Submitted Successfully!
To reward your contribution, here is a gift for you: A free trial for our video production service.
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry or images related to this topic.
Version Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 1156 word(s) 1156 2021-12-05 14:01:46 |
2 Done Meta information modification 1156 2021-12-10 02:22:21 | |
3 title change Meta information modification 1156 2022-03-09 05:07:12 |

Video Upload Options

Do you have a full video?


Are you sure to Delete?
If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
Šebesta, M. Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 19 April 2024).
Šebesta M. Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed April 19, 2024.
Šebesta, Martin. "Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles" Encyclopedia, (accessed April 19, 2024).
Šebesta, M. (2021, December 08). Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles. In Encyclopedia.
Šebesta, Martin. "Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles." Encyclopedia. Web. 08 December, 2021.
Field Application of ZnO and TiO2 Nanoparticles

Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have potential application in precision farming and sustainable agriculture. Studies have shown that ENPs enhance the efficiency of the delivery of agrochemicals and thus, have the potential to positively affect the environment, thereby improving the growth and health of the crops. 

Engineered nanoparticles ZnO TiO2 Field Application

1. Introduction

Nanotechnology plays an increasingly important role in most areas of human activity. Engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) have catalytic, photovoltaic, energetic, and sensory applications in diverse industries [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Moreover, biomedicine utilises ENPs as part of nano-vaccines, drug delivery, and diagnostic systems [9][10][11][12].
The interaction of ENPs with plants has been studied for about two decades. The initial research articles were mostly focused on the toxicity of ENPs on the plants; nevertheless, there were also few articles discussing their potential beneficial effects on crops [13][14][15][16]. At the same time, the first articles about the biosynthesis of nanomaterials by plants or plants extracts were published [17], which were partially inspired by the observations that NPs naturally form in the rhizosphere of plants [18][19]. At first, toxicity tests focused mostly on the short-term effects of the ENPs in seeds, seedlings, and young plants [20]. Early reviews concerned with ecotoxicology towards plants were published around the year 2008 [21][22][23][24] and were mostly concerned with research on the plant toxicity and interactions that were lacking for the higher plants at that time. The early studies on beneficial effects showed that, at optimum concentrations, ENPs might improve enzyme activities, photosynthesis, nitrogen absorption, and growth parameters of early seedlings [14][15][25][26][27].
Moreover, the preliminary reports on the effect of ENPs on plants grown in fields were published between the years 2010 and 2015 [28]. These studies showed the need to explore further the effects and interaction of ENPs under more realistic conditions as the underlying trend from laboratory experiments involved the application of higher doses of the nanoparticles which were toxic to the plants. In contrast, at appropriate lower concentrations, many ENPs were found to positively affect the plants’ growth, health, and quality [28][29]. For example, TiO2 NPs applied on barley during stem elongation and a second time during the four-leaf stage at concentrations of 0.01 to 0.03% increased grain yield and the weight of 1000 grains [30]. Peanut plants also responded positively to low concentrations of ZnO NPs, and higher concentrations of 2000 mg Zn∙L−1 revealed inhibitory effects [29]. Mostly, both ZnO and TiO2 NPs are only toxic at high concentrations, i.e., concentrations higher than 2000 mg∙L−1 [29]. Thus, both types of nanoparticles were found to be interesting for further field application, and their properties were also studied in this context. In recent studies on the interaction of ENPs with plants, the application of low, yet still effective, concentrations of ZnO and TiO2 NPs was investigated [31][32], and a new avenue of research was opened, where these nanomaterials can be applied not only to promote growth and agricultural productivity but also to alleviate abiotic and biotic stresses [33][34][35]. Both ZnO and TiO2 NPs were found to alleviate stresses caused by drought and heavy metals such as Cd. Further, these studies were performed under field conditions [33][34][35].

