may be inhibited by tumor necrosis factor-inducible protein-6 (TSG-6) [85]. Amir et al. demonstrated a significant increase in DP-MSCs metabolism in 2 weeks of culture when added with chitosan, which is responsible for proliferation and early osteogenic differentiation of DP-MSCs [86]. Various studies demonstrated that DP-MSCs have regenerative potential to differentiate into functional osteoblasts in vitro and were able to produce extracellular matrix components [87][88]. Laino et al. demonstrated the differentiation of DP-MSCs into osteoblast precursors to living autologous fibrous bone (LAB) tissue [89]. Once the LAB tissue was transplanted, they were able to give rise to adult bone cells in immunocompromised rats [90][91].

9. Periosteum-Derived MSCs (P-MSCs)

The periosteum, an outer covering of bone, contains a cambium layer which is composed of mesenchymal progenitor cells, which are called periosteum-derived MSCs. P-MSCs hold prolonged proliferation and differentiation capacities, and a retention of differentiation ability in the in vitro culture condition as well as the in vivo condition [92][93]. P-MSCs from load-bearing sites have more osteogenic capability than flat bones [94]. After the fracture, the quiescent P-MSCs induce chondrogenesis and osteogenesis. In addition, they help in long-term integration together with native bone [95][96]. An analysis of the lineage of P-MSCs demonstrated that P-MSCs from the Prx-1 positive mesenchymal lineage add to cartilage and bone within the callus [97]. CD-90+ P-MSCs showed greater osteogenic potency than unsorted P-MSCs, either in vitro or in vivo [98]. Therefore, CD-90+ P-MSCs could be an ideal cell source with greater osteogenic potency for bone regeneration. Periosteal progenitors differentiate into chondrocytes in the presence of TGF-β3 along with atelocollagen, as evaluated by type 2 collagen staining [99]. TGF-β1 and IGF-1 improve in vitro cartilage regeneration, subperiosteal administration of TGF-β1 and IGF-1 in aged rabbits, the phenotypic stability, and cellular count in the cambium layer of periosteum [100].

References

  1. Mohamed-Ahmed, S.; Fristad, I.; Lie, S.A.; Suliman, S.; Mustafa, K.; Vindenes, H.; Idris, S.B. Adipose-Derived and Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Donor-Matched Comparison. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2018, 9, 168.
  2. Kurenkova, A.D.; Medvedeva, E.V.; Newton, P.T.; Chagin, A.S. Niches for Skeletal Stem Cells of Mesenchymal Origin. Front. Cell Dev. Biol. 2020, 8, 592.
  3. Woo, D.-H.; Hwang, H.S.; Shim, J.H. Comparison of Adult Stem Cells Derived from Multiple Stem Cell Niches. Biotechnol. Lett. 2016, 38, 751–759.
  4. Muruganandan, S.; Roman, A.A.; Sinal, C.J. Adipocyte Differentiation of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Cross Talk with the Osteoblastogenic Program. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2009, 66, 236–253.
  5. Yuan, Z.; Li, Q.; Luo, S.; Liu, Z.; Luo, D.; Zhang, B.; Zhang, D.; Rao, P.; Xiao, J. PPARγ and Wnt Signaling in Adipogenic and Osteogenic Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Curr. Stem Cell Res. 2016, 11, 216–225.
  6. Park, S.-H.; Sim, W.Y.; Min, B.-H.; Yang, S.S.; Khademhosseini, A.; Kaplan, D.L. Chip-Based Comparison of the Osteogenesis of Human Bone Marrow- and Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells under Mechanical Stimulation. PLoS ONE 2012, 7, e46689.
  7. Niemeyer, P.; Kornacker, M.; Mehlhorn, A.; Seckinger, A.; Vohrer, J.; Schmal, H.; Kasten, P.; Eckstein, V.; Südkamp, N.P.; Krause, U. Comparison of Immunological Properties of Bone Marrow Stromal Cells and Adipose Tissue-Derived Stem Cells before and after Osteogenic Differentiation in Vitro. Tissue Eng. 2007, 13, 111–121.
