Several studies are currently evaluating combination therapy strategies involving various agents, immunomodulatory therapy, bi-specific T cell engagement, cell-tissue therapy with CAR-T, and the use of specific vaccines targeted to various forms of cancer. Recent reviews by Shi et al. 
and Chaurasiya et al. 
have presented comprehensive summaries of ongoing studies on oligonucleotides/aptamers. Since 1990, technologies involving antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs), aptamers, microRNA (miRNAs), small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), and catalytic DNA with enzymatic properties (DNAzymes) have been investigated to uncover new therapeutic possibilities and overcome some of the limitations in the curative potential of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and targeted therapy. These are considered promising approaches to the treatment of resistant types of cancer 
. Therapeutic oligonucleotides/aptamers interact with target cells, causing RNA alterations/modifications by several different mechanisms (mRNA degradation, pre-mRNA splicing, or mRNA translation) 
. Besides being a potential strategy for cancer therapy, the use of oligonucleotides holds promise for treating also many forms of illness due to genetic aberrations (for example, neurological and ocular diseases). They also deserve to be used clinically in diagnostic procedures, such as liquid biopsy 
. Safety may be a major concern for this type of molecule, along with a lack of efficacy, potentially due to difficulty in delivering the active components to the site of action.