2. ZnO NPs and Application in Agriculture

ZnO NPs are an amphoteric semiconductive material with a wide band gap (Eg = 3.37 eV) [36]. Because of their unique properties, such as high binding energy, refractive index, thermal conductivity, piezoelectric nature, high absorbance of UV light, and antibacterial properties, these are widely used in various applications [37]. Moreover, as an added advantage, the above-mentioned properties are highly tuneable. Their size can be altered from a few nanometres to the upper limit of nanoparticle size definition (100 nm), and their shape can be easily adjusted by selecting the appropriate method of synthesis [37]. Different synthesis techniques have been used to produce ZnO NPs, including mechanochemical processes, controlled precipitation, sol-gel, solvothermal, hydrothermal methods, methods using emulsions and microemulsions, growing from a gas phase, pyrolysis spray methods, and others [37]. A broad range of shapes, such as flowerlike structures, nanorods, nanotubes and spherical or oblong nanoparticles, can be easily synthesised [37][38]. The surface of ZnO NPs is often modified to enhance their stability in colloidal suspension, to improve their positive effects on plants and to reduce their potential toxicity. The modification of their surface can be obtained by treatment with the inorganic compounds such as SiO2, Al2O3, etc., simple organic compounds, e.g., silanes or organic acids, and by more complex polymeric matrices [37]. Often biosynthesis of ZnO NPs is selected for agricultural applications since it is anticipated to create eco-benign nanomaterial [39]. Bare and surface-modified ZnO NPs were used in the laboratory, greenhouse, and field experiments on crop plants due to their UV protective, and antimicrobial properties besides their nutritional role as slow releasing Zn source for plants [31][38][39][40][41][42]. ZnO NPs easily dissolve compared with some other ENPs [43], such as TiO2 NPs, which affect plant health partly by their nano-specific properties, but also in larger part by the release of the Zn, which is essential to many processes on the cellular level [44]. In addition, ZnO NPs are reported to have an ability to decrease the effect of environmental stresses on plants, such as drought [45], temperature [46], metals, metalloids [47][48], and salt [49]. When applied at suitable concentrations, ZnO NPs increase plants’ seed germination [50], growth [51], the activity of antioxidants and protein production [52][53], chlorophyll content [54] and photosynthesis [55], production of oils and seeds [31][32], and uptake of essential elements [56].

3. TiO2 NPs and Application in Agriculture

TiO2 NPs are insoluble semiconductive material with a high refractive index, UV absorption, photocatalytic, and antimicrobial properties. These have highly tuneable properties partially because these ENPs exhibit diverse crystal symmetries represented by mineral phases such as anatase, brookite, or rutile. Each crystal structure has unique features that can benefit its application; most commonly, the suitable mineral form is selected for its lower or higher photocatalytic ability [57]. The size can be adjusted from a few nanometres up to 100 nm in any dimension, and the shape of TiO2 NPs can be tuned during their synthesis to obtain both nanorods and spherical nanoparticles [58]. Different types of synthesis protocols have been used for the production of TiO2 NPs to create nanomaterials of specific properties, e.g., sol, sol-gel, micelle, solvothermal, and hydrothermal methods, vapour deposition, and many others [59]. Because of their properties, TiO2 NPs have a wide range of applications in diverse fields of human activity, including agriculture. Similar to ZnO NPs, surface properties of TiO2 NPs are often modified to help with their stability or to increase their positive effects and decrease their toxicity [57][58][59]. Their environmental applications include water purification, degradation of pollutants, antimicrobial coating, biosensing, and drug delivery [60][61][62][63][64]. TiO2 NPs have been applied to protect seeds, enhance plant growth and germination, control crop diseases [65], degrade pesticides and detect their residues [66]. In addition, these NPs have been reported to increase root and shoot growth, seed or produce yield, and improve plant health. An increase in chlorophyll production, soluble leaf protein [67], and carotenoid content [68], and an increase in uptake of several essential elements [69] was also reported. Environmental stresses, such as drought in wheat [70] and high Cd levels in maize [71], were also alleviated significantly with the use of TiO2 NPs.


