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    ABCA1 Gene

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    Submitted by: Bruce Ren
    (This entry belongs to Entry Collection "MedlinePlus ")

    Definition

    ATP binding cassette subfamily A member 1

    1. Normal Function

    The ABCA1 gene belongs to a group of genes called the ATP-binding cassette family, which provides instructions for making proteins that transport molecules across cell membranes. The ABCA1 protein is produced in many tissues, with high amounts found in the liver and in immune system cells called macrophages. This protein moves cholesterol and certain fats called phospholipids across the cell membrane to the outside of the cell. These substances are then picked up by a protein called apolipoprotein A-I (apoA-I), which is produced from the APOA1 gene. ApoA-I, cholesterol, and phospholipids combine to make high-density lipoprotein (HDL), often referred to as "good cholesterol" because high levels of this substance reduce the chances of developing heart and blood vessel (cardiovascular) disease. HDL is a molecule that carries cholesterol and phospholipids through the bloodstream from the body's tissues to the liver. Once in the liver, cholesterol and phospholipids are redistributed to other tissues or removed from the body. The process of removing excess cholesterol from cells is extremely important for balancing cholesterol levels and maintaining cardiovascular health.

    2. Health Conditions Related to Genetic Changes

    2.1 Familial HDL deficiency

    Mutations in the ABCA1 gene can cause a condition called familial HDL deficiency. People with this condition have reduced levels of HDL in their blood and may experience early-onset cardiovascular disease, often before age 50. While one copy of the altered ABCA1 gene causes familial HDL deficiency, two copies of the altered gene cause a more severe related disorder called Tangier disease (described below).

    Most ABCA1 gene mutations that cause familial HDL deficiency change single protein building blocks (amino acids) in the ABCA1 protein. These mutations prevent the release of cholesterol and phospholipids from cells, decreasing the amount of these substances available to form HDL. As a result, the levels of HDL in the blood are low. A shortage (deficiency) of HDL is believed to increase the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    2.2 Tangier disease

    More than 30 mutations in the ABCA1 gene have been found to cause Tangier disease. Almost all of these mutations change single amino acids in the ABCA1 protein. These mutations prevent the release of cholesterol and phospholipids from cells. As a result, these substances accumulate within cells, causing certain body tissues to enlarge and the tonsils to acquire a yellowish-orange color. A buildup of cholesterol can be toxic to cells, leading to impaired cell function or cell death. In addition, the inability to transport cholesterol and phospholipids out of cells results in very low HDL levels, which may increase the risk of cardiovascular disease. These combined factors cause the signs and symptoms of Tangier disease.

    3. Other Names for This Gene

    • ABC1
    • ABCA1_HUMAN
    • ATP binding cassette transporter 1
    • ATP-binding cassette 1
    • ATP-binding cassette, sub-family A (ABC1), member 1
    • CERP
    • cholesterol efflux regulatory protein
    • FLJ14958
    • HDLDT1
    • high density lipoprotein deficiency, Tangier type, 1
    • TGD

    This entry is adapted from https://medlineplus.gov/genetics/gene/abca1

    References

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    2. Batal R, Tremblay M, Krimbou L, Mamer O, Davignon J, Genest J Jr, Cohn JS.Familial HDL deficiency characterized by hypercatabolism of mature apoA-I but notproapoA-I. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 1998 Apr;18(4):655-64.
    3. Bodzioch M, Orsó E, Klucken J, Langmann T, Böttcher A, Diederich W, Drobnik W,Barlage S, Büchler C, Porsch-Ozcürümez M, Kaminski WE, Hahmann HW, Oette K, RotheG, Aslanidis C, Lackner KJ, Schmitz G. The gene encoding ATP-binding cassettetransporter 1 is mutated in Tangier disease. Nat Genet. 1999 Aug;22(4):347-51.
    4. Brooks-Wilson A, Marcil M, Clee SM, Zhang LH, Roomp K, van Dam M, Yu L, BrewerC, Collins JA, Molhuizen HO, Loubser O, Ouelette BF, Fichter K,Ashbourne-Excoffon KJ, Sensen CW, Scherer S, Mott S, Denis M, Martindale D,Frohlich J, Morgan K, Koop B, Pimstone S, Kastelein JJ, Genest J Jr, Hayden MR.Mutations in ABC1 in Tangier disease and familial high-density lipoproteindeficiency. Nat Genet. 1999 Aug;22(4):336-45.
    5. Brunham LR, Kruit JK, Iqbal J, Fievet C, Timmins JM, Pape TD, Coburn BA,Bissada N, Staels B, Groen AK, Hussain MM, Parks JS, Kuipers F, Hayden MR.Intestinal ABCA1 directly contributes to HDL biogenesis in vivo. J Clin Invest.2006 Apr;116(4):1052-62.
    6. Iatan I, Alrasadi K, Ruel I, Alwaili K, Genest J. Effect of ABCA1 mutations onrisk for myocardial infarction. Curr Atheroscler Rep. 2008 Oct;10(5):413-26.Review.
    7. Kolovou GD, Mikhailidis DP, Anagnostopoulou KK, Daskalopoulou SS, Cokkinos DV.Tangier disease four decades of research: a reflection of the importance of HDL. Curr Med Chem. 2006;13(7):771-82. Review.
    8. Marcil M, Brooks-Wilson A, Clee SM, Roomp K, Zhang LH, Yu L, Collins JA, vanDam M, Molhuizen HO, Loubster O, Ouellette BF, Sensen CW, Fichter K, Mott S,Denis M, Boucher B, Pimstone S, Genest J Jr, Kastelein JJ, Hayden MR. Mutationsin the ABC1 gene in familial HDL deficiency with defective cholesterol efflux.Lancet. 1999 Oct 16;354(9187):1341-6.
    9. Mott S, Yu L, Marcil M, Boucher B, Rondeau C, Genest J Jr. Decreased cellular cholesterol efflux is a common cause of familial hypoalphalipoproteinemia: roleof the ABCA1 gene mutations. Atherosclerosis. 2000 Oct;152(2):457-68.
    10. Oram JF. HDL apolipoproteins and ABCA1: partners in the removal of excesscellular cholesterol. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol. 2003 May 1;23(5):720-7.
    11. Rust S, Rosier M, Funke H, Real J, Amoura Z, Piette JC, Deleuze JF, Brewer HB,Duverger N, Denèfle P, Assmann G. Tangier disease is caused by mutations in thegene encoding ATP-binding cassette transporter 1. Nat Genet. 1999Aug;22(4):352-5.
    12. Tall AR, Yvan-Charvet L, Terasaka N, Pagler T, Wang N. HDL, ABC transporters, and cholesterol efflux: implications for the treatment of atherosclerosis. CellMetab. 2008 May;7(5):365-75. doi: 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.03.001. Review.
    13. Tang C, Oram JF. The cell cholesterol exporter ABCA1 as a protector fromcardiovascular disease and diabetes. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2009Jul;1791(7):563-72. doi: 10.1016/j.bbalip.2009.03.011.
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