  8. Guneta, V.; Tan, N.S.; Chan, S.K.J.; Tanavde, V.; Lim, T.C.; Wong, T.C.M.; Choong, C. Comparative Study of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells and Bone Marrow-Derived Stem Cells in Similar Microenvironmental Conditions. Exp. Cell Res. 2016, 348, 155–164.
  9. Strioga, M.; Viswanathan, S.; Darinskas, A.; Slaby, O.; Michalek, J. Same or Not the Same? Comparison of Adipose Tissue-Derived versus Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem and Stromal Cells. Stem Cells Dev. 2012, 21, 2724–2752.
  10. Hennig, T.; Lorenz, H.; Thiel, A.; Goetzke, K.; Dickhut, A.; Geiger, F.; Richter, W. Reduced Chondrogenic Potential of Adipose Tissue Derived Stromal Cells Correlates with an Altered TGFβ Receptor and BMP Profile and Is Overcome by BMP-6. J. Cell. Physiol. 2007, 211, 682–691.
  11. Stromps, J.-P.; Paul, N.E.; Rath, B.; Nourbakhsh, M.; Bernhagen, J.; Pallua, N. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Human Adipose-Derived Stem Cells: A New Path in Articular Cartilage Defect Management? BioMed Res. Int. 2014, 2014, e740926.
  12. Pachón-Peña, G.; Yu, G.; Tucker, A.; Wu, X.; Vendrell, J.; Bunnell, B.A.; Gimble, J.M. Stromal Stem Cells from Adipose Tissue and Bone Marrow of Age-Matched Female Donors Display Distinct Immunophenotypic Profiles. J. Cell Physiol. 2011, 226, 843–851.
  13. Sakaguchi, Y.; Sekiya, I.; Yagishita, K.; Muneta, T. Comparison of Human Stem Cells Derived from Various Mesenchymal Tissues: Superiority of Synovium as a Cell Source. Arthritis Rheum. 2005, 52, 2521–2529.
  14. Rossi, L.; Challen, G.A.; Sirin, O.; Lin, K.K.-Y.; Goodell, M.A. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Characterization and Isolation. Methods Mol. Biol. 2011, 750, 47–59.
  15. Sharkis, S.J.; Collector, M.I.; Barber, J.P.; Vala, M.S.; Jones, R.J. Phenotypic and Functional Characterization of the Hematopoietic Stem Cell. Stem Cells 1997, 15 (Suppl. 1), 41–44.
  16. Liang, Y.; Van Zant, G.; Szilvassy, S.J. Effects of Aging on the Homing and Engraftment of Murine Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells. Blood 2005, 106, 1479–1487.
  17. Srour, E.F.; Jetmore, A.; Wolber, F.M.; Plett, P.A.; Abonour, R.; Yoder, M.C.; Orschell-Traycoff, C.M. Homing, Cell Cycle Kinetics and Fate of Transplanted Hematopoietic Stem Cells. Leukemia 2001, 15, 1681–1684.
  18. Mehrotra, M.; Williams, C.R.; Ogawa, M.; LaRue, A.C. Hematopoietic Stem Cells Give Rise to Osteo-Chondrogenic Cells. Blood Cells Mol. Dis. 2013, 50, 41–49.
  19. Bethel, M.; Srour, E.F.; Kacena, M.A. Hematopoietic Cell Regulation of Osteoblast Proliferation and Differentiation. Curr. Osteoporos. Rep. 2011, 9, 96–102.
  20. Lévesque, J.-P.; Helwani, F.M.; Winkler, I.G. The Endosteal ‘Osteoblastic’ Niche and Its Role in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Homing and Mobilization. Leukemia 2010, 24, 1979–1992.
  21. Staudt, N.D.; Maurer, A.; Spring, B.; Kalbacher, H.; Aicher, W.K.; Klein, G. Processing of CXCL12 by Different Osteoblast-Secreted Cathepsins. Stem Cells Dev. 2012, 21, 1924–1935.
  22. Chotinantakul, K.; Leeanansaksiri, W. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Development, Niches, and Signaling Pathways. Bone Marrow Res. 2012, 2012, 270425.
