Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below:
https://encyclopedia.pub/user/video_add?id=16222
Check Note
2000/2000
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 + 7619 word(s) 7619 2021-11-20 15:22:50 |
2 Roll back entry to make some changes. -4617 word(s) 3002 2021-11-22 01:54:53 | |
3 The format is correct. -2040 word(s) 962 2021-11-22 04:05:58 |
Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS
Edit
Upload a video

 A common idea is that some dishonest businessmen often disguise Citrus reticulata Blanco varieties as Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’, which places consumers at risk of economic losses.

  • Citri reticulatae pericarpium
  • Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’
  • polymethoxylated flavones
  • isomers
Information
Contributor :
View Times: 96
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Time: 22 Nov 2021

1. Introduction

Citri reticulatae pericarpium (CRP) is traditional Chinese food medicine, which derives from the dry and ripe peel of Citrus reticulata Blanco or its cultivars. The original CRP plants listed in the Pharmacopoeia of the People’s Republic of China mainly include C. reticulata ‘Chachi’, C. reticulata ‘Dahongpao’, C. reticulata ‘Unshiu’, and C. reticulati ‘Tangerina’. The peel is harvested, split into three pieces, and dried in the sun [1]. C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ produced in Xinhui, China (called “Guangchenpi”, GCP) is considered as a pre-eminent geoherb exhibiting a superb quality and high efficacy [2]. Due to its aroma and utility, GCP is commonly used to make soups, sweetmeats, snacks, and teas, such as ‘Spicy Orange Beef’, ‘Ganpu Tea’, and ‘Tangerine Power’ [3][4]. However, CP (other varieties called “Chenpi”, CP) struggles to maintain the appealing characteristics of GCP. The commercial value of CP is far less than that of GCP. But the frequent phenomenon that CP is a fake of GCP by some greedy businessmen to gain high but illegal profit has been banned repeatedly. Thus, there is an urgency to establish a simple, efficient, and reliable method to distinguish between GCP and CP.

2. Methods in Distinguishing Citrus Reticulata ‘Chachi’ from  Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium

It is hard to distinguish between GCP and CP correctly for consumers, placing them at risk of economic losses. Macroscopical identification is a traditional method of identifying GCP that is based on materials, texture, appearance, size of section characteristics, smell, and color. During identification, the method requires the rich experience of the discriminator rather than advanced and costly instruments; this is a fast, convenient, and widely used method. Hence, macroscopical identification is very popular among people who trade constantly in the market. Nevertheless, this form of identification has several noticeable drawbacks: well-experienced specialists are necessary and the most personal judgments are extremely subjective. Therefore, a unified, clear, and quantitative standard to help average consumers distinguish between GCP and CP is necessary. Recently, it was reported that various techniques were applied to identify GCP, such as electronic nose [5], electronic tongue [6], near-infrared spectroscopy [7], DNA brocade [8], or a combination of those methods. Moreover, fingerprint methodology and the metabolomics approach were also applied to identify GCP [9][10]. Additionally, recent studies reported that the chemical components of GCP mainly included volatiles, flavonoids, alkaloids, and phenolic acids [11][12][13][14]; most studies concentrated on volatiles [15][16] and flavonoids [17][18][19][20]. Rich in volatiles, C. reticulata Blanco and C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS) in several laboratories over the past decades [21][22]. In addition to the volatiles [23], the flavonoids in GCP and CP were also analyzed by liquid chromatography [24][25][26]. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was also employed to identify a total of 41 chemical constituents in CRP [27]. Furthermore, thin-layer chromatography was adopted to identify GCP [28]. As a powerful separation technique, chromatography routinely takes dozens of minutes to complete a cycle [29]. Therefore, it is necessary to establish a rapid method to separate the compounds in GCP.

