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Lykidis, I. Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 17 April 2024).
Lykidis I. Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 17, 2024.
Lykidis, Ioannis. "Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 17, 2024).
Lykidis, I. (2021, December 18). Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications. In Encyclopedia.
Lykidis, Ioannis. "Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications." Encyclopedia. Web. 18 December, 2021.
Blockchain-Enabled e-Government Applications

e-Government services have evolved significantly over the last decade, from a paper-based bureaucratic procedure to digital services. Electronically processed transactions require limited physical interaction with the public administration, and provide reduced response times, increased transparency, confidentiality and integrity. Blockchain technology enhances many of the above properties as it facilitates immutability and transparency for the recorded transactions and can help establish trust among participants. 

blockchain distributed ledger technology e-government

1. Authentication

Chen et al. [1] proposed a blockchain-based trust-transferring scheme using different PKI systems to enhance trust when users need cross-domain access. Alternative PKI systems services participating in the consortium can be used by users. When a user wants to have access to a service, she needs to be validated by presenting her certificate. An authentication request is sent to the blockchain for the presented certificate to validate whether the certificate is active or revoked. As a security enhancement, the blockchain scheme uses the traditional Online Certificate Status Protocol (OCSP) [2][3], which returns the status of the certificate to the blockchain in real-time. Following that, the blockchain sends for each certificate its information and time to the server. The final step is for the server to confirm the information and pass the verification.
Khan et al. [4] suggested that full integration of e-business services and e-government services could be achieved by using blockchain technologies. This could make the government’s processes faster and more secure. Also, data synchronisation between departments could easily be achieved. In their paper, they explore the evolution of e-government services in the U.A.E. and specific in one of the government’s departments in Dubai. A consortium blockchain technology was adopted for developing a Unified Corporate Registry which will allow authenticated users to create and update license information though the blockchain. For this implementation the Hyperledger Fabric platform was used. The registry is integrated with other nodes in the network such as public registries, and other business entities. Each node pushes to the corresponding business activity entity the license information whenever there is an new issue or renewal or modification or cancellation. There are three types of members in the united registry, the nodes that publish data to the registry, the data subscribers and the service providers, the nodes that subscribe data from the registry for any business activity transaction, and the nodes that manage registry’s indexes.
Batubara et al. [5] evidenced the existence of improvement in transparency and accountability in e-government services when using blockchain technologies. As a case study for their work, they used the land registry and how blockchain technology could improve transparency and accountability. The use of cryptographic pair of keys is not enough. The user’s authentication needs supreme perquisites for the system to function properly, enforcing an electronic identity prerequisite on all members of the blockchain. If members want to validate only users that have confirmed their real identity to the relevant authority that manages their transaction, then a public permissioned blockchain is adequate. Therefore, the electronic identity is needed. By this, the legal status of all members that transact is guaranteed and at the same time the transparency is preserved since the information on the ledger is public and everyone can read it. In case of land registry, the smart contract could be utilised as support of the system. Specific rules and prerequisites could be enclosed into the smart contract; the results are added to the blockchain. Each block of the chain is being transmitted to the network in order for the nodes to validate it. After the block is validated it will be appended to the previous block of the ledger. The authentication is made by using asymmetric cryptography that means that the specific member is authorised to work on it. In addition, by the presence of a large number of nodes and by the consensus algorithm in the communication between all nodes for the validation of the transaction, the whole network accepts the transactions.
Pinter et al. [6] suggested that e-government services, such as e-ID, could be enhanced by using blockchain technology. The main concept is to avoid a centralised model where only one authority could authenticate users. A decentralised model also helps to enhance security layers against attacks. Another matter that needs to be considered, is data protection because data is stored publicly on the blockchain. An approach to avoid data protection breaches is to store only technical references to the blockchain, all the other data could be stored locally. In the privacy-by-design framework, multiple identities should allow if needed for each user. Using blockchain helps to confirm the user’s identities by the signature of their public keys. Their proposed architecture is based on the SVN-G draft law. For the identification of users. The user has to log on to an ID portal, where he can choose one of the authorised Know Your Customer (KYC) [7] providers, to identify himself. When the KYC completes the verification of the user’s identity, the information is stored in the public blockchain. After that, the user is provided with a signature from the KYC which helps him to log on without revealing his personal data in any service that trusts the KYC provider. The connection between a public key and other offline data such as ID number is stored with the KYC provider in a private database. In case of illegal activities, the corresponding information is provided to the authorities. The advantage of using the blockchain in the process of the KYC provider helps to protect against the DoS attacks.
Páez et al. [8] proposed a blockchain-based architecture and a new consensus algorithm for digital identification of citizens by using biometric information. The proposed Colombian national e-ID system uses a blockchain to manage citizens’ transactions, where users are authenticated and their transactions are validated using fingerprint and iris recognition. The blockchain network architecture uses a private, permissioned blockchain where only notaries and registries can be part of it. Two types of nodes can be part of the network. One of these two are in charge of issuing an identity document when it is requested by the citizens and they are located in the registration offices. These nodes are the only ones that can generate any digital certificate with its public and private keys by using each citizen’s personal identification number. After the above-mentioned procedure is finished and the digital certificate is issued, the citizen can digitally sign any document and perform any transaction. Notary offices are the other type of nodes, which are responsible for maintaining citizen’s civil status, validating the correspondence of citizen’s identity and the relevant document for citizen’s proof of identity. When a new node wants to participate to the network, it sends a request to every node in the network. If it is confirmed as an authorised node, it receives a copy of the ledger and has the right to create a transaction and add blocks to the chain. The network uses the Tournament Consensus Algorithm (TCA) in order to choose which node will add the next block to the chain. TCA sends a request for choosing a number between 0 and 1 to everyone who is connected to the network every random time. The node that has collected all random numbers, finds the bigger number and sends back to the node who sent it a winner’s vote. The node that collects the majority of the votes will be the one that has the right to add the next block. In order to avoid the loss of time and energy for mining the block, the Proof-of-Luck (PoL) characteristics [9] were used to allow anyone to solve it quickly unlike the Proof-of-Work (PoW) [10].

