Service failure is inevitable. Service in the hospitality industry involves multiple interactions between the service providers and customers, and a high risk of service failures accompanies these interactions. Although empirical studies on the outcomes and processes of service failures have been conducted in the hotel industry, the findings need more exploration to understand how different segments perceive service failures and the associated emotions differently. This study revealed the similarities and differences between groups (i.e., men vs. women and leisure vs. business) in reporting service failures. Different meanings of words that emerged from the text-mining results were also examined to ensure a more comprehensive understanding of the guest experience.
Gender differences exist in many aspects of hotel studies, such as evaluating service quality ; selection of lodging accommodations ; customer dissatisfaction ; and more specific issues, such as sleep quality  and hotel room design . For instance, one study showed that functional service quality (service-delivery efficiency) better predicts satisfaction and loyalty among men; however, women’s satisfaction and loyalty toward brands are more likely to be influenced by relational service quality (guests’ emotional benefits, beyond the core performance, social interaction between customers and employees) . Another study examined the relationship between the five dimensions of service quality (i.e., assurance, reliability, responsiveness, tangible and empathy) and guest satisfaction toward hotel service delivery, and the results showed that empathy predicts satisfaction across two gender groups, tangibility only predicts satisfaction among male guests, and reliability and responsiveness predict satisfaction among female guests . Besides, women and men report differently on sleep quality, although it is generally perceived that sleeping quality in hotels is not as good as that in the home. For instance, one study confirmed that individual differences exist among guests; more specifically, men, younger people, and guests with insomnia tend to sleep better than others . However, when identifying factors that influence hotel sleep quality, another study found that the likelihood of women reporting better sleep quality was higher than their male counterparts .
Significant differences in service-failure experiences were identified between female and male guests, as well as between leisure and business travelers. Women were more sensitive to affective feelings during a hotel stay, whereas men were more concerned with the experience of facilities/amenities. Leisure travelers demonstrated greater price sensitivity and were more likely to have issues with amenities and meals, such as breakfast service and the swimming pool. In contrast, business travelers were more concerned about business-related issues and the hotel’s functionality, such as Internet speed and air conditioning. These results suggest that more diverse strategies must be implemented when providing service and recovering from service failures and be differentiated according to type of traveler.