Ion mobility spectrometry (IMS) [30] is a rapid separation technique on a second timescale [31]. The mechanism involves ions driven by an electric field in a gas damping environment that have a different migration rate. The ions can be separated by their charge state, size, shape, charge position, or structural rigidity [32]. For sensitive detection, IMS is suitable for the trace detection of some volatile organic compounds, such as narcotics [33], explosives [34], chemical warfare [35], and air pollutants [36]. Since the first commercial IMS was manufactured in the 1960s, it has undergone rapid growth over the past decades and been used widely in many laboratories. Varied commercial IMS instruments were manufactured, such as the drift tube ion mobility spectrometry (DTIMS) [37], traveling wave ion mobility spectrometry (TW-IMS) [38], cyclic ion mobility spectrometry (cIMS) [39], and trapped ion mobility spectrometry (TIMS) [40]. IMS can also be used in combination with chromatography. For instance, headspace–gas chromatography–ion mobility spectrometry was performed to effectively distinguish C. reticulata ‘Chachi’ [41]. Even though the pre-treatment was not required, it still took more time to separate analytes by GC and IMS, respectively. Fortunately, IMS can be flexibly hyphenated with various ionization sources under atmospheric pressure. Electrospray ionization (ESI) is a soft ionization technique that has already been successfully coupled with the IM-MS instrument [42]. Moreover, IM-MS solved the problem that MS was limited for distinguishing isomeric species. The ion’s mass-to-charge ratio (m/z) and average collision cross-section (CCS) can be obtained, which leads to the rising popularity in many fields, including natural products [43][44], microorganisms [45], carbohydrates [46][47], lipidomics [48][49][50], proteomics [51][52], food [53], and environmental samples [54][55]. With current advances in apparatus, IMS is used as a tool in analytical and bioanalytical applications, rather than as a detector for chemical warfare agents and explosives. The recent development tendency of the ion mobility analyzer is toward a higher performance for completing the increasing measurement task complexity, especially for ultra-high resolutions (>ca. 200) [56]. The U-shaped mobility analyzer (UMA) achieved a resolution of about ca. 180 for single-charge small organic molecules, and up to ca. 370 for multiple-charge +15 myoglobin [57]. Additionally, there is an alternative strategy for identifying isomers of little difference via UMA.

3. Conclusions

The analytical method of distinguishing GCP and CP are introduced. It is well-known that GCP is the dried and mature peel of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’. It is mainly produced in  Jiangmen City, Guangdong Province, China, which is a local medicinal material with high price. The price of CP is low, and the phenomenon that some dishonest businessmen often disguise Citrus reticulata Blanco or its varieties as Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’should be prohibited. Besides, it is necessary to establish a simple and rapid method to distinguish the two kinds of medicinal materials.