2. Data Sharing

Liu et al. [11] proposed a data-sharing framework that focuses on data protection breaches when sharing data between different government departments and they describe how to protect data breaches during the transaction. Sharing information between nodes is made using private blockchains, this authenticates the nodes on the network and enables them to trust each other. At the same time, it establishes the data’s fundamental features and decreases the data framework disorder. The system could also query the data according to the criteria, collects the names of departments that possess the data and exchange the request. The blockchain also sort the aggregated user message and process user data anonymously to ensure anonymity. The data in the blockchain-based privacy framework includes three layers: (1) the database layer, which the primary database that contains the raw data and the privacy database the privacy processed data, (2) the server layer, which processes the data, and (3) the blockchain layer, which stores each node’s data directories and the node that possesses the data. After the completion of the procedure, the data directory will expand and recorded on the blockchain, which they believe it is difficult to have data protection breach. When there is a data request, the first step, is to locate the requested information and sends the request to the node. When the request is accepted, a specific process runs to store the requested data to the privacy server, then the request is confirmed and the data sharing starts. The role of the blockchain is to authenticate each user and prevent the counterfeit of the data. The validation is made using the PoW consensus algorithm.
Once a new document is issued, it is added to the blockchain where all parties of the network need to validate it by the mining process. The initial document will be reserved on the service provider’s storage for availability and authenticity for the granted user. Even though all users keep a copy of the ledger they can only preview the document in order to complete the service. On the other hand, citizens will have access to the documents anytime and anywhere since the service is provided on the web and mobile devices. The control of allowing joining nodes for the mining process is made by using a consortium blockchain. For the implementation, an existing platform is considered such as Ethereum or the e-government’s network.
The network accomplishes the data synchronisation of the nodes with protocols such as Proof-of-Stake (PoS) or Proof-of-Work (PoW). Information routing is accomplished through consensus and smart contracts. All data sharing information is hashed inside the sharing platform. The blockchain will verify the ciphertext data, while reading the stored information in order to reduce the instability of the node by storing the reading records in order to trace errors when self-audit. Their framework of information exchange uses a three-level software architecture that connects the data and presentation layer through a blockchain-based layer. The data layer contains information stored in a blockchain, such as information exchange using Internet and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The blockchain-based layer scattered storage, smart contracts, consensus algorithm and others combining the data and presentation layer. Finally, the presentation layer is the interface of government service application.
In other words, those entities authorised by the ROOT-CA node or intermediate CA node has permission to access the ledger. All Ledger data on each peer is encrypted via file system encryption to achieve the privacy of data related to electronic certificates. Moreover, data that are transmitted among peer nodes, ordering nodes and CA nodes are encrypted via TLS (Transport Layer Security). ECCS builds an access control pattern in the smart contract to restrict data access to certain roles which can meet the requirements for e-government service. Whoever, electronic certificates or catalogue sharing service requests will be added successfully to the blockchain without any human interference. This can provide trusted audit and trace when a dispute occurs. The blockchain-based system is a universal solution for the shared service of the digital certificate. That is to say, entities that want to cooperate on certain business but do not trust each other can use the blockchain-based system to achieve sharing services of data. The implementation was made by using the Hyperledger Fabric to demonstrate the functionality and practicality. The preliminary results showed that the work and functionality could meet all prerequisites of e-government.
Naing [12] proposed a generic model of an open blockchain framework that could be used for all types of e-government services, Government to Employee, Government to Citizens, Business to Business and Government to Government to ensure security, reliability and robustness of the e-government services. The use of a common data framework between all the authorities will also increase interoperability. Previous form the implementation, e-government strategies were reviewed from several other countries in Asia, East Asia and the EU. The proposed generic framework is based on a distributed blockchain with five layers: (1) Development Platform for e-gov services Layer, which includes front-end services and UI, application and data templates. (2) Blockchain Technology Service Layer, this layer is the most important because it includes services such as smart contracts, cryptocurrency, consensus algorithms such as Proof-of-Work (PoW) and Proof-of-Authority (PoA), Cybersecurity and many other services. (3) Data Standardisation and Distribution Layer, in this layer various data from different ministries or authorities are stored. (4) Data Storage Service Layer, this layer supports data centres services. (5) Secure and Distributed Infrastructure Layer, which supports secure communication for the blockchain network.
The services access layer is composed of e-government users and different devices to provide access, and storage of user’s credentials. The consortium blockchain layer is a peer-to-peer network of pre-selected e-government nodes for validating transactions and to authenticate users before joining the network. The consortium blockchain layer is also responsible for the communication between nodes, user management and the consensus. The Proof-of-Work consensus algorithm is used on this network. The network layer provides the connection between all layers. The ledger storage layer is used to store out of the blockchain large files such as documents, images or data that is going to be deleted or amended in the future. The necessity of this layer is due to the immutability of the blockchain.

