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Garcia-Campoy, A.; Garcia, E.; Muñiz-Ramirez, A. Eysenhardtia genus. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1936 (accessed on 17 April 2024).
Garcia-Campoy A, Garcia E, Muñiz-Ramirez A. Eysenhardtia genus. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1936. Accessed April 17, 2024.
Garcia-Campoy, Abraham, Efrén Garcia, Alethia Muñiz-Ramirez. "Eysenhardtia genus" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1936 (accessed April 17, 2024).
Garcia-Campoy, A., Garcia, E., & Muñiz-Ramirez, A. (2020, September 07). Eysenhardtia genus. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1936
Garcia-Campoy, Abraham, et al. "Eysenhardtia genus." Encyclopedia. Web. 07 September, 2020.
Eysenhardtia genus
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The participation of natural products in health care has been remarkable, and today they continue to play a key role in the discovery and development of new treatments. Phytochemical studies together with pharmacological tests have managed to integrate bioactive agents as an alternative solution to reduce or regulate the problems caused by diseases. The Eysenhardtia genus is a family of plants that are rich in secondary metabolites, which have shown potential activity in the control and mitigation of urinary disorders, diabetes, oxidative stress, protein glycosylation, microbial infections, inflammation, pain or discomfort, muscle contractions, cytotoxicity, or as a cellular or neuronal signaling modulator. These conditions generally appear in comorbid diseases, which motivated the bibliographic review associated with the plant. This document presents the beneficial actions produced by Eysenhardtia extracts and/or bioactives to inhibit, control, or reduce the complications or discomfort of degenerative diseases and thus generate new therapeutic alternatives.

Eysenhardtia phytochemical pharmacological

1. Introduction

The relationship between humanity and medicinal plants goes back to ancient times. The oldest records found correspond to the Sumerians, approximately 5000 years ago [1]. The growth and development of civilizations have been closely linked to the use and exploitation of the healing properties of medicinal plants [2]. The process of recognition and use of herbalism in the preparation of remedies, infusions, or concoctions for the treatment of disease has been carried out by trial and error [3]. There are countries with a long tradition of using herbal medicine such as China, India, Japan, Pakistan, and Mexico. Ethnopharmacological studies have contributed to the amplification of knowledge and the discovery of new drugs or effective bioactive compounds for the control of diseases [4].

Mexico has a history of using ethnomedicine, whose origins go back to pre-Hispanic cultures where archaeological findings have shown its anthropological influence and impact on Mexican culture [5]. One of the plants with antecedents is Eysenhardtia polystachya (EP), dating back to the era of New Spain where Nicolas B. Monardes (1565) relates the use of a tree to treat kidney and urinary diseases; he describes that they drank a blue-colored infusion which was obtained by placing thin slices of a wood (bark) into water for a period of time [6]. Furthermore, in the Florentine Codex, Fray Bernardino de Sahagún refers to the use of “Coatli” for fever or retention of urine [7]. In the following centuries (XVI and XVII), it was taken to Europe where it was known as Lignum nephriticum [8][9]. Later, it continued to be consumed in a traditional way by Mexicans for the control of urinary, contraceptive [10], antidiarrheal, and antiseptic disorders, as well as for the control of diabetes [11][12].

In recent decades, the Eysenhardtia genus has attracted attention due to its medicinal properties. This triggered a series of phytochemical and pharmacological studies linked to the identification of health benefits. Among the actions determined are its diuretic [13], antidiabetic, antiglycation [14], antioxidant [15], anti-inflammatory [16], and antimicrobial [17] potential. It also has cytotoxic properties [8], is cardioprotective, and inhibits neurodegeneration and modulators of cell signaling [15].

2. Conclusions

Currently, there are many diseases linked to factors related to metabolic syndrome. This condition has caused people to develop various health problems and increases their risk of mortality. This has caused a large part of society to live under a constant medication scheme that attempts to regulate the ailments that afflict them, which in turn stimulates the consumption of natural alternatives that have shown to help control symptoms. In this paper, we present the potential of the extracts and/or bioactives of the Eysenhardtia genus to limit the proliferation of microbial infections, urinary disorders, oxidative stress, protein glycation, lipoperoxidation, increase in blood sugar levels, inflammation, or the development of bodily discomfort. Furthermore, the introspection performed made it clear that the composition of phytochemical compounds and their diversity of secondary metabolites could be a complementary solution for individuals affected by comorbidity.

