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Figueiredo, R. Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 02 December 2023).
Figueiredo R. Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed December 02, 2023.
Figueiredo, Ronnie. "Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena" Encyclopedia, (accessed December 02, 2023).
Figueiredo, R.(2021, November 26). Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena. In Encyclopedia.
Figueiredo, Ronnie. "Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena." Encyclopedia. Web. 26 November, 2021.
Blockchain Technology in Higher Education Arena

Blockchain technology is an advantage over existing ones in that it maintains blockchain record permanence, and the number of blockchain-based products is limited in higher education.

blockchain technology bibliometric studies disrupt higher education digital transformation

1. Introduction

The use of blockchain can change the way information is exchanged between chain actors as it provides a platform to solve the problem of tracking product information in supply chain management [1]. Today, the great challenge lies in the qualification of the workforce, being applied through digital platforms Lizcano et al. [2].
In addition, the speed of global changes demand a quick adaptation to the new conditions of higher education, creating advances in the application of technologies and innovations in universities [3]. On top of that, the educational industry is being integrated with technology and has faced various challenges in maintaining the documents of academic details for each candidate for extended periods [4].
These challenges happen because due to the large number of data manipulated in the education industry, attracting interest in the development of microservices architectures based on scalability, resilience, and elasticity [5]. Therefore, considering that the use and development of other digital technologies is vital to blocking security threats and adding layers of reliable protection, a powerful opportunity can emerge from utilizing the new blockchain technology [6].
In addition, higher education is considered as an base for the economic, social, and technological development of countries, being related to the formation of human capital and social and technological innovation [3].
Based on that, the importance of stimulating learning emerges due to the loss of enthusiasm generated by the internet. The concern with online content security and learning brings a new technological approach with the use of blockchain, creating safe virtual environments for learning in a motivating way [7].
Similarly, blockchain technology is necessary in the educational arena because it is a significant part of the security process, especially in the verification of documents containing academic details and to provide a reliable solution to avoid any academic fraud [4]. The application of blockchain in the higher education sector is growing, especially in information monitoring carried out through smart applications [8].
Some studies have surfaced with the objective of systematizing the literature in this field of study. Consequently, Castro et al. [9] conducted a study of blockchain and diploma in the Scopus database. In addition, Alzahrani et al. [10] identified articles related to the literature on blockchain and higher education for the transformation of quality 4.0.