  1. Ayati, A.; Ahmadpour, A.; Bamoharram, F.F.; Tanhaei, B.; Mänttäri, M.; Sillanpää, M. A review on catalytic applications of Au/TiO2 nanoparticles in the removal of water pollutant. Chemosphere 2014, 107, 163–174.
  2. Moezzi, A.; McDonagh, A.M.; Cortie, M.B. Zinc oxide particles: Synthesis, properties and applications. Chem. Eng. J. 2012, 185–186, 1–22.
  3. Williams, B.P.; Qi, Z.; Huang, W.; Tsung, C.-K. The impact of synthetic method on the catalytic application of intermetallic nanoparticles. Nanoscale 2020, 12, 18545–18562.
  4. Sutarlie, L.; Ow, S.Y.; Su, X. Nanomaterials-based biosensors for detection of microorganisms and microbial toxins. Biotechnol. J. 2017, 12.
  5. Ismael, M. A review and recent advances in solar-to-hydrogen energy conversion based on photocatalytic water splitting over doped-TiO2 nanoparticles. Sol. Energy 2020, 211, 522–546.
  6. Esfe, M.H.; Kamyab, M.H.; Valadkhani, M. Application of nanofluids and fluids in photovoltaic thermal system: An updated review. Sol. Energy 2020, 199, 796–818.
  7. Vinitha, V.; Preeyanghaa, M.; Vinesh, V.; Dhanalakshmi, R.; Neppolian, B.; Sivamurugan, V. Two is better than one: Catalytic, sensing and optical applications of doped zinc oxide nanostructures. Emergent Mater. 2021.
  8. Selvakumar, D.; Nagaraju, P.; Arivanandhan, M.; Jayavel, R. Metal oxide–grafted graphene nanocomposites for energy storage applications. Emergent Mater. 2021.
  9. Pippa, N.; Gazouli, M.; Pispas, S. Recent Advances and Future Perspectives in Polymer-Based Nanovaccines. Vaccines 2021, 9, 558.
  10. Wang, W.; Liu, X.; Zheng, X.; Jin, H.J.; Li, X. Biomineralization: An Opportunity and Challenge of Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Systems for Cancer Therapy. Adv. Healthc. Mater. 2020, 9, 2001117.
  11. Wu, X.; Yang, H.; Yang, W.; Chen, X.; Gao, J.; Gong, X.; Wang, H.; Duan, Y.; Wei, D.; Chang, J. Nanoparticle-based diagnostic and therapeutic systems for brain tumors. J. Mater. Chem. B 2019, 7, 4734–4750.
  12. Antunes, A.; Popelka, A.; Aljarod, O.; Hassan, M.K.; Kasak, P.; Luyt, A.S. Accelerated Weathering Effects on Poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) and PHBV/TiO2 Nanocomposites. Polymers 2020, 12, 1743.
  13. Changmei, L.; Chaoying, Z.; Junqiang, W.; Guorong, W.; Mingxuan, T. Research of the effect of nanometer materials on germination and growth enhancement of Glycine max and its mechanism. Soybean Sci. 2002, 21, 168–171.
  14. Hong, F.; Yang, F.; Liu, C.; Gao, Q.; Wan, Z.; Gu, F.; Wu, C.; Ma, Z.; Zhou, J.; Yang, P. Influences of Nano-TiO2 on the chloroplast aging of spinach under light. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2005, 104, 249–260.
  15. Hong, F.; Zhou, J.; Liu, C.; Yang, F.; Wu, C.; Zheng, L.; Yang, P. Effect of nano-TiO2 on photochemical reaction of chloroplasts of spinach. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2005, 105, 269–279.
  16. Yang, L.; Watts, D.J. Particle surface characteristics may play an important role in phytotoxicity of alumina nanoparticles. Toxicol. Lett. 2005, 158, 122–132.
  17. Shankar, S.S.; Ahmad, A.; Sastry, M. Geranium Leaf Assisted Biosynthesis of Silver Nanoparticles. Biotechnol. Prog. 2003, 19, 1627–1631.
