- Please check and comment entries here.
Electrospun PVC Nanofibers
Electrospun PVC Nanofibers means PVC nanofibers manufactured by electrospinning.
PVC is one of the most common and cheapest synthetic polymers that can be found on the market. The history of PVC started during early 1870 when the first polymer was obtained by the polymerization of vinyl chloride. However, the material obtained from the polymerization of vinyl chloride was stiff and brittle. Hence, it was not ideal for industrial production. By 1926, American chemists discovered how to plasticize PVC and, since then, many PVC based products have been commercialized . Nowadays, its demand is only lower than those of polyethylene and polypropylene, which are the materials with a higher demand on the market. In 2018, the global demand for PVC was close to 44.3 million tons and is expected to increase to nearly 60 million tons by 2025 . PVC is used in many different fields, such as in the construction industry (pipes, windows, carpet, plumbing, etc.), electrical and electronic industry (instrument components, housing, sheaths for cables and wires, etc.), automotive industry, food packaging, medical equipment, and many others .
With the fast development of science and technologies, it is necessary to search for new materials with superior properties. In recent decades, nanomaterials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to their properties and applications . In addition, polymer nanofibers are materials with many advantages and easy fabrication . Compared to many known materials of the present time, polymer nanofibers have characteristics such as high aspect ratio (length to diameter), small pore size, large surface area, high porosity, high hydrophobic surface, optical transparency, and high mechanical properties (tensile strength, elastic modulus, stiffness, toughness) that make them more suitable in comparison with their macro-scale versions. Various fabrication techniques have been used to produce polymer nanofibers, such as drawing , template synthesis , self-assembly , melt-blown , phase separation , and electrospinning . Among them, electrospinning is the most efficient method that can produce nanofibers from a variety of polymers. Due to nanofibers morphological characteristics, they exhibit numerous advantages, which made them suitable for their application in various fields such as air filtration systems , sensing devices , reinforcement composite , tissue engineering , energy storage systems , optical , drug delivery , catalyst , water treatment , and so forth.
The development of PVC nanofibers has increasingly attracted the attention of science and industry, thanks to PVC popularity and inexpensiveness . PVC nanofibers present remarkable characteristics such as small diameter, high porosity, hydrophobicity, and a remarkable affinity for oil. Due to its excellent properties, previously mentioned, PVC nanofibers have expanded the area of application of PVC materials. PVC nanofibers have been used as a material for environmental applications (water filter, air filter, separator for water and oil), energy storage systems, anti-corrosive material, protective clothing, and so on .
2. Application of PVC Nanofiber
2.1. Water Filtration and Treatment
Because of pollution in freshwater sources all over the world, the problem of having a clean water supply has become more essential than ever. Industrial and agricultural activities are leading to water contamination by releasing heavy metals such as Pb, Cr, As, Hg, etc. . As a result, freshwater cannot be used without any filtration treatment . Materials for nanofiltration are being applied to obtain water with a high degree of purity. Electrospun nanofiber membranes present great potential for environmental applications. Based on some useful properties such as high surface area, high porosity (up to 80%) compared to conventional polymer membranes (5–35%), excellent functionalization ability, and good mechanical behavior, they are more effective when used for liquids separation and filtration . PVC is a material that is insoluble in water, bases, and acids. Thus, it has great potential for use as a filter material.
2.2. Air Filtration
Due to the influence of the rapid growth of urban areas, and the development of industries, global air quality has been seriously degraded. The fine particles of particulate matter 2.5 (PM 2.5) seriously affect human health. Many types of filtration technology have been developed. Nanofibers have small pores size, large surface area, small diameter, high porosity, and the ability to incorporate active chemical agents on a nano-scale surface, making them a potential candidate for air filtration technology . Electrospun PVC/PU (8/2 w/w) nanofiber mats with high abrasion resistance (134 cycles) and comparable air permeability (154.1 mm/s) showed fascinating filtration efficiency (99.5%). In addition, the low-pressure drop (144 Pa) performance for 300–500 nm sodium chloride aerosol particles suggests their use as a promising medium for a variety of potential applications in air filtration . Lackowski et al.  obtained electrospun PVC/PVDF nanofibers for the filtration of smoke and nanoparticles. The results showed that PVC/PVDF nanofibers have a diameter of about 400–800 nm and offer better filtration efficiency compared with HEPA filtration.
