Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 1507 word(s) 1507 2021-12-07 03:56:43 |
2 update layout + 14 word(s) 1521 2021-12-27 09:14:46 | |
3 change type Meta information modification 1521 2021-12-28 02:28:16 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?

Confirm

Are you sure to Delete?
Cite
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Yang, L. Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/17567 (accessed on 18 June 2024).
Yang L. Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/17567. Accessed June 18, 2024.
Yang, Luyu. "Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/17567 (accessed June 18, 2024).
Yang, L. (2021, December 27). Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/17567
Yang, Luyu. "Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak." Encyclopedia. Web. 27 December, 2021.
Milk Fat Traits of Cattleyak
Edit

As the hybrid offspring of yak (♀) and cattle (Bos taurus) (♂), female cattleyak has obvious heterosis than yak, especially its lactation performance. Dairy products making from fermented and processed milk are popular with local herdsmen and tourists. As the main energy substance in milk, milk fat only accounts for 3 ~ 5% of the milk content, but determines the nutritional value of milk. Therefore, it is greatly meaningful to increase the percentage of milk fat and improve the composition of fatty acids of cattleyak. SNPs can help us finding potential molecular markers for milk fat traits of cattleyak, and can be screened according to molecular markers when they are young. It provides a reference for cultivating high milk fat cattle population in the future. The results of this study suggested that the SORBS1 gene polymorphism was closely related to the milk fat traits of cattleyak, which could be used as a candidate genetic marker for milk fat traits selection in cattleyak. This study provides a new molecular marker and theoretical basis for screening the milk fat traits of cattleyak. It has a certain reference value for the research and improvement of milk quality.

SORBS1 gene cattleyak milk fat traits

1. PCR amplification and SNPs screening

The concentration and purity of genomic DNA in cattleyak blood were detected by nucleic acid concentration detector, and the samples were all qualified. Using 2% agarose gel electrophoresis to detect four amplified products, clear and single-purpose bands were obtained. The specificity is good and can be used for subsequent sequencing analysis. A total of 9 SNPs in the CDS and their adjacent regions of SORBS1 gene were detected in cattleyak population by PCR and sequencing (Figure 2). g.6256 C>T (c.298 C>T) and g.24791 G>A (c.706 A>G) were detected by primer 1 and primer 4 PCR product, g.29029 C>T, g.29050 A>G, g.29121 A>G (c.979 A>G), g.29245 T>C, g.29305 T>C and g.29347 T>C were detected by primer 5 PCR product, g.96284 G>A (c.3090 G>A) was detected by primer 10 PCR product. Additionally, 4 SNPs (g.6256 C>T, g.24791 G>A, g.29121 A>G and g.96284 G>A) are located in the CDS region, while the other 5 SNPs are located in the intron region adjacent of SORBS1 gene.

2. SNPs genotyping of SORBS1 gene

The genotype frequency, allele frequency and polymorphic information content of 9 SNPs loci were shown in Table 2. The results showed that all the 9 SNPs loci had three genotypes in cattleyak population. The PIC of g.6256 C>T, g.24791 G>A, g.29029 C>T and g.29050 A>G were 0.361, g.29121 A>G was 0.346, g.29245 T>C, g.29305 T>C, g.29347 T>C and g.96284 G>A were 0.358. The PIC of all SNPs was between 0.25~0.5, and all of them were moderately polymorphic. All the other SNPs conformed to Hardy-Weinberg balance except g.29121 A>G site (P > 0.05).

3. Haplotype and diplotype analysis of each amino acid mutation site of SORBS1

Comparison of the amino acid residue sequence alignment of SORBS1 gene before and after mutation, we found that 3 SNPs (g.6256 C>T, g.24791 A>G, g.29121 A>G) caused amino acid changes among the 4 SNPs located in the CDS region. And no amino acid changes were observed at g.96284 G>A. The 3 mutations were Ser100Pro, Arg229His and Ala327Thr (Table 2). Using the 3 SNPs, a haplotype analysis was carried out using Haploview software (Table 3). Haplotype analysis showed that the 3 haplotypes were in fact found in the population of cattleyak, of which H1 (C-A-A) and H2 (T-G-G) were the major haplotypes, accounting for 61.9% and 33.3%, respectively. The frequency of H3 (T-G-A) was 4.9%. Based on these 3 haplotypes, we further obtained 4 combinations, in the form of H1-H1 (CCAAAA), H1-H2 (CTAGAG), H1-H3 (CTAGAA) and H2-H2 (TTGGGG) (Figure 3), of which H1-H1 (38.3%) and H2-H2 (37.4%) belonged to dominant diplotypes.