2. Blockchain Technology Applications in the Higher Education Arena

In reference to blockchain, Agbo et al. [11] examined intelligent learning environments, conducting a bibliometric study. In addition, Ali et al. [12] introduced blockchain model to support easy application for certificates. Alzahrani et al. [10] indicated the limited blockchain adoption in support of IES quality. Moreover, Panachev et al. [3] investigated the use of blockchain and game approach in higher education institutions.
In addition, Walcott-Bryant et al. [13] designed a digital healthcare portfolio platform to enable quality and continuity of care. Subsequently, Liang et al. [14] proposed a blockchain network architecture based on the complexity of education scenarios. Furthermore, Kapliienko et al. [15] provided an analysis of data stored in the existing system of diploma verification.
In addition, Sowmiya et al. [8] described the growing popularity of Internet of Things (IoT) systems in monitoring physical attendance. Castro et al. [9] considered that linking blockchain and higher education diplomas can positively impact students around the world. Next, Woods et al. [16] explored the implications for higher education caused by disruptions brought about by changes in the sector.
Subsequently, Ist et al. [17] analyzed the Italian status quo in DH Methods. The Italian Young Medical Doctors Association (Segretariato Italiano Giovani Medici (SIGM)) proposed a web-based survey to assess DH awareness and previous knowledge among young doctors. Investigated areas were big data, omics technology and predictive models, artificial intelligence (AI), internet of things, telemedicine, social media, blockchain, and clinical data storage.
For instance, Jordaan et al. [18] studied the model, LinkLearn, which implements blockchain principles. In addition, Kumaresh et al. [19] described the use of technology to share academic records and student achievement. Furthermore, Tyagi et al. [20] covered technology in various sectors, such as agriculture, social media, banking, education, etc. In addition, Hidrogo et al. [21] developed projects, such as virtual reality zones. Moreover, El-Dorry et al. [22] presented a system for the counterfeiting problem. Similarly, Yue et al. [23] analyzed the influence of blockchain technology on higher education.
Meanwhile, Zhang et al. [24] explored the application of technology to improve the pedagogical information management system in higher education. Chehade et al. [25] discovered a variety of information support consumer education. Interestingly, Ceke et al. [26] explored the possibility of applying intelligence in creating and issuing diplomas.
On top of that, Bolsens et al. [27] described the need to improve the efficiency of organizations with the use of technology. Another point is that Priya et al. [28] indicated that a proposed system model should provide high performance, high efficiency, and low cost, together with the minimum amount of processing time. By detecting anomalies using ML algorithms, the trustworthiness of the documents involved, and transparent transactions are assured. In addition, Abougalala et al. [29] discussed the use of blockchain in smart universities.
In the same way, Awaji et al. [30] examined blockchain applications and summarized the challenges for future studies. Meanwhile, Sharma et al. [31] understood the application of blockchain technology in education. Moreover, Vidal et al. [32] proposed an application for issuing certificates using blockchain technology.
Furthermore, Liang et al. [14] described an educational consortium blockchain-based network. Shukla et al. [33] proposed a model to verify the academic credentials and certificates submitted by students. Additionally, Lizcano et al. [2] proposed a training model to adapt its teaching to the specific needs of students. on the other hand, Zhao et al. [34] proposed a system to identity information in ciphertext form. In addition, Vidal et al. [35] identified, analyzed, and tested the independence, certificate process. Because of that, Pfeiffer et al. [36] presented technologies for storing student data. Another point is provided by Ronaghi et al. [1], assessing the maturity of blockchain technology in agricultural education. Above all, Paraschiveanu et al. [37] featured an article with overviews of the impact of blockchain features.
Indeed, Wishnow et al. [38] conducted research to identify emerging technologies for the oil and gas industry in the coming years. Complementarily, Mori et al. [39] proposed a digital university enrollment system using smart blockchain contracts. Eventually, Ocheja et al. [40] investigated learning records in educational institutions. According to Liu et al. [41], investigated her on the problems of applying blockchain technology. Hou et al. [42] proposed a method for sharing educational resources using blockchain platform. Moreover, Smirnov et al. [43] addressed the dominant role of the consumer in emerging markets using technology.
In addition, Vidal et al. [32] proposed an approach using the blockchain technology at the University Fernando Pessoa. Furthermore, Ricci et al. [44] described that this technology use by individuals could improve awareness and financial education in Ethiopia. Further, Seneviratne et al. [45] presented a high level overview of mobile health (mHealth). In addition, Narman et al. [46] determined the education levels of investors or users who are interested in eight cryptocurrencies by using seven readability techniques. On top of that, Turlacu et al. [47] emphasized that universities should no longer be lagging on technology compared with other sectors.
Although this is not yet explored, new technologies as the next-generation security, the blockchain, cloud, AI conversational interface, and digital credentials can be a leverage for different industries. Above all, Oliveira [48] considered that blockchain technology has emerged as a disruptive trend that can influence business, government, and society in the coming years. In addition, Ma et al. [49] proposed a new model that combines smart contracts.
On the other hand, Fernández et al. [50] observed that the dimension of the cooperative banks influences their perception of the digital transformation in the cooperative banking sector. In this sense, the cooperative banks that affirmed the existence of a wide margin of improvement in the operational scope have a smaller dimension and more seniority than the rest of the sample. Above all, Kamisalic et al. [51] presented different aspects within the educational domain from a case study. Furthermore, Huynh et al. [52] described a proposed model for issuing and verifying digital currency built on blockchain technology.