On the market, we can find that the company RESPILON® (Brno, Czech Republic) has used PVC nanofibers to fabricate a window membrane. Such membranes are attached to the windows for air purification, dust resistance, and insulation. The membrane can block up to 90% of smoke, dust, and allergens and can remove particles larger than 150 nm. In addition, it is important to mention that the membrane is made from nanofibers. Hence, there is no release of harmful substances or particles .
2.3. Oil Spill Cleanup
Oil spills have serious and long-lasting effects on marine ecosystems and the environment in general. Removing oil spills quickly and efficiently is an issue that has never been more urgent. Recently, the research on using nanomaterials as sorbent membranes to separate oil and water has been increasingly concerned . Using sorbents to concentrate and transform oil from the liquid phase to the semi-solid or solid phase and then removing this oil from water is an effective and economical mechanical method . Electrospun nanofibers have many suitable properties for oil and water separation, such as superior hydrophobic–oleophilic behavior (no water sorption but oil sorption), high porosity, low density, small diameter, and fibrillary structure . Therefore, nanofiber membranes are a potential material that can be used to separate oil from water .
PVC nanofibers are oleophilic, which means, is a material with a high affinity for oil; in other words, when oils are exposed to PVC nanofibers, they will absorb the oil . Materials with hydrophobic and oleophilic characteristics are suitable when used to remove oil from water. Furthermore, these materials do not pollute the environment.
Messiry et al.  evaluated the oil absorption capacity of fibers from PVC and a mixture of PVC and CA with different concentrations (2%, 4%, 6%, 8%). The water contact angle of the nanofiber decreases as CA content increases. The nanofibers obtained from a PVC blend with 8% CA have diameters of 89 nm, which is significantly smaller than those from pure PVC nanofibers of (207 nm), thus, providing a better oil absorption. The oil sorption of the nanofiber sorbent using PVC and PVC/CA 8% was 17.4 g oil/1 g nanofiber and 25.8 oil/1 g nanofiber, respectively.
2.4. PVC Nanofiber for Energy Application
Fossil energy sources are limited, while natural sources such as solar, wind, water, etc., are quasi-infinite. Development of energy storage materials such as solar cells, lithium batteries, and accumulators to store energy is needed. Electrospun nanofiber can be used in electrodes and separators in lithium-based batteries, fuel cells, electrocatalysts for electrode materials, electrolyte membranes, photoelectrodes in dye-sensitized solar cells, etc. .
Because PVDF is a semi-crystalline material, the crystal part of PVDF interferes with the movement of lithium-ion. Therefore batteries with PVDF-based electrolytes polymer have low ion conductivity and charge/discharge capability . Adding PVC to PVDF eliminates crystallinity and enhances ionic conductivity . Electrospun PVDF/PVC nanofibers (8/2 w/w) can be used for electrolytes polymer in pin lithium-ion polymer . The presence of PVC in the nanofiber membranes has increased electrolyte uptake and ionic conductivity of the composite polymer electrolytes. The composite PVDF–PVC PEs had a high ionic conductivity up to 2.25 × 10−3 S cm−1 at 25 °C.
2.5. Protective Clothing
Fibers from PVC are accessible and inexpensive materials. PVC nanofibers are characterized by their hydrophobicity, not water expansion, and not hygroscopicity. In addition, PVC nanofibers present high chemical-resistance to agents such as acids, bases, salts, and they are insoluble in most organic solvents; hence they can be used to manufacture protective clothing and lab coats for medical applications . Having inherited these characteristic properties, PVC nanofibers have the potential to be used in the field of protective clothing. When using nanofibers as a part of protective clothing enhances the clothing’s filtration ability from harmful environmental agents, good air exchange, and water repellency. Figure 1 illustrates how nanofiber mats work when they are used as protective clothing.
Figure 1. Graphical illustration for the operation of nanofiber mats when used as protective clothing.
2.6. Protection from Corrosion
Protecting surfaces from corrosion is a new application of electrospun nanofibers. It has been proposed to replace traditional chromate coatings, which not only affects the environment but affects human health as well. Essaheb et al.  fabricated electrospun PVC nanofiber coating on the surfaces of different metals such as aluminum, steel, and brass. The authors used cyclic potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements to evaluate the protective effect of the coating in NaCl 3.5 wt%. The results showed that the nanofiber-coated samples had much lower corrosion rates, more passivated surfaces, and higher polarization resistance compared to the non-coated nanofiber samples.
