Fructose is a main dietary sugar involved in the excess sugar intake-mediated progression of cardiovascular diseases and cardiac arrhythmias. Chronic intake of fructose has been the focus on the possible contributor to the metabolic diseases and cardiac inflammation. Recently, the small intestine was identified to be a major organ in fructose metabolism. The overconsumption of fructose induces dysbiosis of the gut microbiota, which, in turn, increases intestinal permeability and activates host inflammation. Endotoxins and metabolites of the gut microbiota, such as lipopolysaccharide, trimethylamine N-oxide, and short-chain fatty acids, also influence the host inflammation and cardiac biofunctions. Thus, high-fructose diets cause heart–gut axis disorders that promote cardiac arrhythmia. Understanding how gut microbiota dysbiosis-mediated inflammation influences the pathogenesis of cardiac arrhythmia may provide mechanisms for cardiac arrhythmogenesis.
|L. rhamnosus GR-1||Coronary artery ligation rats fed rGR-1 (109 CFU/g, daily) in drinking water for 6 weeks.||Reduced cardiac hypertrophy and LV dysfunction.|||
|L. acidophilus, Bifidobacterium bifidum, L. reuteri, L. fermentum||Patients with diabetic and coronary heart disease received vitamin D (50,000 IU) plus probiotics (8 × 109 CFU, every 2 weeks) for 12 weeks.||Reduced inflammation and increased antioxidant capacity, nitric oxide, glycemic control, and high-density lipoprotein.|||
|B. breve, L. casei, L. bulgaricus
|Rats fed probiotics (2 × 106 CFU/mL, daily) for 2 weeks in response to isoproterenol-induced myocardial injury.||Reduced oxidative stress and inflammation and increased cardiac function.|||
|L. curvatus HY7601, L. plantarum KY1032||Rats fed a high-fructose diet (70% w/w) for 3 weeks followed by a probiotic (109–1010 CFU, daily) for 3 weeks.||Reduced oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and levels of plasma glucose and triglycerides.|||
|L. rhamnosus LS-8, L. crustorum MN047||Mice fed a high-fructose high fact diet (45% kcal fat, 10% w/v fructose) and a probiotic (109 CFU, daily) for 10 weeks.||Reduced insulin resistance and inflammation.|||
|L. kefiri||Mice fed fructose (20% w/v) and a probiotic (108 CFU, every 2 days) for 6 weeks.||Reduced adipose tissue expansion, plasma triglyceride and leptin levels, and inflammation.|||