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Predator community structure is an important selective element shaping the evolution of prey defence traits and strategies. Carabid beetles are one of the most diverse families of Coleoptera, and their success in terrestrial ecosystems is related to considerable morphological, physiological, and behavioural adaptations that provide protection against predators. Their most common form of defence is the chemical secretion from paired abdominal pygidial glands that produce a heterogeneous set of carboxylic acids, quinones, hydrocarbons, phenols, aldehydes, and esters.
Tribe | Species | Methodology | Refs |
---|---|---|---|
Metriini | Metrius contractus | LM; FIB/SEM | ^{[27]}^{[28]} |
Sinometrius turnai | LM; FIB/SEM | ^{[28]} | |
Ozaeniini | Mystropomus regularis | LM | ^{[26]} |
Paussini | Paussus favieri | LM; FM; FIB/SEM | ^{[29]} |
P. laevifrons | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Heteropaussus jeanneli | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Cicindelini | Cicindela campestris, C. hibrida |
LM | ^{[30]} |
Carabini | Calosoma oceanicum, C. schayeri |
LM | ^{[26]} |
C. senegalense, C. problematicus |
LM | ^{[27]} | |
C. sycophanta | LM | ^{[31]} | |
Carabus (Tomocarabus) convexus | LM | ^{[32]} | |
C. (Procustes) coriaceus | LM | ^{[32]}^{[33]} | |
C. ullrichii | LM | ^{[33]} | |
C. (Megodontus) violaceus | LM | ^{[34]} | |
Cychrini | Cychrus caraboides rostratus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Pamborini | Pamborus alternans | LM | ^{[26]} |
Elaphrini | Elaphrus cupreus, Blethisa multipunctata | LM | ^{[27]} |
Loricerini | Loricera pilicornis | LM | ^{[27]} |
Omophronini | Omophron dentatum | LM | ^{[27]} |
Nebriini | Eurynebria complanata,Leistus ferrugineus, Nebria brevicollis |
LM | ^{[27]} |
N. psammodes | LM | ^{[35]} | |
Notiophilini | Notiophilus substriatus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Clivinini | Clivina basalis | LM | ^{[26]} |
C. collaris, C. fossor |
LM | ^{[27]} | |
Schizogenius lineolatus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Dyschiriini | Dyschirius globosus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Pasimachini | Pasimachus elongatus | LM | ^{[27]} |
P. subsulcatus | LM | ^{[36]}^{[37]} | |
Carenini | Carenum bonelli, C. interruptum, C. tinctillatum |
LM | ^{[26]} |
Laccopterum foveigerum, Philoscaphus tuberculatus |
LM | ^{[26]} | |
Broscini | Eurylychnus blagravei, E. ollifi |
LM | ^{[26]} |
Trechini | Thalassotrechus barbarae | LM | ^{[27]} |
Trechus obtusus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Bembidiini | Bembidion lampros | LM | ^{[20]}^{[27]} |
B. rupestre | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Patrobini | Amblytelus curtus | LM | ^{[26]} |
Patrobus longicornis | LM | ^{[23]} | |
P. septentrionis | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Morionini | Morion simplex | LM | ^{[23]} |
Moriosomus seticollis | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Perigonini | Diploharpus laevissimo | LM | ^{[23]} |
Loxandrini | Loxandrus icarus | LM | ^{[23]} |
L. longiformis | LM | ^{[26]} | |
L. velocipes | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Sphodrini | Calathus ambiguus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Pristonychus terricola | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Pterostichini | Abacomorphus asperulus | LM | ^{[26]} |
Abaris anaea | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Blennidus liodes | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Castelnaudia superba | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Cratoferonia phylarchus | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Cratogaster melas | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Cyclotrachelus sigillatus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Gasterllarius honestus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Incastichus aequidianus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Loxodactylus carinulatus | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Myas coracinus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Notonomus angusribasis, N. crenulatus, N. miles, N. muelleri, N. opulentus, N. rainbowi, N. rainbowi, N. scotti, N. triplogenioides, N. variicollis |