  23. Wang, H.; Leng, Y.; Gong, Y. Bone Marrow Fat and Hematopoiesis. Front. Endocrinol. 2018, 9, 694.
  24. Sera, Y.; LaRue, A.C.; Moussa, O.; Mehrotra, M.; Duncan, J.D.; Williams, C.R.; Nishimoto, E.; Schulte, B.A.; Watson, P.M.; Watson, D.K.; et al. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Origin of Adipocytes. Exp. Hematol. 2009, 37, 1108–1120.
  25. Gavin, K.M.; Majka, S.M.; Kohrt, W.M.; Miller, H.L.; Sullivan, T.M.; Klemm, D.J. Hematopoietic-to-Mesenchymal Transition of Adipose Tissue Macrophages Is Regulated by Integrin Β1 and Fabricated Fibrin Matrices. Adipocyte 2017, 6, 234–249.
  26. Siddesh, S.E.; Gowda, D.M.; Jain, R.; Gulati, A.; Patil, G.S.; Anudeep, T.C.; Jeyaraman, N.; Muthu, S.; Jeyaraman, M. Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (P-MSCs) for COVID-19 Pneumonia—A Regenerative Dogma. Stem Cell Investig. 2021, 8, 3.
  27. Wu, M.; Zhang, R.; Zou, Q.; Chen, Y.; Zhou, M.; Li, X.; Ran, R.; Chen, Q. Comparison of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from the Human Placenta and Umbilical Cord. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 5014.
  28. Zhu, Y.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Hao, G.; Liu, T.; Wang, L.; Yang, T.; Wang, Q.; Zhang, G.; Wei, J.; et al. Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells of Fetal and Maternal Origins Demonstrate Different Therapeutic Potentials. Stem Cell Res. 2014, 5, 48.
  29. Parolini, O.; Alviano, F.; Bagnara, G.P.; Bilic, G.; Bühring, H.-J.; Evangelista, M.; Hennerbichler, S.; Liu, B.; Magatti, M.; Mao, N.; et al. Concise Review: Isolation and Characterization of Cells from Human Term Placenta: Outcome of the First International Workshop on Placenta Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2008, 26, 300–311.
  30. Can, A.; Karahuseyinoglu, S. Concise Review: Human Umbilical Cord Stroma with Regard to the Source of Fetus-Derived Stem Cells. Stem Cells 2007, 25, 2886–2895.
  31. Portmann-Lanz, C.B.; Schoeberlein, A.; Huber, A.; Sager, R.; Malek, A.; Holzgreve, W.; Surbek, D.V. Placental Mesenchymal Stem Cells as Potential Autologous Graft for Pre- and Perinatal Neuroregeneration. Am. J. Obs. Gynecol. 2006, 194, 664–673.
  32. Paldino, E.; Cenciarelli, C.; Giampaolo, A.; Milazzo, L.; Pescatori, M.; Hassan, H.J.; Casalbore, P. Induction of Dopaminergic Neurons from Human Wharton’s Jelly Mesenchymal Stem Cell by Forskolin. J. Cell Physiol. 2014, 229, 232–244.
  33. Kim, M.J.; Shin, K.S.; Jeon, J.H.; Lee, D.R.; Shim, S.H.; Kim, J.K.; Cha, D.-H.; Yoon, T.K.; Kim, G.J. Human Chorionic-Plate-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Wharton’s Jelly-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Comparative Analysis of Their Potential as Placenta-Derived Stem Cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2011, 346, 53–64.
  34. Quirici, N.; Soligo, D.; Bossolasco, P.; Servida, F.; Lumini, C.; Deliliers, G.L. Isolation of Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Anti-Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Antibodies. Exp. Hematol. 2002, 30, 783–791.
  35. Youssef, A.; Han, V.K.M. Regulation of Osteogenic Differentiation of Placental-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Insulin-Like Growth Factors and Low Oxygen Tension. Stem Cells Int. 2017, 2017, e4576327.