3. e-Voting

Hjalmarsson et al. [13] have implemented an e-voting system that uses a permissioned blockchain. To achieve their goals for privacy and security, they have used a Go-Ethereum private Proof-of-Authority (PoA) blockchain. The consensus mechanism is based on the identity as a stake, which helps to deliver transactions faster. Their implementation consists of two types of nodes: District nodes and Bootnote. The first type of node represents the voting restricts which manages the smart contracts for the voting and the second type of node represents the institutions with private access to the network, this type of node works as a service that helps the district nodes to communicate with each other. Each voter has his identity wallet for each election he/she participates in. For the election, the administrator of the elections creates a ballot smart contract for each corresponding district node, then the voter can start to vote, after the voter places his/her vote the data of the vote is verified by the bulk of the district nodes and the vote is added to the blockchain. For each voting, the voter receives a voting ID which can be used to verify that his/her vote is listed on the blockchain and counted correctly. The voting transaction on the blockchain does not contain any of the voter’s data to maintain the privacy requirements. The authors tested their blockchain-based voting system in different blockchain frameworks such as Exonum, Quorum and Go-Ethereum, to decide which implementation was the best solution.
For a person to vote using his/her Ethereum wallet has to have also a small number of Ethers, to cast a vote. In their paper, they have excluded individual authentication and legal regulations because are considered different sub-cases. As we have mentioned above, their implementation is limited for small scale voting systems, which means, in a larger-scale voting system may appear different problems.
The validation for the casted votes is succeeded by using the PoW consensus algorithm. The consensus is succeeded from a pool of trusted user that work as miners and they are responsible for accepting or not the voting transaction, if a voting transaction is accepted, then it is being added as a block to the ledger.