  18. Manceau, A.; Nagy, K.L.; Marcus, M.A.; Lanson, M.; Geoffroy, N.; Jacquet, T.; Kirpichtchikova, T. Formation of Metallic Copper Nanoparticles at the Soil−Root Interface. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 1766–1772.
  19. Lanson, B.; Marcus, M.A.; Fakra, S.; Panfili, F.; Geoffroy, N.; Manceau, A. Formation of Zn–Ca phyllomanganate nanoparticles in grass roots. Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta 2008, 72, 2478–2490.
  20. Lin, D.H.; Xing, B.S. Phytotoxicity of nanoparticles: Inhibition of seed germination and root growth. Environ. Pollut. 2007, 150, 243–250.
  21. Klaine, S.J.; Alvarez, P.J.J.; Batley, G.E.; Fernandes, T.F.; Handy, R.D.; Lyon, D.Y.; Mahendra, S.; McLaughlin, M.J.; Lead, J.R. Nanomaterials in the environment: Behavior, fate, bioavailability, and effects. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 2008, 27, 1825–1851.
  22. Handy, R.D.; von der Kammer, F.; Lead, J.R.; Hassellöv, M.; Owen, R.; Crane, M. The ecotoxicology and chemistry of manufactured nanoparticles. Ecotoxicology 2008, 17, 287–314.
  23. Navarro, E.; Baun, A.; Behra, R.; Hartmann, N.B.; Filser, J.; Miao, A.-J.; Quigg, A.; Santschi, P.H.; Sigg, L. Environmental behavior and ecotoxicity of engineered nanoparticles to algae, plants, and fungi. Ecotoxicology 2008, 17, 372–386.
  24. Handy, R.D.; Owen, R.; Valsami-Jones, E. The ecotoxicology of nanoparticles and nanomaterials: Current status, knowledge gaps, challenges, and future needs. Ecotoxicology 2008, 17, 315–325.
  25. Zheng, L.; Hong, F.; Lu, S.; Liu, C. Effect of nano-TiO2 on strength of naturally aged seeds and growth of spinach. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2005, 104, 83–91.
  26. Gao, F.; Hong, F.; Liu, C.; Zheng, L.; Su, M.; Wu, X.; Yang, F.; Wu, C.; Yang, P. Mechanism of nano-anatase TiO2 on promoting photosynthetic carbon reaction of spinach: Inducing complex of Rubisco-Rubisco activase. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2006, 111, 239–253.
  27. Yang, F.; Hong, F.; You, W.; Liu, C.; Gao, F.; Wu, C.; Yang, P. Influence of nano-anatase TiO2 on the nitrogen metabolism of growing spinach. Biol. Trace Elem. Res. 2006, 110, 179–190.
  28. Du, W.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; Ji, R.; Yin, Y.; Zhu, J.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Guo, H. Physiological and Biochemical Changes Imposed by CeO2 Nanoparticles on Wheat: A Life Cycle Field Study. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2015, 49, 11884–11893.
  29. Prasad, T.N.V.K.V.; Sudhakar, P.; Sreenivasulu, Y.; Latha, P.; Munaswamy, V.; Reddy, K.R.; Sreeprasad, T.S.; Sajanlal, P.R.; Pradeep, T. Effect of nanoscale zinc oxide particles on the germination, growth and yield of peanut. J. Plant Nutr. 2012, 35, 905–927.
  30. Moaveni, P.; Farahani, H.A.; Maroufi, K. Effect of TiO2 nanoparticles spraying on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under field condition. Adv. Environ. Biol. 2011, 5, 2220–2223.
  31. Kolenčík, M.; Ernst, D.; Urík, M.; Ďurišová, Ľ.; Bujdoš, M.; Šebesta, M.; Dobročka, E.; Kšiňan, S.; Illa, R.; Qian, Y.; et al. Foliar Application of Low Concentrations of Titanium Dioxide and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles to the Common Sunflower under Field Conditions. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 1619.