  36. Jones, G.N.; Moschidou, D.; Abdulrazzak, H.; Kalirai, B.S.; Vanleene, M.; Osatis, S.; Shefelbine, S.J.; Horwood, N.J.; Marenzana, M.; De Coppi, P.; et al. Potential of Human Fetal Chorionic Stem Cells for the Treatment of Osteogenesis Imperfecta. Stem Cells Dev. 2014, 23, 262–276.
  37. Hsu, S.; Huang, T.-B.; Cheng, S.-J.; Weng, S.-Y.; Tsai, C.-L.; Tseng, C.-S.; Chen, D.C.; Liu, T.-Y.; Fu, K.-Y.; Yen, B.L. Chondrogenesis from Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Three-Dimensional Scaffolds for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Tissue Eng. Part. A 2011, 17, 1549–1560.
  38. Noh, Y.K.; Du, P.; Dos Santos Da Costa, A.; Park, K. Induction of Chondrogenesis of Human Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells via Heparin-Grafted Human Fibroblast Derived Matrix. Biomater. Res. 2018, 22, 12.
  39. Park, Y.-B.; Seo, S.; Kim, J.-A.; Heo, J.-C.; Lim, Y.-C.; Ha, C.-W. Effect of Chondrocyte-Derived Early Extracellular Matrix on Chondrogenesis of Placenta-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Biomed. Mater. 2015, 10, 035014.
  40. Spitzhorn, L.-S.; Rahman, M.S.; Schwindt, L.; Ho, H.-T.; Wruck, W.; Bohndorf, M.; Wehrmeyer, S.; Ncube, A.; Beyer, I.; Hagenbeck, C.; et al. Isolation and Molecular Characterization of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Obtained from Caesarean Sections. Stem Cells Int. 2017, 2017, e5932706.
  41. Simoni, G.; Colognato, R. The Amniotic Fluid-Derived Cells: The Biomedical Challenge for the Third Millennium. J. Prenat. Med. 2009, 3, 34–36.
  42. Miranda-Sayago, J.M.; Fernández-Arcas, N.; Benito, C.; Reyes-Engel, A.; Carrera, J.; Alonso, A. Lifespan of Human Amniotic Fluid-Derived Multipotent Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Cytotherapy 2011, 13, 572–581.
  43. Loukogeorgakis, S.P.; Coppi, P.D. Concise Review: Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells: The Known, the Unknown, and Potential Regenerative Medicine Applications. Stem Cells 2017, 35, 1663–1673.
  44. Moorefield, E.C.; McKee, E.E.; Solchaga, L.; Orlando, G.; Yoo, J.J.; Walker, S.; Furth, M.E.; Bishop, C.E. Cloned, CD117 Selected Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells Are Capable of Modulating the Immune Response. PLoS ONE 2011, 6, e26535.
  45. Kolambkar, Y.M.; Peister, A.; Soker, S.; Atala, A.; Guldberg, R.E. Chondrogenic Differentiation of Amniotic Fluid-Derived Stem Cells. J. Mol. Hist. 2007, 38, 405–413.
  46. Zuliani, C.C.; Damas, I.I.; Andrade, K.C.; Westin, C.B.; Moraes, Â.M.; Coimbra, I.B. Chondrogenesis of Human Amniotic Fluid Stem Cells in Chitosan-Xanthan Scaffold for Cartilage Tissue Engineering. Sci. Rep. 2021, 11, 3063.
  47. Pipino, C.; Tomo, P.D.; Mandatori, D.; Cianci, E.; Lanuti, P.; Cutrona, M.B.; Penolazzi, L.; Pierdomenico, L.; Lambertini, E.; Antonucci, I.; et al. Calcium Sensing Receptor Activation by Calcimimetic R-568 in Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Correlation with Osteogenic Differentiation. Stem Cells Dev. 2014, 23, 2959–2971.
  48. D’Alimonte, I.; Lannutti, A.; Pipino, C.; Di Tomo, P.; Pierdomenico, L.; Cianci, E.; Antonucci, I.; Marchisio, M.; Romano, M.; Stuppia, L.; et al. Wnt Signaling Behaves as a “Master Regulator” in the Osteogenic and Adipogenic Commitment of Human Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Stem Cell Rev. Rep. 2013, 9, 642–654.