2.7. Reinforcement in Composite
Composite polymer materials usually have two main components, one is the reinforcement, and the other is the matrix. When combined, they produce higher-quality materials such as high strength and high modulus, high flexibility, economic efficiency that one of the two components cannot achieve. Recently, nano-scale materials have been used as a reinforcement ingredient that has attracted the attention of scientists. Electrospun nanofiber material has many outstanding properties such as thin and light structure, high porosity, and higher mechanical properties than those of the same material in its bulk state . Therefore, nanofiber polymer materials are considered as a potential material used as composite reinforcement .
The entry is from 10.3390/fib9020012
- R. D. Doworkin; PVC Stabilizers of the past, present, and future. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 1989, 11, 15-22, 10.1002/vnl.730110106.
- Paul H. Daniels; A brief overview of theories of PVC plasticization and methods used to evaluate PVC-plasticizer interaction. Journal of Vinyl and Additive Technology 2009, 15, 219-223, 10.1002/vnl.20211.
- Global PVC Production Volume 2018 & 2025 . Garside, M.. Retrieved 2021-2-19
- Wilkes, C.E.; Summers, J.W.; Daniels, C.A.; Berard, M.T.. PVC Handbook; Hanser: Munich, German, 2005; pp. Vol. 184.
- Lalitha A. Kolahalam; I.V. Kasi Viswanath; Bhagavathula S. Diwakar; B. Govindh; Venu Reddy; Y.L.N. Murthy; Review on nanomaterials: Synthesis and applications. Materials Today: Proceedings 2019, 18, 2182-2190, 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.07.371.
- Yunqian Dai; Wenying Liu; Eric Formo; Yueming Sun; Younan Xia; Ceramic nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning and their applications in catalysis, environmental science, and energy technology. Polymers for Advanced Technologies 2010, 22, 326-338, 10.1002/pat.1839.
- Mufang Li; Dong Wang; Ru Xiao; Gang Sun; Qinghua Zhao; Haiying Li; A novel high flux poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanofiber membrane for microfiltration media. Separation and Purification Technology 2013, 116, 199-205, 10.1016/j.seppur.2013.05.046.
- T. Ondarçuhu; C. Joachim; Drawing a single nanofibre over hundreds of microns. EPL (Europhysics Letters) 1998, 42, 215-220, 10.1209/epl/i1998-00233-9.
- Lin Feng; Shuhong Li; Huanjun Li; Jin Zhai; Yanlin Song; Lei Jiang; Daoben Zhu; Super-Hydrophobic Surface of Aligned Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers. Angewandte Chemie International Edition 2002, 41, 1221-1223, 10.1002/1521-3773(20020402)41:7%3c1221::AID-ANIE1221%3e3.0.CO;2-G.
- Penghe Qiu; Chuanbin Mao; Biomimetic Branched Hollow Fibers Templated by Self-Assembled Fibrous Polyvinylpyrrolidone Structures in Aqueous Solution. ACS Nano 2010, 4, 1573-1579, 10.1021/nn9009196.
- Samuel I. Stupp; R. Helen Zha; Liam C. Palmer; Honggang Cui; Ronit Bitton; Self-assembly of biomolecular soft matter. Faraday Discussions 2013, 166, 9-30, 10.1039/c3fd00120b.
- Parviz, B.A.; Ryan, D.; Whitesides, G.M.; Using Self-Assembly for the Fabrication of Nano-Scale Electronic and Photonic Devices.. IEEE Trans. Adv. Packag. 2003, 26, 233-241, 10.1109/TADVP.2003.817971.
- Christopher J. Ellison; Alhad Phatak; David W. Giles; Christopher W. Macosko; Frank S. Bates; Corrigendum to “Melt blown nanofibers: Fiber diameter distributions and onset of fiber breakup” [Polymer 48 (2007) 3306–3316]. Polymer 2007, 48, 6180, 10.1016/j.polymer.2007.07.064.
- Xuejun Wang; Guojun Song; Tao Lou; Fabrication and characterization of nano-composite scaffold of PLLA/silane modified hydroxyapatite. Medical Engineering & Physics 2010, 32, 391-397, 10.1016/j.medengphy.2010.02.002.
- Chuyun Cheng; Juan Chen; Fei Chen; Ping Hu; Xiang-Fa Wu; Darrell H. Reneker; Haoqing Hou; High-strength and high-toughness polyimide nanofibers: Synthesis and characterization. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2010, 116, 1581-1586, 10.1002/app.31523.
