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    ABCB11 Gene

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    Submitted by: Bruce Ren
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    ATP binding cassette subfamily B member 11

    1. Normal Function

    The ABCB11 gene provides instructions for making a protein called the bile salt export pump (BSEP), which is found in the liver. Bile salts are a component of bile, which is used to digest fats. Bile salts are produced by liver cells and then transported out of the cell by BSEP to make bile. The release of bile salts from liver cells is critical for the normal secretion of bile.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1 Benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis

    Mutations in the ABCB11 gene can cause benign recurrent intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (BRIC2). People with BRIC2 have occasional episodes of impaired bile secretion that lead to severe itching (pruritus) and yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice). On occasion, people with BRIC2 have later been diagnosed with a more severe condition called progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (described below) when their symptoms worsened.

    Affected individuals have a mutation in both copies of the ABCB11 gene. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene that cause BRIC2 lead to a 40 to 50 percent reduction of bile salt transport. The resulting buildup of bile salts in the liver leads to the signs and symptoms of BRIC2. It is unclear what causes the episodes to begin or end.

    2.2 Progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis

    More than 100 mutations in the ABCB11 gene have been found to cause a severe form of liver disease called progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) that usually leads to liver failure. Development of this condition requires a mutation in both copies of the ABCB11 gene. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene that cause PFIC2 result in a 70 percent reduction to complete absence of bile salt transport out of the liver. The lack of transport causes bile salts to build up in liver cells, leading to liver disease and its associated signs and symptoms.

    Mutations that lead to the production of a short, nonfunctional protein or cause no protein to be produced tend to be associated with severe liver disease that appears earlier in life. People with no functional BSEP protein also seem to be at a greater risk of developing a type of liver cancer called hepatocellular carcinoma.

    2.3 Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy

    Women with a change in the ABCB11 gene are at risk of developing a condition called intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Affected women typically develop impaired bile secretion (cholestasis) and pruritus during the third trimester of pregnancy, and these features disappear after the baby is born. A common variation (polymorphism) in the ABCB11 gene is found more often in women who develop this condition than women who do not. This variation leads to a change in a single protein building block (amino acid) in the BSEP protein. Specifically, the amino acid valine is replaced by the amino acid alanine at position 444 of the protein (written as V444A). This change leads to a reduction in the amount of BSEP protein in liver cells. In rare cases, an uncommon change (a mutation) in one copy of the ABCB11 gene is found in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. A single mutation in this gene increases the risk of developing intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. These mutations likely reduce the amount or function of the BSEP protein.

    In women with either type of genetic change, enough BSEP function remains for sufficient bile secretion under most circumstances. Studies show that the hormones estrogen and progesterone (and products formed during their breakdown), which are elevated during pregnancy, further reduce the function of BSEP, resulting in impaired bile secretion and the signs and symptoms of intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. Many factors, however, likely contribute to the risk of developing this complex disorder.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • ABC16
    • ABCBB_HUMAN
    • ATP-binding cassette, sub-family B (MDR/TAP), member 11
    • bile salt export pump
    • BRIC2
    • BSEP
    • PFIC-2
    • PFIC2
    • progressive familial intrahepatic cholestasis 2
    • sister p-glycoprotein
    • SPGP

    This entry is adapted from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/abcb11

    References

    1. Davit-Spraul A, Gonzales E, Baussan C, Jacquemin E. Progressive familialintrahepatic cholestasis. Orphanet J Rare Dis. 2009 Jan 8;4:1. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-4-1. Review.
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    3. Geenes V, Williamson C. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. World JGastroenterol. 2009 May 7;15(17):2049-66. Review.
    4. Jansen PL, Sturm E. Genetic cholestasis, causes and consequences forhepatobiliary transport. Liver Int. 2003 Oct;23(5):315-22. Review.
    5. Kagawa T, Watanabe N, Mochizuki K, Numari A, Ikeno Y, Itoh J, Tanaka H, Arias IM, Mine T. Phenotypic differences in PFIC2 and BRIC2 correlate with proteinstability of mutant Bsep and impaired taurocholate secretion in MDCK II cells. AmJ Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jan;294(1):G58-67.
    6. Lam P, Pearson CL, Soroka CJ, Xu S, Mennone A, Boyer JL. Levels of plasmamembrane expression in progressive and benign mutations of the bile salt exportpump (Bsep/Abcb11) correlate with severity of cholestatic diseases. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. 2007 Nov;293(5):C1709-16.
    7. Lam P, Soroka CJ, Boyer JL. The bile salt export pump: clinical andexperimental aspects of genetic and acquired cholestatic liver disease. SeminLiver Dis. 2010 May;30(2):125-33. doi: 10.1055/s-0030-1253222.Review.
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    9. Meier Y, Zodan T, Lang C, Zimmermann R, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ, Stieger B,Pauli-Magnus C. Increased susceptibility for intrahepatic cholestasis ofpregnancy and contraceptive-induced cholestasis in carriers of the 1331T>Cpolymorphism in the bile salt export pump. World J Gastroenterol. 2008 Jan7;14(1):38-45.
    10. Pauli-Magnus C, Stieger B, Meier Y, Kullak-Ublick GA, Meier PJ. Enterohepatic transport of bile salts and genetics of cholestasis. J Hepatol. 2005Aug;43(2):342-57. Review.
    11. Strautnieks SS, Bull LN, Knisely AS, Kocoshis SA, Dahl N, Arnell H, Sokal E,Dahan K, Childs S, Ling V, Tanner MS, Kagalwalla AF, Németh A, Pawlowska J, BakerA, Mieli-Vergani G, Freimer NB, Gardiner RM, Thompson RJ. A gene encoding aliver-specific ABC transporter is mutated in progressive familial intrahepaticcholestasis. Nat Genet. 1998 Nov;20(3):233-8.
    12. Strautnieks SS, Byrne JA, Pawlikowska L, Cebecauerová D, Rayner A, Dutton L,Meier Y, Antoniou A, Stieger B, Arnell H, Ozçay F, Al-Hussaini HF, Bassas AF,Verkade HJ, Fischler B, Németh A, Kotalová R, Shneider BL, Cielecka-Kuszyk J,McClean P, Whitington PF, Sokal E, Jirsa M, Wali SH, Jankowska I, Pawłowska J,Mieli-Vergani G, Knisely AS, Bull LN, Thompson RJ. Severe bile salt export pumpdeficiency: 82 different ABCB11 mutations in 109 families. Gastroenterology. 2008Apr;134(4):1203-14. doi: 10.1053/j.gastro.2008.01.038.
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