References

  1. Zheng, G.; Chao, Y.; Liu, M.; Yang, Y.; Zhang, D.; Wang, K.; Tao, Y.; Zhang, J.; Li, Y.; Wei, M. Evaluation of dynamic changes in the bioactive components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium (Citrus reticulata ’Chachi’) under different harvesting and drying conditions. Sci. Food Agric. 2020, 101, 3280–3289, doi:10.1002/jsfa.10957.
  2. Luo, Y.; Zeng, W.; Huang, K.-E.; Li, D.-X.; Chen, W.; Yu, X.-Q.; Ke, X.-H. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' as well as the Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' within different storage years using ultra high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2019, 171, 218–231, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2019.03.056.
  3. Zheng, Y.Y.; Zeng, X.; Chen, T.T.; Peng, W.; Su, W.W. Chemical Profile, Antioxidative, and Gut Microbiota Modulatory Properties of Ganpu Tea: A Derivative of Pu-erh Tea. Nutrients 2020, 12, 224, doi:10.3390/nu12010224.
  4. Qi, H.; Ding, S.; Pan, Z.; Li, X.; Fu, F. Characteristic Volatile Fingerprints and Odor Activity Values in Different Citrus-Tea by HS-GC-IMS and HS-SPME-GC-MS. Molecules 2020, 25, 6027, doi:10.3390/molecules25246027.
  5. Li, S.-Z.; Zeng, S.-L.; Wu, Y.; Zheng, G.-D.; Chu, C.; Yin, Q.; Chen, B.-Z.; Li, P.; Lu, X.; Liu, E.H. Cultivar differentiation of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium by a combination of hierarchical three-step filtering metabolomics analysis, DNA barcoding and electronic nose. Chim. Acta 2019, 1056, 62–69, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2019.01.004.
  6. Shi, Q.; Guo, T.; Yin, T.; Wang, Z.; Li, C.; Sun, X.; Guo, Y.; Yuan, W. Classification of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae of Different Ages by Using a Voltammetric Electronic Tongue System. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2018, 13, 11359–11374, doi:10.20964/2018.12.45.
  7. Li, P.; Zhang, X.; Li, S.; Du, G.; Jiang, L.; Liu, X.; Ding, S.; Shan, Y. A Rapid and Nondestructive Approach for the Classification of Different-Age Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Using Portable Near Infrared Spectroscopy. Sensors 2020, 20, 1586, doi:10.3390/s20061586.
  8. Wang, H.; Kim, M.-K.; Kim, Y.-J.; Lee, H.-N.; Jin, H.; Chen, J.; Yang, D.-C. Molecular authentication of the Oriental medicines Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and Citri Unshius Pericarpium using SNP markers. Gene 2012, 494, 92–95, doi:10.1016/j.gene.2011.11.026.
  9. Duan, L.; Guo, L.; Dou, L.L.; Zhou, C.L.; Xu, F.G.; Zheng, G.D.; Li, P.; Liu, E.H. Discrimination of Citrus reticulata Blanco and Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry based metabolomics approach. Food Chem. 2016, 212, 123–127, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2016.05.141.
  10. Tistaert, C.; Thierry, L.; Szandrach, A.; Dejaegher, B.; Fan, G.; Frederich, M.; Vander Heyden, Y. Quality control of Citri reticulatae pericarpium: Exploratory analysis and discrimination. Chim. Acta 2011, 705, 111–122, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2011.04.024.
  11. Singh, B.; Singh, J.P.; Kaur, A.; Singh, N. Phenolic composition, antioxidant potential and health benefits of citrus peel. Food Res. Int. 2020, 132, 109114, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109114.
  12. Tong, C.Y.; Peng, M.J.; Tong, R.N.; Ma, R.Y.; Guo, K.K.; Shi, S.Y. Use of an online extraction liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry method for the characterization of polyphenols in Citrus paradisi cv. Changshanhuyu peel. Chromatogr. A 2018, 1533, 87–93, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2017.12.022.
  13. Xu, J.J.; Wu, X.; Li, M.M.; Li, G.Q.; Yang, Y.T.; Luo, H.J.; Huang, W.H.; Chung, H.Y.; Ye, W.C.; Wang, G.C.; et al. Antiviral Activity of Polymethoxylated Flavones from “Guangchenpi”, the Edible and Medicinal Pericarps of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi'. Agric. Food Chem. 2014, 62, 2182–2189, doi:10.1021/jf404310y.
  14. Abad-García, B.; Garmón-Lobato, S.; Berrueta, L.A.; Gallo, B.; Vicente, F. On line characterization of 58 phenolic compounds in Citrus fruit juices from Spanish cultivars by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode-array detection coupled to electrospray ionization triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Talanta 2012, 99, 213–224, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2012.05.042.