  49. Aziz, S.G.-G.; Pashaei-Asl, F.; Fardyazar, Z.; Pashaiasl, M. Isolation, Characterization, Cryopreservation of Human Amniotic Stem Cells and Differentiation to Osteogenic and Adipogenic Cells. PLoS ONE 2016, 11, e0158281.
  50. Trohatou, O.; Zagoura, D.; Orfanos, N.K.; Pappa, K.I.; Marinos, E.; Anagnou, N.P.; Roubelakis, M.G. MiR-26a Mediates Adipogenesis of Amniotic Fluid Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells via PTEN, Cyclin E1, and CDK6. Stem Cells Dev. 2017, 26, 482–494.
  51. Kassis, I.; Zangi, L.; Rivkin, R.; Levdansky, L.; Samuel, S.; Marx, G.; Gorodetsky, R. Isolation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from G-CSF-Mobilized Human Peripheral Blood Using Fibrin Microbeads. Bone Marrow Transpl. 2006, 37, 967–976.
  52. Ouryazdanpanah, N.; Dabiri, S.; Derakhshani, A.; Vahidi, R.; Farsinejad, A. Peripheral Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Growth Factor-Free Isolation, Molecular Characterization and Differentiation. Iran. J. Pathol. 2018, 13, 461–466.
  53. Chong, P.-P.; Selvaratnam, L.; Abbas, A.A.; Kamarul, T. Human Peripheral Blood Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Demonstrate Similar Characteristics and Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential to Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. J. Orthop. Res. 2012, 30, 634–642.
  54. Ab Kadir, R.; Zainal Ariffin, S.H.; Megat Abdul Wahab, R.; Kermani, S.; Senafi, S. Characterization of Mononucleated Human Peripheral Blood Cells. Sci. World J. 2012, 2012, e843843.
  55. Li, S.; Huang, K.-J.; Wu, J.-C.; Hu, M.S.; Sanyal, M.; Hu, M.; Longaker, M.T.; Lorenz, H.P. Peripheral Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Candidate Cells Responsible for Healing Critical-Sized Calvarial Bone Defects. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2015, 4, 359–368.
  56. Lotfy, A.; El-Sherbiny, Y.M.; Cuthbert, R.; Jones, E.; Badawy, A. Comparative Study of Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Isolated from Mouse Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood. Biomed. Rep. 2019, 11, 165–170.
  57. Haleem, A.M.; Singergy, A.A.E.; Sabry, D.; Atta, H.M.; Rashed, L.A.; Chu, C.R.; El Shewy, M.T.; Azzam, A.; Abdel Aziz, M.T. The Clinical Use of Human Culture-Expanded Autologous Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells Transplanted on Platelet-Rich Fibrin Glue in the Treatment of Articular Cartilage Defects: A Pilot Study and Preliminary Results. Cartilage 2010, 1, 253–261.
  58. Valenti, M.T.; Carbonare, L.D.; Donatelli, L.; Bertoldo, F.; Zanatta, M.; Lo Cascio, V. Gene Expression Analysis in Osteoblastic Differentiation from Peripheral Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Bone 2008, 43, 1084–1092.
  59. Chen, Y.-R.; Yan, X.; Yuan, F.-Z.; Ye, J.; Xu, B.-B.; Zhou, Z.-X.; Mao, Z.-M.; Guan, J.; Song, Y.-F.; Sun, Z.-W.; et al. The Use of Peripheral Blood-Derived Stem Cells for Cartilage Repair and Regeneration In Vivo: A Review. Front. Pharm. 2020, 11, 404.
  60. Lyahyai, J.; Mediano, D.R.; Ranera, B.; Sanz, A.; Remacha, A.R.; Bolea, R.; Zaragoza, P.; Rodellar, C.; Martín-Burriel, I. Isolation and Characterization of Ovine Mesenchymal Stem Cells Derived from Peripheral Blood. BMC Vet. Res. 2012, 8, 169.
