Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 The current paper discusses the importance of seaweeds, intact and processed, in poultry diets + 1031 word(s) 1031 2020-08-18 09:03:10 |
2 format correct Meta information modification 1031 2020-08-28 10:46:04 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Michalak, I.; Mahrose, K. Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1818 (accessed on 23 February 2024).
Michalak I, Mahrose K. Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1818. Accessed February 23, 2024.
Michalak, Izabela, Khalid Mahrose. "Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1818 (accessed February 23, 2024).
Michalak, I., & Mahrose, K. (2020, August 26). Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1818
Michalak, Izabela and Khalid Mahrose. "Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds." Encyclopedia. Web. 26 August, 2020.
Seaweeds of Poultry Feeds
Edit

Poultry are birds which render economic services to humans as a primary supplier of meat, egg and raw materials for different industries (feather, waste products, etc.), source of income and employment to people when compared to other domestic animals. Currently, there is an interest in the application of seaweeds in poultry nutrition. Seaweeds (called also macroalgae), which include green (Chlorophyceae), brown (Phaeophyceae) and red algae (Rhodophyceae), are a naturally occurring source of the biomass that develops in variable environments (results also from eutrophication) and is easily cultivated. Seaweeds as a rich source of bioactive compounds when included into feed can improve poultry health and performance as well as increase the quality of poultry products (eggs, meat).

Seaweeds, Poultry

1. Introduction

Poultry production is an important agricultural subsector in many countries. Poultry are birds which render economic services to humans as a primary supplier of meat, egg and raw materials for different industries (feather, waste products, etc.), source of income and employment to people when compared to other domestic animals [1]. According to USDA (2020), the world chicken meat production in 2020 increased than previous years. In July 2020, the total production of meat reached 100,026 metric tons, whereas in July 2019 it was 99,027 metric tons–an increase of nearly 1%. The demand for poultry meat will increase because in the face of the economic crisis customers are looking for cheaper animal protein. The total world consumption of chicken meat reached 97,908 metric tons in July 2020, whereas in July 2019–97,127 metric tons [2]. Poultry is efficient in converting feed into high-value products within a comparably short period [3][4][5]. Eggs and poultry meat are beginning to make a substantial contribution to relieving the protein insufficiency in many countries [6][7]. In today’s poultry industry, practices regarding management and feeding (composition, systems) are among the most important factors [8][9][10][11][12][13][14].

Currently, there is an interest in the application of seaweeds in poultry nutrition. Seaweeds (called also macroalgae), which include green (Chlorophyceae), brown (Phaeophyceae) and red algae (Rhodophyceae), are a naturally occurring source of the biomass that develops in variable environments (results also from eutrophication) and is easily cultivated [15]. Seaweeds as a rich source of bioactive compounds when included into feed can improve poultry health and performance as well as increase the quality of poultry products (eggs, meat) [16][17]. According to the Commission Regulation (EU) No 575/2011 of 16 June 2011, algae in different forms are listed in the catalog of feed materials, which contains: “algae-live or processed, regardless of their presentation, including fresh, chilled or frozen algae”, “dried algae-product obtained by drying algae” that “may have been washed to reduce the iodine content”, “algae meal—product of algae oil manufacture, obtained by extraction of algae”, “algal oil—product of the oil manufacture from algae obtained by extraction”, “algae extract—watery or alcoholic extract of algae that principally contains carbohydrates”, “seaweed meal—product obtained by drying and crushing macroalgae, in particular brown seaweed” that “may have been washed to reduce the iodine content”. What is important, the name of the feed material should be supplemented by the species.

2. History and Development

The literature data show that seaweeds in poultry nutrition are used in both forms: as a feed material and a feed additive. According to the Commission Regulation (EU) No 767/2009 of 13 July 2009 on the placing on the market and use of feed, “feed materials—means products of vegetable or animal origin, whose principal purpose is to meet animals’ nutritional needs, in their natural state, fresh or preserved and products derived from the industrial processing thereof and organic or inorganic substances, whether or not containing feed additives, which are intended for use in oral animal-feeding either directly as such or after processing or in the preparation of compound feed or as carrier of premixtures”. “Feed additives” according to Regulation (EC) No 1831/2003 of 22 September 2003 on additives for use in animal nutrition are defined as “substances, microorganisms or preparations, other than feed material and premixtures, which are intentionally added to feed or water in order to perform, in particular, one or more of the functions”: they “(1) favorably affect the characteristics of feed, (2) favorably affect the characteristics of animal products, (3) favorably affect the color of ornamental fish and birds, (4) satisfy the nutritional needs of animals, (5) favorably affect the environmental consequences of animal production, (6) favorably affect animal production, performance or welfare, particularly by affecting the gastrointestinal flora or digestibility of foodstuffs or (7) have a coccidiostatic or histomonostatic effect”. In the European Union feed legislation, intact seaweeds or macroalgae are considered “feed material” not requiring registration, while “extracts” of seaweeds are recognized as “feed additives” requiring an EC authorization act before legal use in animal feeding within the EU.