  32. Kolenčík, M.; Ernst, D.; Komár, M.; Urík, M.; Šebesta, M.; Dobročka, E.E.; Černý, I.; Illa, R.; Kanike, R.; Qian, Y.; et al. Effect of foliar spray application of zinc oxide nanoparticles on quantitative, nutritional, and physiological parameters of foxtail millet (Setaria italica l.) under field conditions. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1559.
  33. Irshad, M.A.; ur Rehman, M.Z.; Anwar-ul-Haq, M.; Rizwan, M.; Nawaz, R.; Shakoor, M.B.; Wijaya, L.; Alyemeni, M.N.; Ahmad, P.; Ali, S. Effect of green and chemically synthesized titanium dioxide nanoparticles on cadmium accumulation in wheat grains and potential dietary health risk: A field investigation. J. Hazard. Mater. 2021, 415, 125585.
  34. Hussain, A.; Rizwan, M.; Ali, S.; ur Rehman, M.Z.; Qayyum, M.F.; Nawaz, R.; Ahmad, A.; Asrar, M.; Ahmad, S.R.; Alsahli, A.A.; et al. Combined use of different nanoparticles effectively decreased cadmium (Cd) concentration in grains of wheat grown in a field contaminated with Cd. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2021, 215, 112139.
  35. Khattak, A.; Ullah, F.; Shinwari, Z.K.; Mehmood, S. The effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and salicylic acid on growth and biodiesel production potential of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) under water stress. Pak. J. Bot. 2021, 53, 1987–1995.
  36. Klingshirn, C.; Fallert, J.; Zhou, H.; Sartor, J.; Thiele, C.; Maier-Flaig, F.; Schneider, D.; Kalt, H. 65 years of ZnO research—Old and very recent results. Phys. Status Solidi 2010, 247, 1424–1447.
  37. Kołodziejczak-Radzimska, A.; Jesionowski, T. Zinc Oxide—From Synthesis to Application: A Review. Materials 2014, 7, 2833.
  38. Sabir, S.; Arshad, M.; Chaudhari, S.K. Zinc oxide nanoparticles for revolutionizing agriculture: Synthesis and applications. Sci. World J. 2014, 2014, 8.
  39. Saravanan, A.; Kumar, P.S.; Karishma, S.; Vo, D.V.N.; Jeevanantham, S.; Yaashikaa, P.R.; George, C.S. A review on biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles and its environmental applications. Chemosphere 2021, 264, 128580.
  40. Tarafdar, J.C.; Agrawal, A.; Raliya, R.; Kumar, P.; Burman, U.; Kaul, R.K. ZnO Nanoparticles Induced Synthesis of Polysaccharides and Phosphatases by Aspergillus Fungi. Adv. Sci. Eng. Med. 2012, 4, 324–328.
  41. Raliya, R.; Tarafdar, J.C. ZnO Nanoparticle Biosynthesis and Its Effect on Phosphorous-Mobilizing Enzyme Secretion and Gum Contents in Clusterbean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba L.). Agric. Res. 2013, 2, 48–57.
  42. Raliya, R.; Saharan, V.; Dimkpa, C.; Biswas, P. Nanofertilizer for Precision and Sustainable Agriculture: Current State and Future Perspectives. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2018, 66, 6487–6503.
  43. Bian, S.-W.W.; Mudunkotuwa, I.A.; Rupasinghe, T.; Grassian, V.H. Aggregation and Dissolution of 4 nm ZnO Nanoparticles in Aqueous Environments: Influence of pH, Ionic Strength, Size, and Adsorption of Humic Acid. Langmuir 2011, 27, 6059–6068.
  44. Singh, P.; Arif, Y.; Siddiqui, H.; Sami, F.; Zaidi, R.; Azam, A.; Alam, P.; Hayat, S. Nanoparticles enhances the salinity toxicity tolerance in Linum usitatissimum L. by modulating the antioxidative enzymes, photosynthetic efficiency, redox status and cellular damage. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2021, 213, 112020.