  61. Spaas, J.H.; De Schauwer, C.; Cornillie, P.; Meyer, E.; Van Soom, A.; Van de Walle, G.R. Culture and Characterisation of Equine Peripheral Blood Mesenchymal Stromal Cells. Vet. J. 2013, 195, 107–113.
  62. Fu, W.-L.; Zhang, J.-Y.; Fu, X.; Duan, X.-N.; Leung, K.K.M.; Jia, Z.-Q.; Wang, W.-P.; Zhou, C.-Y.; Yu, J.-K. Comparative Study of the Biological Characteristics of Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Bone Marrow and Peripheral Blood of Rats. Tissue Eng. Part A 2012, 18, 1793–1803.
  63. Wu, G.; Pan, M.; Wang, X.; Wen, J.; Cao, S.; Li, Z.; Li, Y.; Qian, C.; Liu, Z.; Wu, W.; et al. Osteogenesis of Peripheral Blood Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Self Assembling Peptide Nanofiber for Healing Critical Size Calvarial Bony Defect. Sci. Rep. 2015, 5, 16681.
  64. Li, N.; Gao, J.; Mi, L.; Zhang, G.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, N.; Huo, R.; Hu, J.; Xu, K. Synovial Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells: Past Life, Current Situation, and Application in Bone and Joint Diseases. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2020, 11, 381.
  65. Greif, D.N.; Kouroupis, D.; Murdock, C.J.; Griswold, A.J.; Kaplan, L.D.; Best, T.M.; Correa, D. Infrapatellar Fat Pad/Synovium Complex in Early-Stage Knee Osteoarthritis: Potential New Target and Source of Therapeutic Mesenchymal Stem/Stromal Cells. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol. 2020, 8, 860.
  66. Jeyaraman, M.; Muthu, S.; Jeyaraman, N.; Ranjan, R.; Jha, S.K.; Mishra, P. Synovium Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells (Sy-MSCs): A Promising Therapeutic Paradigm in the Management of Knee Osteoarthritis. Indian J. Orthop. 2021, 56, 1–15.
  67. Fan, J.; Varshney, R.R.; Ren, L.; Cai, D.; Wang, D.-A. Synovium-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A New Cell Source for Musculoskeletal Regeneration. Tissue Eng. Part. B Rev. 2009, 15, 75–86.
  68. Gale, A.L.; Linardi, R.L.; McClung, G.; Mammone, R.M.; Ortved, K.F. Comparison of the Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential of Equine Synovial Membrane-Derived and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells. Front. Vet. Sci. 2019, 6, 178.
  69. Pei, M.; He, F.; Vunjak-Novakovic, G. Synovium-Derived Stem Cell-Based Chondrogenesis. Differentiation 2008, 76, 1044–1056.
  70. Zhou, S.; Chen, S.; Jiang, Q.; Pei, M. Determinants of Stem Cell Lineage Differentiation toward Chondrogenesis versus Adipogenesis. Cell Mol. Life Sci. 2019, 76, 1653–1680.
  71. Zha, K.; Sun, Z.; Yang, Y.; Chen, M.; Gao, C.; Fu, L.; Li, H.; Sui, X.; Guo, Q.; Liu, S. Recent Developed Strategies for Enhancing Chondrogenic Differentiation of MSC: Impact on MSC-Based Therapy for Cartilage Regeneration. Stem Cells Int. 2021, 2021, 8830834.
  72. Sahu, N.; Budhiraja, G.; Subramanian, A. Preconditioning of Mesenchymal Stromal Cells with Low-Intensity Ultrasound: Influence on Chondrogenesis and Directed SOX9 Signaling Pathways. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2020, 11, 6.
  73. Skeletal Muscle Repair by Adult Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Synovial Membrane. Available online: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2173757/ (accessed on 24 August 2021).
  74. Mizuno, M.; Katano, H.; Mabuchi, Y.; Ogata, Y.; Ichinose, S.; Fujii, S.; Otabe, K.; Komori, K.; Ozeki, N.; Koga, H.; et al. Specific Markers and Properties of Synovial Mesenchymal Stem Cells in the Surface, Stromal, and Perivascular Regions. Stem Cell Res. 2018, 9, 123.