3. Prospects

Macroalgae can be not only a part of the strategy to look for new, natural, ecological and healthy feed materials and/or feed additives, but also for the production of designer poultry products (eggs, meat) enriched with biologically active compounds (e.g., polyunsaturated fatty acids, polyphenols, polysaccharides, pigments, vitamins, amino acids, etc.,) with functional attributes, such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, etc. [16][17][18]. Consumption of such food can be beneficial to human health. Seaweeds can also be considered as a promising alternative to conventional terrestrial resources used for the production of feed materials/feed additives [19]. Locally available materials, such as seaweeds, can reduce feed cost [20].

In the literature, there are several review articles or book chapters on the use of seaweeds in animal feeding [15][21][22][23][24][25], and a few of them are dedicated to particular species of animals, for example: ruminants (sheep, lambs, goats, cows, calves) [22]; pigs [19][22][23]; rabbits [22]; poultry (broilers, laying hens) [22][26][27]; horses [24]. Literature data confirm that seaweeds can play an important role in the animal feeding, but there is no detailed analysis of the effects of algae in poultry nutrition. This article arrays the current state of knowledge in this field. Appropriately selected seaweeds applied at low inclusion levels can improve not only poultry growth performance and the quality of products, but also their health status (e.g., immune function) due to alteration of gut microbiome and antioxidant properties and can be considered an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP) used in poultry production [21][28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]. Most often, seaweeds are used as feed additives for hens and broilers, but there are also a few reports on their application in duck [30][37][38], Japanese quail [39][40] and cockerel [41] feeding.