References

  1. Petrovska, B. Historical review of medicinal plants’ usage. Pharmacogn. Rev. 2012, 6, 1–5.
  2. Jamshidi-Kia, F.; Lorigooini, Z.; Amini-Khoei, H. Medicinal plants: Past history and future perspective. J. Herbmed. Pharmacol. 2018, 7, 1–7.
  3. Dar, R.A.; Shahnawaz, M.; Qazi, P.H. General overview of medicinal plants: A review. J. Phytopharm. 2017, 6, 349–351.
  4. Heinrich, M.; Ankli, A.; Frei, B.; Weimann, C.; Sticher, O. Medicinal Plants in Mexico: Healers’ Consensus and Cultural Importance. Soc. Sci. Med. 1998, 47, 1859–1871.
  5. Esquivel, R.G.; Pérez, E.C.; Ochoa, A.Z.; García, M.E.P. Ethnomedicinal plants used for the treatment of dermatological affections on the Purépecha Plateau, Michoacán, Mexico. Acta Bot. Mex. 2018, 125, 95–132.
  6. Monardes, N.B. Historia Medicinal de las Cosas que se Traen de Nuestras Indias Occidentales que Sirven en Medicina; Padilla Libros: Sevilla, Spain, 1565; pp. 1–276.
  7. Acuña, A.U.; Amat-Guerri, F. Early History of Solution Fluorescence: The Lignum nephriticum of Nicolás Monardes. Springer Ser. Fluoresc. 2008, 4, 3–20.
  8. Alvarez, L.; Rios, M.Y.; Esquivel, C.; Chavez, M.I.; Delgado, G.; Aguilar, M.I.; Villarreal, M.L.; Navarro, V. Cytotoxic isoflavans from Eysenhardtia polystachya. J. Nat. Prod. 1998, 61, 767–770.
  9. Muyskens, M.; Vitz, E. The Fluorescence of Lignum nephriticum: A Flash Back to the Past and a Simple Demonstration of Natural Substance Fluorescence. J. Chem. Educ. 2009, 83, 765–768.
  10. Torres, P.A.A.; Lomeli, M.G.R.; Lopez, F.D.; Fuentes, F.J.T.; Richter, H.G.; Silva, J.A.G. Natural decay resistance of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. Int. Wood Prod. J. 2010, 1, 81–84.
  11. Alarcon-Aguilar, F.J.; Roman-Ramos, R.; Pérez-Gutierrez, S.; Aguilar-Contreras, A.; Contreras-Weber, C.C.; Flores-Saenz, J.L. Study of the anti-hyperglycemic effect of plants used as antidiabetics. J. Ethnopharmacol. 1998, 61, 101–110.
  12. Alonso-Castro, A.J.; Zapata-Morales, J.R.; Arana-Argáez, V.; Torres-Romero, J.C.; Ramirez-Villanueva, E.; Pérez-Medina, S.E.; Ramirez-Morales, M.A.; Juarez-Mendez, M.A.; Infante-Barrios, Y.P.; Marinez-Gutierrez, F.; et al. Pharmacological and toxicological study of a chemical-standardized ethanol extract of the branches and leaves from Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ortega) Sarg. (Fabaceae). J. Ethnopharmacol. 2018, 224, 314–322.
  13. Beltrami, E.; De Bernardi, M.; Fronza, G. Coatline A and B, two C-Glucosyl-α-hydroxydihydrochalcones from Eysenhardtia polystachya. Phytochemistry 1982, 21, 2931–2933.
  14. Pérez-Gutierrez, R.; Garcia-Baez, E. Evaluation of antidiabetic, antioxidant and antiglycating activities of the Eysenhardtia polystachya. Pharmacogn. Mag. 2014, 10, 404–418.
  15. Pérez-Gutierrez, R.M. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of the bark of Eysenhardtia polystachya in experimental animal models. Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol. 2015, 9, 230–236.
  16. Pablo-Pérez, S.S.; Parada-Cruz, B.; Barbier, O.C.; Meléndez-Camargo, M.E. The ethanolic extract of Eysenhardtia polystachya (Ort.) Sarg. Bark and its fractions delay the progression of rheumatoid arthritis and show antinociceptive activity in murine models. Iran J. Pharm. Res. 2018, 17, 236–248.
  17. Camacho-Morfin, F. Germinación de semillas de palo dulce (Eysenhardtia polystachya). Rev. Cienc. For. 1987, 62, 3–13.
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