Submitted Successfully!
Thank you for your contribution! You can also upload a video entry related to this topic through the link below:
https://encyclopedia.pub/user/video_add?id=1235
Check Note
2000/2000
Ver. Summary Created by Modification Content Size Created at Operation
1 Micronutrient deficiencies may directly or indirectly be associated with oxidative stress that ultimately precedes to insulin resistance, diabetes or other diseases. + 718 word(s) 718 2020-06-29 04:33:01 |
2 format change -73 word(s) 645 2020-07-02 02:59:42 | |
3 format change Meta information modification 645 2020-11-05 10:30:22 |
Micronutrients
Edit
Upload a video

Minerals and trace elements are micronutrients that are essential to the human body but present only in traceable amounts. Nonetheless, they exhibit well-defined biochemical functions. Deficiencies in these micronutrients are related to widespread human health problems such as diabetes, insulin resistance, improper immune function, bone health and brain development. The levels of trace elements may vary considerably among different populations, contingent on the composition of the diet and location. Local differences in selenium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium and iodine in the diet can affect physiological functions leading to malnourishment. Inadequate supply of a number of minerals and trace elements including iodine, selenium, zinc, calcium, chromium, cobalt, iron, boron and magnesium and in a few cases, excess of essential trace elements may lead to imbalances in glucose homeostasis and insulin resistance. Changes in these micronutrient levels in the serum and urine of subjects may signal towards metabolic changes, oxidative stress and other disease-related complications. Adequate supplement of the micronutrients may eliminate or protect against certain diseases such as heart disease.

  • micronutrient
  • trace element
  • minerals
Information

1. Definition

Minerals, vitamins and trace elements are essential micronutrients required for the normal functioning of the body including homeostasis, enzyme regulation, growth and development [1][2]. These elements are particularly beneficial for physiological functions [3]. Minerals and trace elements present as stabilizing components of enzymes and proteins and function as co-factors for many enzymes. Certain trace elements regulate crucial biological processes by binding to the receptor site of the cell membrane or by changing the shape of the receptor to prevent entry of particular molecules into the cell [4]. Micronutrients serve dual roles: they maintain the stabilization of the cellular structures at their optimal levels, but their inadequacy proceeds to alternate pathways and may cause ailments [5]. These essential micronutrients have important physiological implications and exhibit direct associations with many diseases [6][7]. Macro elements, vitamins, trace elements and organic acids are the four major classes of micronutrients. Macro elements primarily include chloride, calcium, phosphorous, magnesium, sodium, potassium and iron, whereas certain trace elements like cobalt, boron, chromium, copper, sulfur, iodine, zinc and molybdenum enhance anti-oxidant potential in organisms.

2. Introduction

Micronutrients are identified as vital nutrients that are required for the normal functioning of the body and are valuable for physiological functions.The first significant minerals discovered in early- and mid-1800 as beneficial aspects of the health of animals were iodine, iron and zinc. Over time, due to nutritional imbalances, micronutrient malnutrition was identified and the vitamins were acknowledged. The initial vitamins identified as important components in the health of human beings were vitamins C, A and D in early to mid-1900s. During that time, dietary requirements of the different micronutrients started to be recognized. The levels of micronutrients vary considerably among different populations, contingent on the composition of the diet. In different parts of the world, large proportions of the population are affected by a number of micronutrient deficiencies. Local differences in selenium, zinc, copper, iron, chromium and iodine in the diet occur in both developed and developing countries, largely due to malnutrition and dependence on indigenous nutrition. These overall deficiencies and, in a few cases, excess of essential trace elements may lead to imbalances in glucose homeostasis, metabolic changes, oxidative stress, insulin resistance, growth and development[8].

                     

3. Influences

Minerals and trace elements are essential for many biochemical reactions, present as stabilizing components of enzymes and proteins and function as co-factors for many enzymes. Certain trace elements regulate crucial biological processes by binding to the receptor site of the cell membrane or by changing the shape of the receptor to prevent entry of particular molecules into the cell [1]. Micronutrients serve dual roles: they maintain the stabilization of the cellular structures at their optimal levels, but their inadequacy proceeds to alternate pathways and may cause ailments [2]. These essential micronutrients have important physiological implications and deficiencies may directly or indirectly be associated with oxidative stress that ultimately precedes to various diseases [9][10][11][12].