LM | ^{[26]} | |
Prosopogmus harpaloides | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Pseudoceneus iridescens | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Pterostichus (Cophosus) cylindricus | LM; NLM | ^{[38]} | |
P. (Monoferonia) diligendus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
P. externepunctatus roccai | LM | ^{[35]} | |
P. fortis | LM | ^{[25]} | |
P. luctuosus | LM | ^{[23]} | |
P. madidus | LM | ^{[39]} | |
P. melanarius | LM | ^{[27]} | |
P. melas | SR-PHC MICRO-CT | ^{[40]} | |
P. (Pseudomaseus) nigrita | LM; NLM | ^{[38]} | |
Rhytisternus laevilaterus | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Sarticus cyaneocinctus | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Sphodrosomus saisseri | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Trichosternus nudipes | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Platynini | Agonumdorsale | LM | ^{[27]} |
Zabrini | Amara aenea | LM | ^{[27]} |
Curtonotus fulvus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Zabrus tenebriodes | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Molopini | Abax parallelepipedus (sub:A. ater) | LM | ^{[27]}^{[33]} |
Molops (Stenochoromus)montenegrinus | LM; NLM | ^{[38]} | |
Harpalini | Bradycellus harpalinus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Diaphoromerus edwardsi | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Harpalus aeneus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
H. pensylvanicus | CLSM | ^{[41]} | |
Pseudophonus rufipes (sub:pubescens) | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Licinini | Badister bipustulatus | LM | ^{[27]} |
Dicrochile brevicollis, D. goryi |
LM | ^{[26]} | |
Licinus depressus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Syagonix blackburni | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Chlaeniini | Chlaenius australis | LM | ^{[26]} |
C. cumatilis | LM | ^{[27]} | |
C. inops | LM | ^{[25]} | |
C. pallipes | LM | ^{[25]} | |
C. velutinus | LM | ^{[35]} | |
C. vestitus | LM | ^{[27]}^{[35]} | |
Oodes amaroides | LM | ^{[23]} | |
O. hehpioides | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Panagaenini | Panagaeus crux-major | LM | ^{[27]} |
Psecadius eustalactus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Masoreini | Masoreus wetterhlii | LM | ^{[27]} |
Odacanthini | Colliuris melanura | LM | ^{[27]} |
C. pensylvanica | LM | ^{[23]} | |
Lebiini | Eudalia macleayi | LM | ^{[26]} |
Metabletus foveatus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Movmolyce phyllodes | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Galeritini | Galerita lecontei | LM | ^{[42]} |
Anthiini | Anthia artemis | LM | ^{[27]} |
Helluonini | Helluo costatus | LM | ^{[26]} |
Catapieseini | Catapiesis attenuata, C. sulcipennis |
LM | ^{[23]} |
Dryptini | Drypta dentata | LM | ^{[27]} |
D. japonica | LM | ^{[25]} | |
Pseudomorphini | Sphallomorpha colymbeioides | LM | ^{[26]} |
Brachinini | Aptinus bombarda | LM; FM; FIB/SEM | ^{[43]} |
A. crepitus | LM; FM; FIB/SEM | ^{[43]} | |
A. displosor | LM | ^{[27]} | |
Brachinus crepitans | LM | ^{[27]} | |
B. elongatus | LM; FM; FIB/SEM; SEM | ^{[43]}^{[44]} | |
B. sclopeta | LM; FM; FIB/SEM | ^{[43]} | |
B. stenoderus | LM | ^{[25]} | |
P. verticalis | LM | ^{[26]} | |
Pheropsophus africanus, P. hispanus, P. occipitalis |
LM; FM; FIB/SEM | ^{[43]} | |
P. lissoderus | LM | ^{[27]} | |
P. verticalis | LM | ^{[26]} |