4. Land Property Services

Alketbi et al. [14] have researched and analysed real estate in Dubai as a case study by identifying the involved entities, exploring the real estate process running in Dubai and also identifying the challenges, the impact of using blockchain technology on the real estate market. In this research, they have used a permissioned blockchain structure for enhancing the transparency of the transactions, minimising the cost and making easier the processes of real estate. During their research, they have based on the Hyperledger Fabric platform and its smart contacts. Since selling or renting land properties includes multiple participants, the main objectives for using blockchain technology in real estate is the automation of the property cycle by using smart contracts, management of digital assets by using tokens for properties and real estate in real-time by having predefined policies for instant settlement of transactions. The main roles of participants in the blockchain network are the network administrator, who configures the network policies and installs the consensus services, the operator node, who is responsible for monitoring and managing consensus in cluster nodes, the architect node, who is responsible for the blockchain architecture, and policies definition, the blockchain administrator node, who is different from the above-mentioned network administrator and it is responsible for administering nodes and their operations, including smart contract installation, and last the developer node, who is responsible for developing applications. Each node in the blockchain can participate in one or more permissioned networks. The blockchain smart contracts run through applications and after succeeded transactions, the ledgers are updated. For the future, they proposed the application of blockchain with an alternative operating model to other governments for improvements.
Nguyen et al. [15] have experimented and evaluated the use of blockchain for issuing land valuation certificates. They have defined a generic blockchain model for managing procedure integrated with the e-government services framework. Before starting the implementation, they explored the current procedures of issuing land valuation certificates and due to the Vietnamese network security law, all datacenters must be settled inside Vietnam, so any permissionless blockchain network would not be proper. Therefore, for their implementation, they have chosen to use Hyperledger Fabric, by setting up a private blockchain network, even though the network is private the land valuation certificates are accessible from a public endpoint of the network. They ended up using Hyperledger Fabric because it is an open source blockchain platform, it can support large consortium and by comparing with other platforms, it has more stable releases. For the data storage they used the InterPlanetary File System (IPFS) [16] and a scalable database for string big data BigChainDB [17]. This implementation is an extension of the main current service for the e-government framework. The land valuation platform includes the following services: identification of users who can interact with the stored data, these are authenticated and authorised by the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment to sign the digital certificates. Data mapping, this service is responsible to map different types of data into a key-value form. Smart contracts deployment and installation for every type of transaction. Consensus, for the initial state it includes the packing procedure of transactions into blocks before adding them to the ledger, in the future this may change according to new requirements. Monitoring of system health, application operations, system availability and anything else that will prevent any failure of the blockchain. Deployment and configuration of tools for peers. This experiment implementation meets the requirements of current service procedures for issuing land valuation certificates and also helps to digitise at the same time similar procedures.

5. e-Delivery Services

Payeras-Capella et al. [18] have presented two different schemes of an e-Delivery service to reduce the participation of third trusted parties in comparison with the up until now approaches without excluding the EU guidelines for e-Delivery systems. The schemes were based on a private and public e-Delivery system using blockchain and smart contracts to deliver fair exchanges and reduce the role of Trusted Third Parties. 

6. Human Resources Management

Neiheiser et al. [19] presented an architecture which can be applicable to any blockchain network that uses smart contracts. More precisely, they present an Human Resources Management (HRM) system, where its decentralised process assure transparency and protect both members from malevolent actions. The model includes three types of users which can be verified by their public key: The applicant, the reviewer and the institution. Two types of smart contracts are available in the system, the one with a list of all institutions and the other which keeps the job’s position information and its status. When an opened job position is published, it creates a smart contract on the blockchain. This helps applicants to see more information for each job position. When applicants are registered they receive information about the progress of the process. There is a list of professional reviewers that the smart contract selects one of them to review the job application. For a new institution to be added as a member of the network, a significant number of accepts is required. To sustain the privacy of the applicants, construction of a semi-permissioned model connected with a permissionless blockchain is used. When an institution opens a job position, it creates and publishes a smart contract to the blockchain. The job position is now available to the applicants to register, after the deadline is reached the job position is no longer available to the applicants, then a reviewer is elected to evaluate the application and to post the results. For the validation of the transactions a Byzantine Fault Tolerant consensus algorithm is used.

7. Government Contracting

Diallo et al. [20] proposed the blockchain-based system that allows real-time monitoring analysis of the e-government services and can be apply to any policy for government contracting. This system offers transparency, accountability and better service management. They introduced a generic blockchain framework for applying any policy of government contracting and they consider as a case study the US Small business Administration policy [21]. The blockchain-based system executes all the transaction and publishes the results to the public. They have used a public blockchain network. There are four categories of steps for contracts, preparation and submission, bidding and selection, execution monitoring and auditing. In the beginning, the system validates that a contract is submitted, after the validation is completed the transaction is added to the blockchain, after that comes the bidding step, the validation of the transaction is made using the PoW consensus algorithm. To become a user of the blockchain-based system, the entity must register. When the registration is completed a certificate is issued by the authority as an identity for the system, the certificate is a pair of keys, a private and a public key which is rooted in a digital certificate. For enhancing transparency, the guidelines of how to use and manage the certificate are rooted in a smart contract. All traditional contracts are transformed into smart contracts and translated into the supported language of the system. The generated contract is digitally signed by the issuing authority and shares with the other members of the system’s network. The member of the system’s network checks if the issued contract is regulated and digitally signed using the pair of keys. If everything is confirmed, the contract is available to the public, and the offering procedure starts. All interesting parties can prepare a signed proposal and submit it to the system. Each submitted offer is checked by the parties and those offers that satisfy the regulations will be accepted and written to the blockchain. The winning bidder is the one that its offer meets the regulations, at the whole procedure the winner is kept secret until the bidder proceeds to the next step. The final selection’s block is added to the blockchain. In the case of public blockchain security issues are raised since the stored data is publicly available, to reduce this concern, all parties in the system network could negotiate to encrypt and protect the sensitive data, but this could lead to the reduction of the government’s transparency.


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