References

  1. Yoav Kashiv; Jotham R. Austin; Barry Lai; Volker Rose; Stefan Vogt; Malek El-Muayed; Imaging trace element distributions in single organelles and subcellular features. Scientific Reports 2016, 6, 21437, 10.1038/srep21437.
  2. W. A. C. (Kristine) Koekkoek; Arthur Raymond Hubert Van Zanten; Antioxidant Vitamins and Trace Elements in Critical Illness. Nutrition in Clinical Practice 2016, 31, 457-474, 10.1177/0884533616653832.
  3. Edward J. Calabrese; Andrew T. Canada; Carol Sacco; Trace Elements and Public Health. Annual Review of Public Health 1985, 6, 131-146, 10.1146/annurev.pu.06.050185.001023.
  4. Vincent B Young; Trace element biology: the knowledge base and its application for the nutrition of individuals and populations.. The Journal of Nutrition 2003, 133, 1581S-1587S, 10.1093/jn/133.5.1581s.
  5. Monica Nordberg; Gunnar F. Nordberg; Trace element research-historical and future aspects. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2016, 38, 46-52, 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.04.006.
  6. Vahap Uğurlu; Cigdem Binay; Enver Şimşek; Cengiz Bal; Cellular Trace Element Changes in Type 1 Diabetes Patients. Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology 2016, 8, 180-186, 10.4274/jcrpe.2449.
  7. Hongmei Zhang; Chonghuai Yan; Zhen Yang; Weiwei Zhang; Yixin Niu; Xiaoyong Li; Li Qin; Qing Su; Alterations of serum trace elements in patients with type 2 diabetes. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology 2017, 40, 91-96, 10.1016/j.jtemb.2016.12.017.
  8. Pallavi Dubey; Vikram Thakur; Munmun Chattopadhyay; Role of Minerals and Trace Elements in Diabetes and Insulin Resistance. Nutrients 2020, 12, 1864, 10.3390/nu12061864.
  9. P. Sujatha; Trace Elements in Diabetes Mellitus. JOURNAL OF CLINICAL AND DIAGNOSTIC RESEARCH 2012, 7, 1863-1865, 10.7860/JCDR/2013/5464.3335.
  10. I Zofkova; Petra Nemcikova; Petr Matucha; Trace elements and bone health. Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2013, 51, 1-7, 10.1515/cclm-2012-0868.
  11. Lale Ozcan; I. Tabas; Calcium signalling and ER stress in insulin resistance and atherosclerosis.. Journal of Internal Medicine 2016, 280, 457-464, 10.1111/joim.12562.
  12. Jian Cao; Cecilia Vecoli; Danilo Neglia; Barbara Tavazzi; Giuseppe Lazzarino; Michela Novelli; Pellegrino Masiello; Yu-Tang Wang; Nitin Puri; Nazareno Paolocci; et al. Cobalt-Protoporphyrin Improves Heart Function by Blunting Oxidative Stress and Restoring NO Synthase Equilibrium in an Animal Model of Experimental Diabetes. Frontiers in Physiology 2012, 3, 1-9, 10.3389/fphys.2012.00160.
More
Information
Contributor :
View Times: 664
Revisions: 3 times (View History)
Update Time: 05 Nov 2020
Table of Contents

    Confirm

    Are you sure to Delete?

    Video Upload Options

    Do you have a full video?
    Cite
    If you have any further questions, please contact Encyclopedia Editorial Office.
    Chattopadhyay, M. Micronutrients. Encyclopedia. Available online: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1235 (accessed on 16 August 2022).
    Chattopadhyay M. Micronutrients. Encyclopedia. Available at: https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1235. Accessed August 16, 2022.
    Chattopadhyay, Munmun. "Micronutrients," Encyclopedia, https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1235 (accessed August 16, 2022).
    Chattopadhyay, M. (2020, July 01). Micronutrients. In Encyclopedia. https://encyclopedia.pub/entry/1235
    Chattopadhyay, Munmun. ''Micronutrients.'' Encyclopedia. Web. 01 July, 2020.
    Share
    Download
    Cite
    Top