Similarly, Cheng et al. [53] proposed the digital certificate system based on blockchain technology. In addition, Ritzer et al. [54] reinforced the importance of universities in relation to digital approaches. However, Swan [55] discussed the role of blockchains in next-generation artificial intelligence systems, notably deep learning blockchains. Finally, Neilson et al. [56] provided a set of Bitcoin tutorials for students. The syntheses of authors and blockchain applications are presented in the Table 1.
Table 1. The main applications used in the “blockchain technology in higher education.
Number Authors Publication Year Blockchain Technology Applications
1 (Agbo, Oyelere, Suhonen, and Tukiainen) 2021 Smart learning environments
2 (M A Ali and Bhaya) 2021 Blockchain model
3 (B Alzahrani, Bahaitham, Andejany, and Elshennawy) 2021 Quality 4.0 transformation process
4 (A Panachev, Shcherbitsky, and Medvedev) 2021 Educational software products elaboration.
5 (Walcott-Bryant et al.) 2021 Digital platform
6 (Liang, Zhao, Zhang, Liu, and Zhang) 2021 Education consortium blockchain platform
7 (Kapliienko, Tabunshchyk, Kapliienko, and Wolff) 2021 University digital ecosystem
8 (Sowmiya and Poovammal) 2021 Privacy system manager
9 (R Q Castro and Au-Yong-oliveira) 2021 Diploma certification.
10 (Woods, Doherty, and Stephens) 2021 Upskill development
11 (Casà et al.) 2021 Pre- and post-graduation training in digital
12 [No author name available]/proceedings 2021 -
13 [No author name available]/proceedings 2021 -
14 (Jordaan) 2021 Learning tool
15 (Kumaresh) 2021 Academic blockchain (transparent and secured system for sharing academic records and student’s achievements)
16 (Tyagi, Ghosh, Rana, and Kansal) 2020 Blockchain applications across multiple domains (social medias, education, crypto-currency, information technology and data management)
17 (Hidrogo, Zambrano, Hernandez-de-Menendez, and Morales-Menendez) 2020 Virtual reality zones, collaborative virtual reality, I 360° courses, blockchain for digital credentials, and digital tutors.
18 (El-Dorry et al.) 2020 Document certification
19 (Peng, Yang, and Zhou) 2020 Education system
20 (Zhang, Ma, Ji, and Wang) 2020 Teaching informatization management
21 (Chehade et al.) 2020 Empowerment
22 Ceke, D., Kunosic, S. (Ceke and Kunosic) 2020 Diplomas in education
23 (Bolsens) 2020 -
24 (Priya, Ponnavaikko, and Aantonny) 2020 Verification of certificates
25 (Abougalala, Amasha, Areed, Alkhalaf, and Khairy) 2020 Smart university
26 (B Awaji, Solaiman, and Albshri) 2020 Learning processes (certificate/degree verification, student assessments and exams, credit transfer, data management and admissions)
27 (Sharma and Batth) 2020 Educational bodies model
28 (Vidal, Gouveia, and Soares) 2020 Digital diplomas
29 (Liang et al.) 2020 Microservices architecture (innovation)
30 (Shukla, Indra, Trivedi, Ujjwala, and Monica) 2020 Digital certificates
31 (D Lizcano, Lara, White, and Aljawarneh) 2020 Model for training institution to adapt teaching.
32 (Zhao, Di, and He) 2020 Digital identify
33 (Vidal, Gouveia, and Soares) 2020a Verifying and sharing certificates.
34 (Pfeiffer, Bezzina, Wernbacher, and Kriglstein) 2020 -
35 (M H Ronaghi) 2020 Maturity of blockchain technology
36 (Paraschiveanu, Richardson, and Voicu-Dorobanțu) 2020 Legally binding smart-contracts; streamline the credentials’ processes and viability and legitimacy of education protection.
37 [No author name available] proceedings 2020 Digital transformation; digital infrastructure; digital ecosystem; digital collaboration; digital competences; blockchain accounting and blockchain adoption.
38 [No author name available] proceedings 2020 Artificial intelligence
39 (Wishnow, Azar, and Rad) 2020 Digital Twin 2.0
40 [No author name available] Proceedings 2020 Blockchain data; smart contracts; learning conceptual modeling and class and object diagrams.
41 (Mori and Miwa) 2020 Falsification of information
42 (Ocheja, Flanagan, Ueda, and Ogata) 2020 Blockchain of learning logs (BOLL) platform
43 (Liu and Zou) 2019 Cooperation innovation of industry, universities, and research institutes.
44 (Hou et al.) 2019 Educational resource sharing
45 (Smirnov, Zakharova, Semenov, Mulendeeva, and Suchkova) 2019 Digital economy profile
46 (F. Vidal, Gouveia, and Soares) 2019 Academic diplomas
47 (Ricci and Mammanco) 2019 Innovative blockchain based system for safety
48 (Seneviratne and Peiris) 2019 Digital health tools, molile.
49 (Narman, Uulu, and Liu) 2019 Cryptocurrency draws
50 (Turlacu, Orzan, Chivu, and Herrezeel) 2019 Customer experience
51 (Ma, Xu, and Xu) 2019 Authenticity of data/smart contracts
52 (Fernández-Torres, Gutiérrez-Fernández, and Palomo-Zurdo) 2019 Digital education process
53 [No author name available] Proceedings 2019 Digital Devices
54 [No author name available] Proceedings 2019 Digital innovations
55 (T T Huynh, Tru Huynh, Pham, and Khoa Ngo) 2018 Education managers
56 (Cheng, Lee, Chi, and Chen) 2018 Smart contract for digital certificate
57 (Ritzer et al.) 2018 Digital transformation
58 [No author name available] proceedings 2018 ERP education; track digital assets of value and digital entrepreneurship.
59 (Swan) 2018 Digital collectibles (cryptokitties); artificial intelligence systems and deep learning algorithms.
60 [No author name available] proceedings 2018 Education services; digital tools and platforms for training programme; digital services and digital transformation.
61 (Neilson, Hara, and Mitchell) 2018 Digital cryptocurrency Bitcoin

3. Conclusions

The entry are to collaborate with the gap of scientific works that offer bibliometric analysis in this domain. This entry systematizes the main topics related to the use of blockchain in higher education and presents future investigations, considering the relationship with the topic of digital technologies.
Future implications for theoretical and managerial application can be references in this entry, as a possibility that the identified blockchain practices can contribute to higher education institutions in improving (quality and safety) the academic service provided to students.
This general contribution leads to productivity gains and cost reduction, creating possible provisions for the use of money in the higher education institution. This work contributes to the future of higher education institutions in the world, especially in light of the advancement of digitization and the digital transformation of businesses, rethinking the way to serve the student and the way the trust relationship will be with the use of blockchain technology.


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