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Viel, F.; Augusto Silva, L.; Leithardt, V.R.Q.; De Paz Santana, J.F.; Celeste Ghizoni Teive, R.; Albenes Zeferino, C. IoT Devices with Smart Grids. Encyclopedia. Available online: (accessed on 22 February 2024).
Viel F, Augusto Silva L, Leithardt VRQ, De Paz Santana JF, Celeste Ghizoni Teive R, Albenes Zeferino C. IoT Devices with Smart Grids. Encyclopedia. Available at: Accessed February 22, 2024.
Viel, Felipe, Luis Augusto Silva, Valderi Reis Quietinho Leithardt, Juan Francisco De Paz Santana, Raimundo Celeste Ghizoni Teive, Cesar Albenes Zeferino. "IoT Devices with Smart Grids" Encyclopedia, (accessed February 22, 2024).
Viel, F., Augusto Silva, L., Leithardt, V.R.Q., De Paz Santana, J.F., Celeste Ghizoni Teive, R., & Albenes Zeferino, C. (2020, June 23). IoT Devices with Smart Grids. In Encyclopedia.
Viel, Felipe, et al. "IoT Devices with Smart Grids." Encyclopedia. Web. 23 June, 2020.
IoT Devices with Smart Grids

Internet of Things (IoT) can be applied in servery domais for example in smart grids allowing to distribute the energy in an efficient way thoruught serveral communication protocols.

communication protocols Iot smart grids

1. Introduction

The evolution of computing devices and ubiquitous computing has led to the development of the Internet of Things (IoT). This technology encompasses several devices with different functionalities that can be interconnected in the same environment or even in separate environments. IoT applications are diverse, and some typical applications include Industry 4.0, logistics, and smart cities [1]. The latter is further subdivided into traffic, sanitation, agriculture, security surveillance, and Smart Grids (SGs), which are the focus of this article.

SGs are different from traditional power grids, which are structures with the sole function of transmitting and distributing electricity from remote plants to end consumers. On the other hand, SGs make intensive use of communication technologies in the power grid to enable the transfer of status information from various components in the grid. This feature allows to implement strategies for system operation and control more efficiently than conventional solutions. SGs, in conjunction with IoT, can be seen as an answer to fundamental questions in the energy market. In fact, what makes an SG “smart” is its ability to bidirectional communication, sensing, management possibilities, and the use of protocols that allow data exchange, as seen in [2][3][4][5][6]. Consequently, all stakeholders in the electricity sector, from generation to industrial or residential users, must work together for the continuous flow of generation and use of information generated by SG. With that, the integration between the different protocols of IoT and SG is the main challenge caused by the development directed to different purposes.

As highlighted in [7], the communication architecture is a quite important aspect to be considered in SGs, because this architecture must provide the necessary infrastructure to support the expected SG functionalities based on automated and intelligent management and control functions in electrical power systems. Besides, it must fulfill the performance requirements, including timing, since timing is a critical aspect to take into account in SGs communication, especially with regards to power system operation and protection.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs), such as SG and IoT systems, are represented by platforms that are integrated through connectivity protocols that enable to share information among the different devices [8][9]. Several standards can be used for IoT communication, such as Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) and Message Queue Telemetry Transport (MQTT). These protocols can be applied to a general IoT context, but are not recommended or standardized for use in SGs, as the Open Smart Grid Protocol (OSGP) is. A solution is necessary to integrate those protocols and enable data exchanges between general application protocols and specific application protocols such as OSGP.

2. Conclusion

Given the heterogeneity of general and specific applications and protocols, we identified a gap regarding the mapping of data packets between CoAP and OSGP. This mapping would enable IoT systems applied to residential and industrial plants to obtain and provide information to SGs. Within this context, this paper presents the integration between the CoAP and OSGP communication protocols in a solution that we call CoAP and OSGP Integration for the Internet of Things (COIIoT). To the best of our knowledge, based on the literature systematic mapping executed, this is the first adaptation between CoAP and OSGP.


  1. Razzaque, M.A.; Milojevic-Jevric, M.; Palade, A.; Clarke, S. Middleware for Internet of Things: A Survey. IEEE Internet Things J. 2016, 3, 70–95.
  2. Marzal, S.; González-Medina, R.; Salas-Puente, R.; Figueres, E.; Garcerá, G. A Novel Locality Algorithm and Peer-to-Peer Communication Infrastructure for Optimizing Network Performance in Smart Microgrids. Energies 2017, 10, 1275.
  3. Rana, M.M.; Xiang, W.; Wang, E.; Li, X.; Choi, B.J. Internet of Things Infrastructure for Wireless Power Transfer Systems. IEEE Access 2018, 6, 19295–19303.
  4. Marzal, S.; González-Medina, R.; Salas-Puente, R.; Garcerá, G.; Figueres, E. An Embedded Internet of Energy Communication Platform for the Future Smart Microgrids Management. IEEE Internet Things J. 2019, 6, 7241–7252.
  5. Kabalci, Y. A Survey on Smart Metering and Smart Grid Communication. Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev. 2016, 57, 302–318.
  6. Zhang, J.; Hasandka, A.; Wei, J.; Alam, S.; Elgindy, T.; Florita, A.R.; Hodge, B.M. Hybrid Communication Architectures for Distributed Smart Grid Applications. Energies 2018, 11, 871.
  7. Wang, W.; Xu, Y.; Khanna, M. A Survey on the Communication Architectures in Smart Grid. Comput. Netw. 2011, 55, 3604–3629.
  8. González, I.; Calderón, A.J.; Figueiredo, J.; Sousa, J. A Literature Survey on Open Platform Communications (OPC) Applied to Advanced Industrial Environments. Electronics 2019, 8, 510.
  9. Oliveira, L.; Álvares, A. Axiomatic Design Applied to the Development of a System for Monitoring and Teleoperation of a CNC Machine through the Internet. Procedia CIRP 2016, 53, 198–205.
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