Animals 11 03461 g002 550

Figure 1. Sequencing diagram of heterozygous genotypes in SNPs loci of SORBS1 gene(red box marker). Four SNPs (A, B, E, I) are located in the CDS region of SORBS1 gene, c. system naming indicates the position of the site on the cDNA sequence. Five SNPs (C, D, F, G, H) are located in the intron region adjacent to the CDS region of SORBS1 gene.

Table 1. SNPs analysis of population genetic parameters of SORBS1

Loci

Genomic Region

Amino Acid

Genotype

Genotype Frequency

(%)

Allele

Allele Frequency

(%)

Ho

He

Ne

PIC

P Value

g.6256 C>T
(c.298 C>T)

Exon 3

Ser100Pro

CC

38.3

C

61.9

0.528

0.472

1.894

0.361

0.054

 

 

 

CT

47.1

T

38.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TT

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.24791 A>G
(c.706 A>G)

Exon 7

Arg229His

AA

38.3

A

61.9

0.528

0.472

1.894

0.361

0.054

 

 

 

AG

47.1

G

38.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GG

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29029 T>C

Intron 7

-

TT

38.3

T

61.9

0.528

0.472

1.894

0.361

0.054

 

 

 

TC

47.1

C

38.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CC

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29050 A>G

Intron 7

-

AA

38.3

A

61.9

0.528

0.472

1.894

0.361

0.054

 

 

 

AG

47.1

G

38.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GG

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29121 A>G
(c.979 A>G)

Exon 8

Ala327Thr

AA

48.0

A

66.7

0.556

0.444

1.799

0.346

0.017

 

 

 

AG

37.4

G

33.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

GG

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29245 C>T

Intron 8

-

CC

40.6

C

63.0

0.534

0.466

1.873

0.358

0.073

 

 

 

CT

44.8

T

37.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TT

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29305 C>T

Intron 8

-

CC

40.6

C

63.0

0.534

0.466

1.873

0.358

0.073

 

 

 

CT

44.8

T

37.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TT

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.29347 T>C

Intron 8

-

TT

40.6

T

63.0

0.534

0.466

1.873

0.358

0.073

 

 

 

TC

44.8

C

37.0

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CC

14.6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

g.96284 G>A
(c.3090 G>A)

Exon 28

Ser1030Ser

GG

39.7

G

62.7

0.532

0.468

1.879

0.358

0.057

 

 

 

GA

46.0

A

37.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

AA

14.3

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abbreviations: Ho = Homozygosity; He = Heterozygosity; Ne = Effective number of alleles; PIC = Polymorphic information content.

P>0.05 suggested that the population gene is in Hardy-Weinberg balance and the sample comes from the same mendel population.

Table 2. Haplotype and haplotype frequencies of the three mutations in the SORBS1 gene.

Haplotype

Ploymorphism Sites of SORBS1 Gene

Frequency(%)

g.6256 C>T

(c.298 C>T)

g.24791 A>G

(c.706 A>G)

g.29121 A>G

(c.979 A>G)

H1

C

A

A

61.8

H2

T

G

G

33.3

H3

T

G

A

4.9

Animals 11 03461 g003 550

Figure 2. Diplotypes and frequencies of the three mutations in the SORBS1 gene.

4. Association analysis between SNPs genotypes and milk fat traits

Based on the data of SNPs genotyping, the correlation analysis of single locus with milk fat percentage and fatty acids of cattleyak was carried out. As shown in Table 4, in terms of milk fat percentage and fatty acids content, most of the homozygous (CC genotype at g.6256 C>T, AA genotype at g.24791 A>G, TT genotype at g.29029 T>C, AA genotype at g.29050 A>G, AA genotype at g.29121 A>G, CC genotype at g.29245 C>T, CC genotype at g.29305 C>T, TT genotype at g.29347 T>C and GA genotype at g.96284 G>A) were significantly higher than the other genotypes (P < 0.05). At locus g.96284 G>A, the milk fat percentage, monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) and saturated fatty acid (SFA) of GA genotype were significantly higher than that in GG and AA genotypes (P < 0.05).