  75. Bami, M.; Sarlikiotis, T.; Milonaki, M.; Vikentiou, M.; Konsta, E.; Kapsimali, V.; Pappa, V.; Koulalis, D.; Johnson, E.O.; Soucacos, P.N. Superiority of Synovial Membrane Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Chondrogenesis, Osteogenesis, Myogenesis and Tenogenesis in a Rabbit Model. Injury 2020, 51, 2855–2865.
  76. Katagiri, K.; Matsukura, Y.; Muneta, T.; Ozeki, N.; Mizuno, M.; Katano, H.; Sekiya, I. Fibrous Synovium Releases Higher Numbers of Mesenchymal Stem Cells Than Adipose Synovium in a Suspended Synovium Culture Model. Arthrosc. J. Arthrosc. Relat. Surg. 2017, 33, 800–810.
  77. Yasui, T.; Mabuchi, Y.; Morikawa, S.; Onizawa, K.; Akazawa, C.; Nakagawa, T.; Okano, H.; Matsuzaki, Y. Isolation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells with High Osteogenic Potential. Inflamm. Regen. 2017, 37, 8.
  78. Mortada, I.; Mortada, R. Dental Pulp Stem Cells and Osteogenesis: An Update. Cytotechnology 2018, 70, 1479–1486.
  79. Kawashima, N. Characterisation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells: A New Horizon for Tissue Regeneration? Arch. Oral Biol. 2012, 57, 1439–1458.
  80. Karaöz, E.; Doğan, B.N.; Aksoy, A.; Gacar, G.; Akyüz, S.; Ayhan, S.; Genç, Z.S.; Yürüker, S.; Duruksu, G.; Demircan, P.C.; et al. Isolation and in Vitro Characterisation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells from Natal Teeth. Histochem. Cell Biol. 2010, 133, 95–112.
  81. Gronthos, S.; Brahim, J.; Li, W.; Fisher, L.W.; Cherman, N.; Boyde, A.; DenBesten, P.; Robey, P.G.; Shi, S. Stem Cell Properties of Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells. J. Dent. Res. 2002, 81, 531–535.
  82. Jacek, P.; Szustak, M.; Kubiak, K.; Gendaszewska-Darmach, E.; Ludwicka, K.; Bielecki, S. Scaffolds for Chondrogenic Cells Cultivation Prepared from Bacterial Cellulose with Relaxed Fibers Structure Induced Genetically. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 1066.
  83. Mata, M.; Milian, L.; Oliver, M.; Zurriaga, J.; Sancho-Tello, M.; de Llano, J.J.M.; Carda, C. In Vivo Articular Cartilage Regeneration Using Human Dental Pulp Stem Cells Cultured in an Alginate Scaffold: A Preliminary Study. Stem Cells Int. 2017, 2017, e8309256.
  84. Yang, H.; Cao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Liang, Y.; Su, X.; Zhang, C.; Liu, H.; Han, X.; Ge, L.; Fan, Z. DLX5 and HOXC8 Enhance the Chondrogenic Differentiation Potential of Stem Cells from Apical Papilla via LINC01013. Stem Cell Res. 2020, 11, 271.
  85. Wang, Y.; Yuan, S.; Sun, J.; Gong, Y.; Liu, S.; Guo, R.; He, W.; Kang, P.; Li, R. Inhibitory Effect of the TSG-6 on the BMP-4/Smad Signaling Pathway and Odonto/Osteogenic Differentiation of Dental Pulp Stem Cells. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2020, 128, 110266.
  86. Amir, L.R.; Suniarti, D.F.; Utami, S.; Abbas, B. Chitosan as a Potential Osteogenic Factor Compared with Dexamethasone in Cultured Macaque Dental Pulp Stromal Cells. Cell Tissue Res. 2014, 358, 407–415.
  87. Shi, S.; Robey, P.G.; Gronthos, S. Comparison of Human Dental Pulp and Bone Marrow Stromal Stem Cells by CDNA Microarray Analysis. Bone 2001, 29, 532–539.