References

  1. Ahaotu, E.O.; De los Ríos, P.; Ibe, L.C.; Singh, R.R. Climate change in poultry production system—A review. Acta Sci. Agric. 2019, 3, 113–117.
  2. United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Livestock and Poultry: World Markets and Trade. Foreign Agricultural Service, USA. 2020. Available online: https://apps.fas.usda.gov/psdonline/circulars/livestock_poultry.pdf (accessed on 27 July 2020).
  3. El-Hack, M.E.A.; Mahrose, K.M.; Askar, A.A.; Alagawany, M.; Arif, M.; Saeed, M.; Abbasi, F.; Soomro, R.N.; Siyal, F.A.; Chaudhry, M.T. Single and combined impacts of vitamin A and selenium in diet on productive performance, egg quality, and some blood parameters of laying hens during hot season. Biol. Trace Element Res. 2016, 177, 169–179.
  4. Saeed, M.; El-Hack, M.E.A.; Arif, M.; El-Hindawy, M.M.; Attia, A.I.; Mahrose, K.M.; Bashir, I.; Siyal, F.A.; Arain, M.A.; Fazlani, S.A.; et al. Impacts of distiller’s dried grains with solubles as replacement of soybean meal plus vitamin E supplementation on production, egg quality and blood chemistry of laying hens. Ann. Anim. Sci. 2017, 17, 849–862.
  5. Nordhagen, S.; Klemm, R. Implementing small-scale poultry-for-nutrition projects: Successes and lessons learned. Matern. Child Nutr. 2018, 14, e12676.
  6. Daghir, N.J. Poultry Production in Hot Climates, 6th ed.; Cromwell Press: Trowbridge, UK, 1995; pp. 1–12.
  7. Alagawany, M.; Mahrose, K.M. Influence of different levels of certain essential amino acids on the performance, egg quality criteria and economics of Lohmann Brown laying hens. Asian J. Poult. Sci. 2014, 8, 82–96.
  8. Farghly, M.F.A.; Mahrose, K.M.; Galal, A.E.; Ali, R.M.; Ahmad, E.A.M.; Rehman, Z.U.; Ullah, Z.; Ding, C. Implementation of different feed withdrawal times and water temperatures in managing turkeys during heat stress. Poult. Sci. 2018, 97, 3076–3084.
  9. Farghly, M.F.A.; Mahrose, K.M.; Cooper, R.; Ullah, Z.; Rehman, Z.U.; Ding, C. Sustainable floor type for managing turkey production in a hot climate. Poult. Sci. 2018, 97, 3884–3890.
  10. El-Hack, M.E.A.; Mahrose, K.M.; Attia, F.A.M.; Swelum, A.A.; Taha, A.E.; Shewita, R.; Hussein, E.-S.O.S.; Alowaimer, A.N. Laying performance, physical, and internal egg quality criteria of hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles and exogenous enzyme mixture. Animals 2019, 9, 150.
  11. Abou-Kassem, D.E.; Ashour, E.A.; Alagawany, M.; Mahrose, K.M.; Rehman, Z.U.; Ding, C. Effect of feed form and dietary protein level on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing geese. Poult. Sci. 2019, 98, 761–770.
  12. Mahrose, K.M.; El-Hack, M.E.A.; Mahgoub, S.A.; Attia, F.A.M. Influences of stocking density and dietary probiotic supplementation on growing Japanese quail performance. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2019, 91, e20180616.
  13. Mahrose, K.M.; El-Hack, M.E.A.; Amer, S.A. Influences of dietary crude protein and stocking density on growth performance and body measurements of ostrich chicks. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2019, 91, e20180479.
  14. Rizk, Y.S.; Fahim, H.N.; Beshara, M.M.; Mahrose, K.M.; Awad, A.L. Response of duck breeders to dietary L-Carnitine supplementation during summer season. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 2019, 91, e20180907.
  15. Cabrita, A.R.J.; Maia, M.; Oliveira, H.M.; Pinto, I.S.; Almeida, A.; Pinto, E.; Fonseca, A.J.M. Tracing seaweeds as mineral sources for farm-animals. J. Appl. Phycol. 2016, 28, 3135–3150.
  16. Holdt, S.L.; Kraan, S. Bioactive compounds in seaweed: Functional food applications and legislation. J. Appl. Phycol. 2011, 23, 543–597.
  17. Michalak, I.; Chojnacka, K. Algae as production systems of bioactive compounds. Eng. Life Sci. 2015, 15, 160–176.
  18. Qadri, S.S.N.; Biswas, A.; Mandal, A.B.; Kumawat, M.; Saxena, R.; Nasir, A.M. Production performance, immune response and carcass traits of broiler chickens fed diet incorporated with Kappaphycus Alvarezii. J. Appl. Phycol. 2018, 31, 753–760.
  19. Øverland, M.; Mydland, L.T.; Skrede, A. Marine macroalgae as sources of protein and bioactive compounds in feed for monogastric animals. J. Sci. Food Agric. 2018, 99, 13–24.
  20. Erum, T.; Frias, G.G.; Cocal, C.J. Sargassum muticum as feed substitute for broiler. Asia Pacific. J. Educ. Arts Sci. 2017, 4, 6–9.
  21. Evans, F.; Critchley, A.T. Seaweeds for animal production use. J. Appl. Phycol. 2014, 26, 891–899.
  22. Makkar, H.; Tran, G.; Heuzé, V.; Giger-Reverdin, S.; Lessire, M.; LeBas, F.; Ankers, P. Seaweeds for livestock diets: A review. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol. 2016, 212, 1–17.
  23. Corino, C.; Modina, S.; Di Giancamillo, A.; Chiapparini, S.; Rossi, R. Seaweeds in pig nutrition. Animals 2019, 9, 1126.
