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Ferramosca, A. Mitochondrial Carriers. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/14420 (accessed on 20 June 2024).
Ferramosca A. Mitochondrial Carriers. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/14420. Accessed June 20, 2024.
Ferramosca, Alessandra. "Mitochondrial Carriers" Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/14420 (accessed June 20, 2024).
Ferramosca, A. (2021, September 22). Mitochondrial Carriers. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/14420
Ferramosca, Alessandra. "Mitochondrial Carriers." Encyclopedia. Web. 22 September, 2021.
Mitochondrial Carriers
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Mitochondrial carriers play a fundamental role in cellular metabolism, connecting mitochondrial with cytosolic reactions. By transporting substrates across the inner membrane of mitochondria, they contribute to many processes that are central to cellular function. The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae encodes 35 members of the mitochondrial carrier family, most of which have been functionally characterized.

mitochondria mitochondrial carrier transport metabolism

1. Introduction

Mitochondria are subcellular organelles involved in different pathways. In addition to supplying energy, mitochondria contribute to many processes that are central to cellular function and that require the exchange of metabolites between the cytosol and the mitochondrial matrix. These organelles are surrounded by a double-membrane system consisting of an outer mitochondrial membrane (OMM) that surrounds the inner membrane (IMM); the two membranes are separated by an intermembrane space. Numerous transport processes occur between the two mitochondrial membranes. The OMM contains large pores (porins), which are large enough to allow the passage of ions and molecules as large as a small protein. The IMM is highly impermeable and, therefore, is characterized by the presence of specific carrier proteins which transport metabolites inside the mitochondria. These proteins, which are encoded by nuclear DNA, play a fundamental role in cellular metabolism since they connect the intra-mitochondrial reactions with the extra-mitochondrial (cytosolic) ones.
Mitochondrial carriers are widespread in all eukaryotes and considerable research has been conducted on characterizing the members of the mitochondrial carrier family (MCF) in yeast, mammals, plant, and insects. In particular, in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, 35 members of the MCF have been identified and, in large part, functionally characterized ( Table 1 ).

Table 1. List of mitochondrial carriers from Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Alternative carrier names are in brackets.

Carrier

 

Substrates Transported

Function/Metabolic Pathway

ADP/ATP carrier

Aac1p

Aac2p

Aac3p

ADP, ATP

Oxidative phosphorylation

ADP/ATP carrier (peroxisomal)

Ant1p

ATP, AMP

Lipid metabolism

Adenosine 5′-phosphosulfate carrier

Apsc1p

Adenosine 5’-phosphosulfate 3’-phospho-adenosine 5’-phosphosulfate, sulfate, and phosphate

Thermotolerance and synthesis of methionine and glutathione at elevated temperatures

ATP-Mg/phosphate carrier

Sal1p

ADP, ATP, ATP-Mg, and Pi (Ca2+-stimulated)

Glucose-induced calcium signal

Aspartate/glutamate carrier

Agc1p

Ymc1p

Ymc2p

 

Aspartate, glutamate

Nitrogen metabolism and ornithine synthesis

Malate-aspartate NADH shuttle

Carnitine carrier

Crc1p

Carnitine, acetyl-carnitine, and propionyl-carnitine (medium- and long-chain acyl-carnitines less efficiently)

Lipid metabolism

Citrate carrier

Ctp1p

Citrate, tricarboxylates

Lipid and glucose metabolism

Citrate/oxoglutarate carrier

Yhm2p

(Coc1p)

Citrate, oxoglutarate (oxaloacetate, succinate, and fumarate less efficiently)

Increase in the NADPH reducing power in the cytosol

Component of the citrate-oxoglutarate NADPH redox shuttle

Coenzyme A carrier

Leu5p

Coenzyme A

Distribution of Coenzyme A

Dicarboxylate carrier

Dic1p

Dicarboxylates (malate, succinate, or malonate), Pi, sulfate, and thiosulfate

Anaplerotic role for the Krebs cycle

FAD carrier

Flx1p

FAD

Flavin transport

GTP/GDP carrier

Ggc1p

GTP, GDP, dGTP, dGDP, and the structurally related ITP and IDP (guanosine 5′-tetraphosphate and the (deoxy)nucleoside di- and triphosphates of U and T less efficiently)

Protein synthesis and RNA synthesis

Magnesium carrier

Mme1

Magnesium

Homeostasis of magnesium

NAD+ carrier

Ndt1p

Ndt2p

NAD+ (dAMP and dGMP, NADH, NADP+, or NADPH less efficiently)

Import NAD+ into mitochondria

Iron carrier

Mrs3p

Mrs4p

Iron

Iron accumulation

Ornithine carrier

Ort1p

Ornithine/H+ or ornithine/ornithine (arginine and lysine less efficiently)

Arginine synthesis

Oxaloacetate carrier

Oac1p

Oxaloacetate, sulfate, and a-isopropylmalate (various substrates of the dicarboxylate and oxoglutarate carriers less efficiently)

Anaplerotic role for the Krebs cycle

Leucine synthesis

Oxodicarboxylate carrier

Odc1p

Odc2p

Oxoadipate, oxoglutarate (dicarboxylates and malate less efficiently)

Nitrogen assimilation

Malate/aspartate shuttle

Phosphate carrier

Mir1p

Pic2p

Phosphate

Oxidative phosphorylation

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate transporter

Mtm1p

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate transporter

Pyridoxal 5’-phosphate trafficking

Iron homeostasis

Pyrimidine nucleotide carrier

Pyt1p

(Rim2p)

Pyrimidine (deoxy)nucleoside mono-, di- and triphosphates

mtDNA and mtRNA synthesis

S-adenosylmethionine carrier

Sam5p

S-adenosylmethionine

Biosynthesis of biotin and lipoic acid

Methylation reactions of mtDNA, mtRNA, and mitochondrial proteins

Succinate/fumarate carrier

Sfc1p

Succinate, fumarate

Gluconeogenesis

Thiamine pyrophosphate carrier

Tpc1p

Thiamine pyrophosphate, thiamine monophosphate ((deoxy)nucleotides less efficiently)

Branched chain amino acids synthesis

 

Ugo1p

 

Mitochondrial fusion

 

YDL119c

(Hem25)

Glicine

Heme synthesis

 

YFR045w product

?

?

With a single exception, these proteins are found in the inner membranes of mitochondria. By transporting several substrates across this membrane, they are indirectly involved in many biochemical processes, such oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) ( Figure 1 ), the transfer of reducing equivalents ( Figure 2 ), the transport of Krebs cycle intermediates ( Figure 3 ), fatty acid metabolism ( Figure 4 ), gluconeogenesis (Figure 5), and amino acid synthesis ( Figure 6 ).

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