  45. Dimkpa, C.O.; Andrews, J.; Sanabria, J.; Bindraban, P.S.; Singh, U.; Elmer, W.H.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L.; White, J.C. Interactive effects of drought, organic fertilizer, and zinc oxide nanoscale and bulk particles on wheat performance and grain nutrient accumulation. Sci. Total Environ. 2020, 722, 137808.
  46. Hassan, N.S.; El Din, T.A.S.; Hendawey, M.H.; Borai, I.H.; Mahdi, A.A. Magnetite and Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Alleviated Heat Stress in Wheat Plants. Curr. Nanomater. 2018, 3, 32–43.
  47. Rizwan, M.; Ali, S.; Zia ur Rehman, M.; Adrees, M.; Arshad, M.; Qayyum, M.F.; Ali, L.; Hussain, A.; Chatha, S.A.S.; Imran, M. Alleviation of cadmium accumulation in maize (Zea mays L.) by foliar spray of zinc oxide nanoparticles and biochar to contaminated soil. Environ. Pollut. 2019, 248, 358–367.
  48. Rizwan, M.; Ali, S.; ur Rehman, M.Z.; Maqbool, A. A critical review on the effects of zinc at toxic levels of cadmium in plants. Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 2019, 26, 6279–6289.
  49. Torabian, S.; Zahedi, M.; Khoshgoftarmanesh, A. Effect of Foliar Spray of Zinc Oxide on Some Antioxidant Enzymes Activity of Sunflower under Salt Stress. J. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2016, 18, 1013–1025.
  50. García-López, J.I.; Zavala-García, F.; Olivares-Sáenz, E.; Lira-Saldívar, R.H.; Díaz Barriga-Castro, E.; Ruiz-Torres, N.A.; Ramos-Cortez, E.; Vázquez-Alvarado, R.; Niño-Medina, G. Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles Boosts Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Capsicum annuum L. during Germination. Agronomy 2018, 8, 215.
  51. Singh, J.; Kumar, S.; Alok, A.; Upadhyay, S.K.; Rawat, M.; Tsang, D.C.W.; Bolan, N.; Kim, K.-H. The potential of green synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles as nutrient source for plant growth. J. Clean. Prod. 2019, 214, 1061–1070.
  52. Venkatachalam, P.; Priyanka, N.; Manikandan, K.; Ganeshbabu, I.; Indiraarulselvi, P.; Geetha, N.; Muralikrishna, K.; Bhattacharya, R.C.; Tiwari, M.; Sharma, N.; et al. Enhanced plant growth promoting role of phycomolecules coated zinc oxide nanoparticles with P supplementation in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2017, 110, 118–127.
  53. Salama, D.M.; Osman, S.A.; Abd El-Aziz, M.E.; Abd Elwahed, M.S.A.; Shaaban, E.A. Effect of zinc oxide nanoparticles on the growth, genomic DNA, production and the quality of common dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Biocatal. Agric. Biotechnol. 2019, 18, 101083.
  54. Pullagurala, V.L.R.; Adisa, I.O.; Rawat, S.; Kalagara, S.; Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L. ZnO nanoparticles increase photosynthetic pigments and decrease lipid peroxidation in soil grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum). Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2018, 132, 120–127.
  55. Faizan, M.; Faraz, A.; Yusuf, M.; Khan, S.T.; Hayat, S. Zinc oxide nanoparticle-mediated changes in photosynthetic efficiency and antioxidant system of tomato plants. Photosynthetica 2018, 56, 678–686.
  56. Peralta-Videa, J.R.; Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Zhao, L.; Diaz, B.C.; Ge, Y.; Priester, J.H.; Holden, P.A.; Gardea-Torresdey, J.L. Cerium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles alter the nutritional value of soil cultivated soybean plants. Plant Physiol. Biochem. 2014, 80, 128–135.
  57. Macwan, D.P.; Dave, P.N.; Chaturvedi, S. A review on nano-TiO2 sol–gel type syntheses and its applications. J. Mater. Sci. 2011, 46, 3669–3686.