  88. Tabatabaei, F.S.; Torshabi, M. In Vitro Proliferation and Osteogenic Differentiation of Endometrial Stem Cells and Dental Pulp Stem Cells. Cell Tissue Bank 2017, 18, 239–247.
  89. Laino, G.; d’Aquino, R.; Graziano, A.; Lanza, V.; Carinci, F.; Naro, F.; Pirozzi, G.; Papaccio, G. A New Population of Human Adult Dental Pulp Stem Cells: A Useful Source of Living Autologous Fibrous Bone Tissue (LAB). J. Bone Min. Res. 2005, 20, 1394–1402.
  90. D’Aquino, R.; Graziano, A.; Sampaolesi, M.; Laino, G.; Pirozzi, G.; De Rosa, A.; Papaccio, G. Human Postnatal Dental Pulp Cells Co-Differentiate into Osteoblasts and Endotheliocytes: A Pivotal Synergy Leading to Adult Bone Tissue Formation. Cell Death Differ. 2007, 14, 1162–1171.
  91. D’Aquino, R.; De Rosa, A.; Lanza, V.; Tirino, V.; Laino, L.; Graziano, A.; Desiderio, V.; Laino, G.; Papaccio, G. Human Mandible Bone Defect Repair by the Grafting of Dental Pulp Stem/Progenitor Cells and Collagen Sponge Biocomplexes. Eur. Cell Mater. 2009, 18, 75–83.
  92. Colnot, C.; Zhang, X.; Knothe Tate, M.L. Current Insights on the Regenerative Potential of the Periosteum: Molecular, Cellular, and Endogenous Engineering Approaches. J. Orthop. Res. 2012, 30, 1869–1878.
  93. Chang, H.; Knothe Tate, M.L. Concise Review: The Periosteum: Tapping into a Reservoir of Clinically Useful Progenitor Cells. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2012, 1, 480–491.
  94. Moore, E.R.; Zhu, Y.X.; Ryu, H.S.; Jacobs, C.R. Periosteal Progenitors Contribute to Load-Induced Bone Formation in Adult Mice and Require Primary Cilia to Sense Mechanical Stimulation. Stem Cell Res. Ther. 2018, 9, 190.
  95. Lin, Z.; Fateh, A.; Salem, D.M.; Intini, G. Periosteum. J. Dent. Res. 2014, 93, 109–116.
  96. Ito, Y.; Fitzsimmons, J.S.; Sanyal, A.; Mello, M.A.; Mukherjee, N.; O’Driscoll, S.W. Localization of Chondrocyte Precursors in Periosteum. Osteoarthr. Cartil. 2001, 9, 215–223.
  97. Duchamp de Lageneste, O.; Julien, A.; Abou-Khalil, R.; Frangi, G.; Carvalho, C.; Cagnard, N.; Cordier, C.; Conway, S.J.; Colnot, C. Periosteum Contains Skeletal Stem Cells with High Bone Regenerative Potential Controlled by Periostin. Nat. Commun. 2018, 9, 773.
  98. Kim, Y.-K.; Nakata, H.; Yamamoto, M.; Miyasaka, M.; Kasugai, S.; Kuroda, S. Osteogenic Potential of Mouse Periosteum-Derived Cells Sorted for CD90 In Vitro and In Vivo. Stem Cells Transl. Med. 2016, 5, 227–234.
  99. Choi, Y.-S.; Lim, S.-M.; Shin, H.-C.; Lee, C.-W.; Kim, S.-L.; Kim, D.-I. Chondrogenesis of Human Periosteum-Derived Progenitor Cells in Atelocollagen. Biotechnol. Lett. 2007, 29, 323–329.
  100. De Bari, C.; Dell’Accio, F.; Luyten, F.P. Human Periosteum-Derived Cells Maintain Phenotypic Stability and Chondrogenic Potential throughout Expansion Regardless of Donor Age. Arthritis Rheum. 2001, 44, 85–95.
More
Information
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : , , , , , , , , ,
View Times: 310
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 30 Mar 2022
1000/1000
Video Production Service