- Riyadh Al-Attabi; Ludovic F. Dumée; Lingxue Kong; Jürg A. Schütz; Yosry Morsi; High Efficiency Poly(acrylonitrile) Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Airborne Nanomaterials Filtration. Advanced Engineering Materials 2017, 20, 1700572, 10.1002/adem.201700572.
- Xinxin Huang; Tifeng Jiao; Qingqing Liu; Lexin Zhang; Jingxin Zhou; Bingbing Li; Qiuming Peng; Hierarchical electrospun nanofibers treated by solvent vapor annealing as air filtration mat for high-efficiency PM2.5 capture. Science China Materials 2018, 62, 423-436, 10.1007/s40843-018-9320-4.
- Xiao-Hong Qin; Shan-Yuan Wang; Electrospun nanofibers from crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol) and its filtration efficiency. Journal of Applied Polymer Science 2008, 109, 951-956, 10.1002/app.28003.
- Caihong Zhu; Chengwei Wang; Applications of Electrospun Fibers in Sensors. Proceedings of the 2017 7th International Conference on Education, Management, Computer and Society (EMCS 2017) 2017, 2, 1063-1066, 10.2991/emcs-17.2017.205.
- Xiaofeng Yang; Yishou Wang; Xinlin Qing; A flexible capacitive sensor based on the electrospun PVDF nanofiber membrane with carbon nanotubes. Sensors and Actuators A: Physical 2019, 299, 111579, 10.1016/j.sna.2019.111579.
- Betul Unal; Esra Evrim Yalcinkaya; Dilek Odaci Demirkol; Suna Timur; An electrospun nanofiber matrix based on organo-clay for biosensors: PVA/PAMAM-Montmorillonite. Applied Surface Science 2018, 444, 542-551, 10.1016/j.apsusc.2018.03.109.
- Biyun Li; Shengqiang Pan; Huihua Yuan; Yanzhong Zhang; Optical and mechanical anisotropies of aligned electrospun nanofibers reinforced transparent PMMA nanocomposites. Composites Part A: Applied Science and Manufacturing 2016, 90, 380-389, 10.1016/j.compositesa.2016.07.024.
- Mina Heidari; S. Hajir Bahrami; M. Ranjbar-Mohammadi; P.B. Milan; Smart electrospun nanofibers containing PCL/gelatin/graphene oxide for application in nerve tissue engineering. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2019, 103, 109768, 10.1016/j.msec.2019.109768.
- Deepalekshmi Ponnamma; Omar Aljarod; Hemalatha Parangusan; Mariam Al Ali Al-Maadeed; Electrospun nanofibers of PVDF-HFP composites containing magnetic nickel ferrite for energy harvesting application. Materials Chemistry and Physics 2020, 239, 122257, 10.1016/j.matchemphys.2019.122257.
- Qingqing Sang; Gareth R. Williams; Huanling Wu; Kailin Liu; Heyu Li; Li-Min Zhu; Electrospun gelatin/sodium bicarbonate and poly(lactide-co-ε-caprolactone)/sodium bicarbonate nanofibers as drug delivery systems. Materials Science and Engineering: C 2017, 81, 359-365, 10.1016/j.msec.2017.08.007.
- Bilge Coşkuner Filiz; Aysel Kantürk Figen; Fabrication of electrospun nanofiber catalysts and ammonia borane hydrogen release efficiency. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy 2016, 41, 15433-15442, 10.1016/j.ijhydene.2016.03.182.
- Jiyeol Bae; Inchan Baek; Heechul Choi; Efficacy of piezoelectric electrospun nanofiber membrane for water treatment. Chemical Engineering Journal 2017, 307, 670-678, 10.1016/j.cej.2016.08.125.
- Keun Hyung Lee; Hak Yong Kim; Young Min La; Douk Rae Lee; Nak Hyun Sung; Influence of a mixing solvent with tetrahydrofuran andN,N-dimethylformamide on electrospun poly(vinyl chloride) nonwoven mats. Journal of Polymer Science Part B: Polymer Physics 2002, 40, 2259-2268, 10.1002/polb.10293.
- Ibrahim M Alarifi; Abdulaziz R Alharbi; Mn Khan; Waseem S Khan; Aybala Usta; Waseem S Khan And Ramazan Asmatulu; Water Treatment using Electrospun PVC/PVP Nanofibers as Filter Medium. International Journal of Material Science and Research 2018, 2, 43-49, 10.18689/ijmsr-1000107.