  58. Silva, R.M.; TeeSy, C.; Franzi, L.; Weir, A.; Westerhoff, P.; Evans, J.E.; Pinkerton, K.E. Biological Response to Nano-Scale Titanium Dioxide (TiO2): Role of Particle Dose, Shape, and Retention. J. Toxicol. Environ. Heal. Part A 2013, 76, 953–972.
  59. Chen, X.; Mao, S.S. Titanium Dioxide Nanomaterials: Synthesis, Properties, Modifications, and Applications. Chem. Rev. 2007, 107, 2891–2959.
  60. Mahlambi, M.M.; Ngila, C.J.; Mamba, B.B. Recent Developments in Environmental Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants: The Case of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles—A Review. J. Nanomater. 2015, 2015, 790173.
  61. Han, C.; Lalley, J.; Namboodiri, D.; Cromer, K.; Nadagouda, M.N. Titanium dioxide-based antibacterial surfaces for water treatment. Curr. Opin. Chem. Eng. 2016, 11, 46–51.
  62. Yan, X.; Yuan, K.; Lu, N.; Xu, H.; Zhang, S.; Takeuchi, N.; Kobayashi, H.; Li, R. The interplay of sulfur doping and surface hydroxyl in band gap engineering: Mesoporous sulfur-doped TiO2 coupled with magnetite as a recyclable, efficient, visible light active photocatalyst for water purification. Appl. Catal. B Environ. 2017, 218, 20–31.
  63. George, J.M.; Antony, A.; Mathew, B. Metal oxide nanoparticles in electrochemical sensing and biosensing: A review. Microchim. Acta 2018, 185, 358.
  64. Jarosz, M.; Pawlik, A.; Szuwarzyński, M.; Jaskuła, M.; Sulka, G.D. Nanoporous anodic titanium dioxide layers as potential drug delivery systems: Drug release kinetics and mechanism. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2016, 143, 447–454.
  65. Servin, A.; Elmer, W.; Mukherjee, A.; De la Torre-Roche, R.; Hamdi, H.; White, J.C.; Bindraban, P.; Dimkpa, C. A review of the use of engineered nanomaterials to suppress plant disease and enhance crop yield. J. Nanoparticle Res. 2015, 17, 92.
  66. Aragay, G.; Pino, F.; Merkoçi, A. Nanomaterials for Sensing and Destroying Pesticides. Chem. Rev. 2012, 112, 5317–5338.
  67. Raliya, R.; Biswas, P.; Tarafdar, J.C. TiO2 nanoparticle biosynthesis and its physiological effect on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.). Biotechnol. Rep. 2015, 5, 22–26.
  68. Raliya, R.; Nair, R.; Chavalmane, S.; Wang, W.-N.; Biswas, P. Mechanistic evaluation of translocation and physiological impact of titanium dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles on the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) plant. Metallomics 2015, 7, 1584–1594.
  69. Tan, W.; Du, W.; Barrios, A.C.; Armendariz, R.; Zuverza-Mena, N.; Ji, Z.; Chang, C.H.; Zink, J.I.; Hernandez-Viezcas, J.A.; Peralta-Videa, J.R.; et al. Surface coating changes the physiological and biochemical impacts of nano-TiO2 in basil (Ocimum basilicum) plants. Environ. Pollut. 2017, 222, 64–72.
  70. Mustafa, H.; Ilyas, N.; Akhtar, N.; Raja, N.I.; Zainab, T.; Shah, T.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, P. Biosynthesis and characterization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles and its effects along with calcium phosphate on physicochemical attributes of wheat under drought stress. Ecotoxicol. Environ. Saf. 2021, 223, 112519.
  71. Lian, J.; Zhao, L.; Wu, J.; Xiong, H.; Bao, Y.; Zeb, A.; Tang, J.; Liu, W. Foliar spray of TiO2 nanoparticles prevails over root application in reducing Cd accumulation and mitigating Cd-induced phytotoxicity in maize (Zea mays L.). Chemosphere 2020, 239, 124794.
Contributor MDPI registered users' name will be linked to their SciProfiles pages. To register with us, please refer to :
View Times: 467
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Date: 09 Mar 2022