5. Association analysis between genetype combinations and milk fat traits of cattleyak

The genotype combination of H2-H2 did not cause the change of amino acid. There is a possibility of amino acid variation in the part of cattleyak whose genotype combinations are H1-H2 and H1-H3 The base mutation in the combination of H1-H1 resulted in the mutation of all three amino acids. The results of the Analyze-ANOVA showed that H1-H1 had the highest milk fat percentage, MUFA, PUFA and SFA, while H2-H2 had the lowest milk fat percentage and fatty acid content (Table 5). The differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05).

Table 3. Association analysis between genotypes and milk fat of cattleyak

Loci

Genotype

Milk Fat Percentage (%)

MUFA

PUFA

SFA

g.6256 C>T

CC

5.649±0.499a

1.605±0.212a

0.180±0.018a

3.771±0.388a

 

CT

4.783±0.732b

1.305±0.177b

0.162±0.023b

3.268±0.479b

 

TT

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.24791 A>G

AA

5.649±0.499a

1.605±0.212a

0.180±0.018a

3.771±0.388a

 

AG

4.783±0.732b

1.305±0.177b

0.162±0.023b

3.268±0.479b

 

GG

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29029 T>C

TT

5.649±0.499a

1.605±0.212a

0.180±0.018a

3.771±0.388a

 

TC

4.783±0.732b

1.305±0.177b

0.162±0.023b

3.268±0.479b

 

CC

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29050 A>G

AA

5.649±0.499a

1.605±0.212a

0.180±0.018a

3.771±0.388a

 

AG

4.783±0.732b

1.305±0.177b

0.162±0.023b

3.268±0.479b

 

GG

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29121 A>G

AA

5.516±0.621a

1.568±0.225a

0.178±0.021a

3.662±0.516a

 

AG

4.729±0.715b

1.274±0.152b

0.160±0.020b

3.278±0.401b

 

GG

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29245 C>T

CC

5.611±0.588a

1.587±0.231a

0.178±0.021a

3.746±0.465a

 

CT

4.773±0.696b

1.305±0.167b

0.163±0.022a

3.625±0.428b

 

TT

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29305 C>T

CC

5.611±0.588a

1.587±0.231a

0.178±0.021a

3.746±0.465a

 

CT

4.773±0.696b

1.305±0.167b

0.163±0.022a

3.625±0.428b

 

TT

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.29347 T>C

TT

5.611±0.588a

1.587±0.231a

0.178±0.021a

3.746±0.465a

 

TC

4.773±0.696b

1.305±0.167b

0.163±0.022a

3.625±0.428b

 

CC

3.280±0.677c

1.033±0.231c

0.130±0.011c

1.834±0.529c

g.96284 G>A

GG

4.335±0.772c

1.297±0.377b

0.152±0.029b

2.829±0.679b

 

GA

5.334±0.612a

1.483±0.167a

0.174±0.021a

3.565±0.467a

 

AA

5.040±0.283b

1.278±0.088b

0.168±0.011a

3.417±0.024a

Abbreviations: MUFA = Monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA = Polyunsaturated fatty acids; SAFA = Saturated fatty acid.

a-c Values within a row with different superscripts differ significantly at P < 0.05.

Table 4. Association analysis of different genotype combinations of amino acid mutation sites with milk fat traits.

Diplotype

Combinatorial Genotype

Number of Amino Acid Mutations

Milk Fat Percentage(%)

MUFA

PUFA

SFA

H1-H1

CCAAAA

3

5.649±0.499a

1.605±0.161a

0.180±0.018a

3.771±0.388a

H1-H2

CTAGAG

0-3

4.783±0.595b

1.305±0.143c

0.162±0.020c

3.268±0.396b

H1-H3

CTAGAA

1-3

4.992±0.465b

1.421±0.122b

0.171±0.027b

3.321±0.516b

H2-H2

TTGGGG

0

3.280±0.652c

1.033±0.153d

0.130±0.011d

1.834±0.262c

Abbreviations: MUFA = Monounsaturated fatty acid; PUFA = Polyunsaturated fatty acids; SAFA = Saturated fatty acid.

a-d Values within a row with different superscripts differ significantly at P < 0.05.

Information
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to https://encyclopedia.pub/register :
View Times: 503
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Date: 28 Dec 2021
1000/1000
Video Production Service