  15. Luo, M.; Luo, H.; Hu, P.; Yang, Y.; Wu, B.; Zheng, G. Evaluation of chemical components in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium of different cultivars collected from different regions by GC-MS and HPLC. FOOD SCI NUTR. 2018, 6, 400–416, doi:10.1002/fsn3.569.
  16. Gao, B.; Chen, Y.L.; Zhang, M.W.; Xu, Y.J.; Pan, S.Y. Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activity of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Essential Oil. Molecules 2011, 16, 4082–4096, doi:10.3390/molecules16054082.
  17. Qin, X.-M.; Dai, Y.-T.; Zhang, L.-Z.; Guo, X.-Q.; Shao, H.-X. Discrimination of Three Medicinal Materials from the Citrus Genus by HPLC Fingerprint Coupled With Two Complementary Software. Anal 2009, 20, 307–313, doi:10.1002/pca.1128.
  18. Zheng, G.; Chao, Y.; Luo, M.; Xie, B.; Zhang, D.; Hu, P.; Yang, X.; Yang, D.; Wei, M. Construction and Chemical Profile on “Activity Fingerprint” of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium from Different Cultivars Based on HPLC-UV, LC/MS-IT-TOF, and Principal Component Analysis. -Based Complementary Altern. Med. 2020, 2020, 1–13, doi:10.1155/2020/4736152.
  19. Shi, L.; Wang, R.; Liu, T.; Wu, J.; Zhang, H.; Liu, Z.; Liu, S.; Liu, Z. A rapid protocol to distinguish between Citri Exocarpium Rubrum and Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium based on the characteristic fingerprint and UHPLC-Q-TOF MS methods. Food Funct 2020, 11, 3719–3729, doi:10.1039/d0fo00082e.
  20. Liu, E.H.; Zhao, P.; Duan, L.; Zheng, G.D.; Guo, L.; Yang, H.; Li, P. Simultaneous determination of six bioactive flavonoids in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium by rapid resolution liquid chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole electrospray tandem mass spectrometry. Food Chem. 2013, 141, 3977–3983, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.06.077.
  21. Zheng, Y.; Zeng, X.; Peng, W.; Wu, Z.; Su, W. Study on the Discrimination between Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium Varieties Based on HS-SPME-GC-MS Combined with Multivariate Statistical Analyses. Molecules 2018, 23, 1235, doi:10.3390/molecules23051235.
  22. Wang, Y.M.; Yi, L.Z.; Liang, Y.Z.; Li, H.D.; Yuan, D.L.; Gao, H.Y.; Zeng, M.M. Comparative analysis of essential oil components in Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae by GC-MS combined with chemometric resolution method. Pharm. Biomed. Anal. 2008, 46, 66–74, doi:10.1016/j.jpba.2007.08.030.
  23. Qin, K.; Zheng, L.; Cai, H.; Cao, G.; Lou, Y.; Lu, T.; Shu, Y.; Zhou, W.; Cai, B. Characterization of Chemical Composition of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Volatile Oil by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography with High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry.-Based Complement Altern. Med. 2013, 2013, 237541.
  24. Zheng, Y.-y.; Zeng, X.; Peng, W.; Wu, Z.; Su, W.-w. Characterisation and classification of Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium varieties based on UHPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS combined with multivariate statistical analyses. Anal 2019, 30, 278–291, doi:10.1002/pca.2812.
  25. Wang, P.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, Y.T.; Su, H.; Qiu, X.H.; Gong, L.; Huang, J.; Bai, J.Q.; Huang, Z.H.; Xu, W. Chemical and genetic discrimination of commercial Guangchenpi (Citrus reticulata 'Chachi') by using UPLC-QTOF-MS/MS based metabolomics and DNA barcoding approaches. RSC Adv. 2019, 9, 23373–23381, doi:10.1039/c9ra03740c.
  26. Yi, L.-z.; Yuan, D.-l.; Liang, Y.-z.; Xie, P.-s.; Zhao, Y. Quality control and discrimination of Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae and Pericarpium Citri Reticulatae Viride based on high-performance liquid chromatographic fingerprints and multivariate statistical analysis. Chim. Acta 2007, 588, 207–215, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2007.02.012.
  27. Zheng, G.D.; Zhou, P.; Yang, H.; Li, Y.S.; Li, P.; Liu, E.H. Rapid resolution liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry method for identification of chemical constituents in Citri Reticulatae Pericarpium. Food Chem. 2013, 136, 604–611, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2012.08.040.