- Ramazan Asmatulu; Harish Muppalla; Zeinab Veisi; Waseem S. Khan; Abu Asaduzzaman; Nurxat Nuraje; Study of Hydrophilic Electrospun Nanofiber Membranes for Filtration of Micro and Nanosize Suspended Particles. Membranes 2013, 3, 375-388, 10.3390/membranes3040375.
- Haitao Zhu; Shanshan Qiu; Wei Jiang; Daxiong Wu; Canying Zhang; Evaluation of Electrospun Polyvinyl Chloride/Polystyrene Fibers As Sorbent Materials for Oil Spill Cleanup. Environmental Science & Technology 2011, 45, 4527-4531, 10.1021/es2002343.
- Ding, B.; Si, Y.. Electrospun Nanofibers for Energy and Environmental Applications; David J. Lockwood, Eds.; Springer: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany, 2011; pp. 525.
- Mona A. Abdel-Fatah; Nanofiltration systems and applications in wastewater treatment: Review article. Ain Shams Engineering Journal 2018, 9, 3077-3092, 10.1016/j.asej.2018.08.001.
- Kyunghwan Yoon; Benjamin S. Hsiao; Benjamin Chu; Functional nanofibers for environmental applications. Journal of Materials Chemistry 2008, 18, 5326-5334, 10.1039/b804128h.
- Miaomiao Zhu; Jingquan Han; Fang Wang; Wei Shao; Ranhua Xiong; Qilu Zhang; Hui Pan; Yong Yang; Sangram Keshari Samal; Feng Zhang; et al. Electrospun Nanofibers Membranes for Effective Air Filtration. Macromolecular Materials and Engineering 2016, 302, 1600353, 10.1002/mame.201600353.
- Na Wang; Aikifa Raza; Yang Si; Jianyong Yu; Gang Sun; Bin Ding; Tortuously structured polyvinyl chloride/polyurethane fibrous membranes for high-efficiency fine particulate filtration. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science 2013, 398, 240-246, 10.1016/j.jcis.2013.02.019.
- Marcin Lackowski; Andrzej Krupa; Anatol Jaworek; Nanofabric nonwoven mat for filtration smoke and nanoparticles. Polish Journal of Chemical Technology 2013, 15, 48-52, 10.2478/pjct-2013-0023.
- RESPILON® . RESPILON. Retrieved 2021-2-19
- Jinyou Lin; Yanwei Shang; Bin Ding; Jianmao Yang; Jianyong Yu; Salem S. Al-Deyab; Nanoporous polystyrene fibers for oil spill cleanup. Marine Pollution Bulletin 2012, 64, 347-352, 10.1016/j.marpolbul.2011.11.002.
- Zhe Jiang; Leonard D. Tijing; Altangerel Amarjargal; Chan Hee Park; Kyoung-Jin An; Ho Kyong Shon; Cheol Sang Kim; Removal of oil from water using magnetic bicomponent composite nanofibers fabricated by electrospinning. Composites Part B: Engineering 2015, 77, 311-318, 10.1016/j.compositesb.2015.03.067.
- Moses O. Adebajo; Ray L. Frost; J. Theo Kloprogge; Onuma Carmody; Serge Kokot; Porous Materials for Oil Spill Cleanup: A Review of Synthesis and Absorbing Properties. Journal of Porous Materials 2003, 10, 159-170, 10.1023/a:1027484117065.
- Maja Radetic; Vesna Ilic; Darinka Radojevic; Robert Miladinovic; Dragan Jocic; Petar Jovancic; Efficiency of recycled wool-based nonwoven material for the removal of oils from water. Chemosphere 2008, 70, 525-530, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2007.07.005.
- Jingya Wu; Alicia Kyoungjin An; Jiaxin Guo; Eui-Jong Lee; Muhammad Usman Farid; Sanghyun Jeong; CNTs reinforced super-hydrophobic-oleophilic electrospun polystyrene oil sorbent for enhanced sorption capacity and reusability. Chemical Engineering Journal 2017, 314, 526-536, 10.1016/j.cej.2016.12.010.
- Teik-Thye Lim; Xiaofeng Huang; Evaluation of kapok (Ceiba pentandra (L.) Gaertn.) as a natural hollow hydrophobic–oleophilic fibrous sorbent for oil spill cleanup. Chemosphere 2007, 66, 955-963, 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2006.05.062.