  24. Michalak, I.; Marycz, K. Algae as a promising feed additive for horses. In Seaweeds as Plant Fertilizer, Agricultural Biostimulants and Animal Fodder; Pereira, L., Bahcevandziev, K., Joshi, N.H., Eds.; CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group: Boca Raton, FL, USA, 2019; Volume 7, pp. 128–142.
  25. Morais, T.; Inácio, A.; Coutinho, T.; Ministro, M.; Cotas, J.; Pereira, L.; Bahcevandziev, K. Seaweed potential in the animal feed: A review. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 559.
  26. Haberecht, S.; Wilkinson, S.; Roberts, J.; Wu, S.-B.; Swick, R. Unlocking the potential health and growth benefits of macroscopic algae for poultry. World’s Poult. Sci. J. 2018, 74, 5–20.
  27. Kulshreshtha, G.; Hincke, M.T.; Prithiviraj, B.; Critchley, A.T. A Review of the varied uses of macroalgae as dietary supplements in selected poultry with special reference to laying hen and broiler chickens. J. Mar. Sci. Eng. 2020, 8, 536.
  28. Yan, G.L.; Guo, Y.M.; Yuan, J.M.; Liu, D.; Zhang, B.K. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides from brown algae inhibit Salmonella Enteritidis colonization in broiler chickens. Poult. Sci. 2011, 90, 1441–1448.
  29. Wiseman, M. Evaluation of Tasco® as a Candidate Prebiotic in Broiler Chickens; Dalhousie University: Halifax, NS, Canada, 2012; Available online: https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/14443/Wiseman_Melissa_MSc.__Animal_Science_February_2012.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y (accessed on 25 April 2020).
  30. Islam, M.M.; Ahmed, S.T.; Mun, H.S.; Kim, Y.J.; Yang, C.J. Effect of Sea Tangle (Laminaria japonica) and charcoal supplementation as alternatives to antibiotics on growth performance and meat quality of ducks. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2014, 27, 217–224.
  31. Kulshreshtha, G.; Rathgeber, B.; Stratton, G.; Thomas, N.; Evans, F.; Critchley, A.T.; Hafting, J.; Prithiviraj, B. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, affects performance, egg quality, and gut microbiota of layer hens. Poult. Sci. 2014, 93, 2991–3001.
  32. Choi, Y.J.; Lee, S.R.; Oh, J.-W. Effects of dietary fermented seaweed and seaweed fusiforme on growth performance, carcass parameters and immunoglobulin concentration in broiler chicks. Asian-Australas. J. Anim. Sci. 2014, 27, 862–870.
  33. Karimi, S.H. Effects of Red Seaweed (Palmaria Palmata) Supplemented Diets Fed to Broiler Chickens Raised under Normal or Stressed Conditions; Dalhousie University: Halifax, NS, Canada, 2015; Available online: https://dalspace.library.dal.ca/bitstream/handle/10222/64662/Karimi–Seyed_Hossein–MSc–September_21.pdf?sequence=3&isAllowed=y (accessed on 24 April 2020).
  34. Kulshreshtha, G.; Rathgeber, B.; MacIsaac, J.; Boulianne, M.; Brigitte, L.; Stratton, G.; Thomas, N.A.; Critchley, A.T.; Hafting, J.; Prithiviraj, B. Feed supplementation with red seaweeds, Chondrus crispus and Sarcodiotheca gaudichaudii, reduce Salmonella Enteritidis in laying hens. Front. Microbiol. 2017, 8, 567.
  35. Choi, Y.; Lee, E.; Na, Y.; Lee, S. Effects of dietary supplementation with fermented and non-fermented brown algae by-products on laying performance, egg quality, and blood profile in laying hens. Asian-Australasian J. Anim. Sci. 2018, 31, 1654–1659.
  36. Bai, J.; Wang, R.; Yan, L.; Feng, J. Co-Supplementation of dietary seaweed powder and antibacterial peptides improves broiler growth performance and immune function. Braz. J. Poult. Sci. 2019, 21, 1–9.
  37. El-Deekx, A.; Bri, A.M.; Brikaa, A.M. Effect of different levels of seaweed in starter and finisher diets in pellet and mash form on performance and carcass quality of ducks. Int. J. Poult. Sci. 2009, 8, 1014–1021.
  38. Frasiska, N.; Suprijatna, E.; Susanti, S. Effect of diet containing Gracilaria sp. waste and multi-enzyme additives on blood lipid profile of local duck. Anim. Prod. 2016, 18, 22.
  39. Karu, P.; Selvan, S.; Gopi, H.; Manobhavan, M. Effect of macroalgae supplementation on growth performance of Japanese quails. Int. J. Curr. Microbiol. Appl. Sci. 2018, 7, 1039–1041.
  40. Zeweil, S.H.; Abu Hafsa, S.H.; Zahran, S.M.; Ahmed, M.S.; Abdel–Rahman, N. Effects of dietary supplementation with green and brown seaweeds on laying performance, egg quality, and blood lipid profile and antioxidant capacity in laying Japanese quail. Egypt. Poult. Sci. J. 2019, 39, 41–59.
  41. Ventura, M.; Castañon, J.; McNab, J. Nutritional value of seaweed (Ulva rigida) for poultry. Anim. Feed. Sci. Technol. 1994, 49, 87–92.
More
Information
Subjects: Others
Contributors MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register : ,
View Times: 878
Revisions: 2 times (View History)
Update Date: 28 Aug 2020
1000/1000