  28. Li, S.Z.; Guan, X.M.; Gao, Z.; Lan, H.C.; Yin, Q.; Chu, C.; Yang, D.P.; Liu, E.H.; Zhou, P. A simple method to discriminate Guangchenpi and Chenpi by high-performance thin-layer chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography based on analysis of dimethyl anthranilate. Chromatogr. B. 2019, 1126, 121736, doi:10.1016/j.jchromb.2019.121736.
  29. Peng, Z.; Zhang, H.; Li, W.; Yuan, Z.; Xie, Z.; Zhang, H.; Cheng, Y.; Chen, J.; Xu, J. Comparative profiling and natural variation of polymethoxylated flavones in various citrus germplasms. Food Chem. 2021, 354, 129499, doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2021.129499.
  30. Kanu, A.B.; Dwivedi, P.; Tam, M.; Matz, L.; Hill, H.H. Ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Mass Spectrom. 2008, 43, 1–22, doi:10.1002/jms.1383.
  31. May, J.C.; McLean, J.A. Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry: Time-Dispersive Instrumentation. Chem. 2015, 87, 1422–1436, doi:10.1021/ac504720m.
  32. Latif, M.; Zhang, D.; Gamez, G. Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow Drift Tube Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Chim. Acta 2021, 1163, 338507, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2021.338507.
  33. Forbes, T.P.; Najarro, M. Ion mobility spectrometry nuisance alarm threshold analysis for illicit narcotics based on environmental background and a ROC-curve approach. Analyst 2016, 141, 4438–4446, doi:10.1039/c6an00844e.
  34. Buxton, T.L.; Harrington, P.D. Rapid multivariate curve resolution applied to identification of explosives by ion mobility spectrometry. Chim. Acta 2001, 434, 269–282, doi:10.1016/s0003-2670(01)00839-x.
  35. Seto, Y.; Hashimoto, R.; Taniguchi, T.; Ohrui, Y.; Nagoya, T.; Iwamatsu, T.; Komaru, S.; Usui, D.; Morimoto, S.; Sakamoto, Y.; et al. Development of Ion Mobility Spectrometry with Novel Atmospheric Electron Emission Ionization for Field Detection of Gaseous and Blister Chemical Warfare Agents. Chem. 2019, 91, 5403–5414, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.9b00672.
  36. Hao, C.; Noestheden, M.R.; Zhao, X.; Morse, D. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis of neonicotinoid pesticides and 6-chloronicotinic acid in environmental water with direct aqueous injection. Chim. Acta 2016, 925, 43–50, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2016.04.024.
  37. Eiceman, G.A.; Nazarov, E.G.; Rodriguez, J.E.; Stone, J.A. Analysis of a drift tube at ambient pressure: Models and precise measurements in ion mobility spectrometry. Sci. Instrum. 2001, 72, 3610–3621, doi:10.1063/1.1392339.
  38. Shvartsburg, A.A.; Smith, R.D. Fundamentals of Traveling Wave Ion Mobility Spectrometry. Chem. 2008, 80, 9689–9699, doi:10.1021/ac8016295.
  39. Giles, K.; Ujma, J.; Wildgoose, J.; Pringle, S.; Richardson, K.; Langridge, D.; Green, M. A Cyclic Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry System. Chem. 2019, 91, 8564–8573, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.9b01838.
  40. Creaser, C.S.; Benyezzar, M.; Griffiths, J.R.; Stygall, J.W. A tandem ion trap/ion mobility spectrometer. Chem. 2000, 72, 2724–2729, doi:10.1021/ac991409d.
  41. Lv, W.S.; Lin, T.; Ren, Z.Y.; Jiang, Y.Q.; Zhang, J.; Bi, F.J.; Gu, L.H.; Hou, H.C.; He, J.N. Rapid discrimination of Citrus reticulata 'Chachi' by headspace-gas chromatography-ion mobility spectrometry fingerprints combined with principal component analysis. Food Res. Int. 2020, 131, 108985, doi:10.1016/j.foodres.2020.108985.
  42. Wittmer, D.; Luckenbill, B.K.; Hill, H.H.; Chen, Y.H. Electrospray-ionization ion mobility spectrometry. Chem. 1994, 66, 2348–2355, doi:10.1021/ac00086a021.
  43. Montero, L.; Schmitz, O.J.; Meckelmann, S.W. Chemical characterization of eight herbal liqueurs by means of liquid chromatography coupled with ion mobility quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Chromatogr. A 2020, 1631, 461560, doi:10.1016/j.chroma.2020.461560.
  44. McCullagh, M.; Goshawk, J.; Eatough, D.; Mortishire-Smith, R.J.; Pereira, C.A.M.; Yariwake, J.H.; Vissers, J.P.C. Profiling of the known-unknown Passiflora variant complement by liquid chromatography—Ion mobility—Mass spectrometry. Talanta 2021, 221, 121311, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121311.
  45. Garcia-Nicolas, M.; Arroyo-Manzanares, N.; de Dios Hernandez, J.; Guillen, I.; Vizcaino, P.; Sanchez-Rubio, M.; Lopez-Garcia, I.; Hernandez-Cordoba, M.; Vinas, P. Ion mobility spectrometry and mass spectrometry coupled to gas chromatography for analysis of microbial contaminated cosmetic creams. Chim. Acta 2020, 1128, 52–61, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2020.06.069.