- Qiaoyun Cheng; Dongdong Ye; Chunyu Chang; Lina Zhang; Facile fabrication of superhydrophilic membranes consisted of fibrous tunicate cellulose nanocrystals for highly efficient oil/water separation. Journal of Membrane Science 2017, 525, 1-8, 10.1016/j.memsci.2016.11.084.
- Jiefeng Gao; Bei Li; Ling Wang; Xuewu Huang; Huaiguo Xue; Flexible membranes with a hierarchical nanofiber/microsphere structure for oil adsorption and oil/water separation. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry 2018, 68, 416-424, 10.1016/j.jiec.2018.09.001.
- Qingjun Wang; Zhe Cui; Yi Xiao; Qingmin Chen; Stable highly hydrophobic and oleophilic meshes for oil–water separation. Applied Surface Science 2007, 253, 9054-9060, 10.1016/j.apsusc.2007.05.030.
- Changhong Su; Highly hydrophobic and oleophilic foam for selective absorption. Applied Surface Science 2009, 256, 1413-1418, 10.1016/j.apsusc.2009.08.098.
- Magdi El Messiry; Nermin Fadel; Study of poly(vinyl chloride) nanofiber structured assemblies as oil sorbents. The Journal of The Textile Institute 2018, 110, 1114-1125, 10.1080/00405000.2018.1541436.
- Guiru Sun; Liqun Sun; Haiming Xie; Jia Liu; Electrospinning of Nanofibers for Energy Applications. Nanomaterials 2016, 6, 129, 10.3390/nano6070129.
- S. Abbrent; J. Plestil; D. Hlavata; J. Lindgren; J. Tegenfeldt; Å. Wendsjö; Crystallinity and morphology of PVdF–HFP-based gel electrolytes. Polymer 2001, 42, 1407-1416, 10.1016/s0032-3861(00)00517-6.
- Ch. V. Subba Reddy; Quan-Yao Zhu; Li-Qiang Mai; Wen Chen; Electrochemical studies on PVC/PVdF blend-based polymer electrolytes. Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry 2006, 11, 543-548, 10.1007/s10008-006-0192-1.
- Zheng Zhong; Qi Cao; Bo Jing; XianYou Wang; Xiaoyun Li; Huayang Deng; Electrospun PVdF–PVC nanofibrous polymer electrolytes for polymer lithium-ion batteries. Materials Science and Engineering: B 2012, 177, 86-91, 10.1016/j.mseb.2011.09.008.
- Ryauzov, A.N.; Gruzdev, V.A.; Kostrov, Y.A.; Seagal, M.B.. Chemical Fiber Production Technology; Chemistry: Moscow, Russian, 1965; pp. 516.
- Es-saheb, M.; Elzatahry, A.A.; Sherif, E.S.M.; Alkaraki, A.S.; Kenawy, E.R.; A Novel Electrospinning Application for Polyvinyl Chloride Nanofiber Coating Deposition as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Aluminum, Steel, and Brass in Chloride Solutions. Int. J. Electrochem. Sci. 2012, 7, 5962-5976, .
- R. Palazzetti; A. Zucchelli; Electrospun nanofibers as reinforcement for composite laminates materials – A review. Composite Structures 2017, 182, 711-727, 10.1016/j.compstruct.2017.09.021.
- Al-Mahmnur Alam; Yanan Liu; Mira Park; Soo-Jin Park; Hak-Yong Kim; Preparation and characterization of optically transparent and photoluminescent electrospun nanofiber composed of carbon quantum dots and polyacrylonitrile blend with polyacrylic acid. Polymer 2015, 59, 35-41, 10.1016/j.polymer.2014.12.061.
- Bert De Schoenmaker; Sam Van Der Heijden; Ives De Baere; Wim Van Paepegem; Karen De Clerck; Effect of electrospun polyamide 6 nanofibres on the mechanical properties of a glass fibre/epoxy composite. Polymer Testing 2013, 32, 1495-1501, 10.1016/j.polymertesting.2013.09.015.
- Nguyen Tien Phong; Mohamed H. Gabr; Kazuya Okubo; Bui Chuong; Toru Fujii; Improvement in the mechanical performances of carbon fiber/epoxy composite with addition of nano-(Polyvinyl alcohol) fibers. Composite Structures 2013, 99, 380-387, 10.1016/j.compstruct.2012.12.018.