  46. Wu, X.; Zhang, Y.; Qin, R.; Li, P.; Wen, Y.; Yin, Z.; Zhang, Z.; Xu, H. Discrimination of isomeric monosaccharide derivatives using collision-induced fingerprinting coupled to ion mobility mass spectrometry. Talanta 2021, 224, 121901, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121901.
  47. Xie, C.; Li, L.; Wu, Q.; Guan, P.; Wang, C.; Yu, J.; Tang, K. Effective separation of carbohydrate isomers using metal cation and halogen anion complexes in trapped ion mobility spectrometry. Talanta 2021, 225, 121903, doi:10.1016/j.talanta.2020.121903.
  48. Chen, X.; Yin, Y.; Zhou, Z.; Li, T.; Zhu, Z.-J. Development of a combined strategy for accurate lipid structural identification and quantification in ion-mobility mass spectrometry based untargeted lipidomics. Chim. Acta 2020, 1136, 115–124, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2020.08.048.
  49. Wormwood Moser, K.L.; Van Aken, G.; DeBord, D.; Hatcher, N.G.; Maxon, L.; Sherman, M.; Yao, L.; Ekroos, K. High-defined quantitative snapshots of the ganglioside lipidome using high resolution ion mobility SLIM assisted shotgun lipidomics. Chim. Acta 2021, 1146, 77–87, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2020.12.022.
  50. Leaptrot, K.L.; May, J.C.; Dodds, J.N.; McLean, J.A. Ion mobility conformational lipid atlas for high confidence lipidomics. Commun. 2019, 10, 985, doi:10.1038/s41467-019-08897-5.
  51. Venter, P.; Causon, T.; Pasch, H.; de Villiers, A. Comprehensive analysis of chestnut tannins by reversed phase and hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to ion mobility and high resolution mass spectrometry. Chim. Acta 2019, 1088, 150–167, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2019.08.037.
  52. Nys, G.; Cobraiville, G.; Fillet, M. Multidimensional performance assessment of micro pillar array column chromatography combined to ion mobility-mass spectrometry for proteome research. Chim. Acta 2019, 1086, 1–13, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2019.08.068.
  53. Causon, T.J.; Ivanova-Petropulos, V.; Petrusheva, D.; Bogeva, E.; Hann, S. Fingerprinting of traditionally produced red wines using liquid chromatography combined with drift tube ion mobility-mass spectrometry. Chim. Acta 2019, 1052, 179–189, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2018.11.040.
  54. Bijlsma, L.; Bade, R.; Been, F.; Celma, A.; Castiglioni, S. Perspectives and challenges associated with the determination of new psychoactive substances in urine and wastewater—A tutorial. Chim. Acta 2021, 1145, 132–147, doi:10.1016/j.aca.2020.08.058.
  55. Ma, Q.; Ma, W.; Chen, X.; Wang, Z.M.; Bai, H.; Zhang, L.W.; Li, W.T.; Wang, C.; Li, X.S. Comprehensive analysis of fatty alcohol ethoxylates by ultra high pressure hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled with ion mobility spectrometry mass spectrometry using a custom-designed sub-2 mu m column. Sep. Sci. 2015, 38, 2182–2191, doi:10.1002/jssc.201500185.
  56. Kirk, A.T.; Bohnhorst, A.; Raddatz, C.R.; Allers, M.; Zimmermann, S. Ultra-high-resolution ion mobility spectrometry-current instrumentation, limitations, and future developments. Bioanal. Chem. 2019, 411, 6229–6246, doi:10.1007/s00216-019-01807-0.
  57. Wang, K.; Qiu, R.; Zhang, X.; Gillig, K.J.; Sun, W. U-Shaped Mobility Analyzer: A Compact and High-Resolution Counter-Flow Ion Mobility Spectrometer. Chem. 2020, 92, 8356–8363, doi:10.1021/acs.analchem.0c00868.
More
Information
Contributor :
View Times: 96
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Time: 22 Nov 2021
Table of Contents

    Confirm

    Are you sure to Delete?

    Video Upload Options

    Do you have a full video?
    Cite
    If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
    Guo, Y. Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/16222 (accessed on 29 June 2022).
    Guo Y. Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/16222. Accessed June 29, 2022.
    Guo, Yinlong. "Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/16222 (accessed June 29, 2022).
    Guo, Y. (2021, November 21). Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/16222
    Guo, Yinlong. ''Rapid Discrimination of Citrus reticulata ‘Chachi’ by ESI-IM-HRMS.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 21 November, 2021.
    Share
    Download
    Cite
    Top