Table of Contents

    Topic review

    Nanotechnological Smart Food Packaging

    View times: 116
    Submitted by: Anton FICAI

    Definition

    Polymer nanocomposites (PNCs) are of real interest because along with the bioactivity induced by the components (or by the polymer itself), these materials due to the composite nature can exhibit some improved physical, chemical, biological, mechanical, electrical, and optical properties compared to individual components [1]. Due to the innovative properties such as maintaining the quality and safety of food but also increasing the shelf-life of the food, nanocomposite packaging has great potential as an innovative food packaging technology. The polymer nanocomposites used in developing food packaging materials are mainly composed of the polymer matrix, nanofillers, plasticizers, and compatibilizers.

    1. Introduction

    Currently, nanocomposites are used in many medical and industrial applications, but also increasingly used in food packaging. An extensive research on the use of nanocomposite materials has been conducted in the food industry with a main purpose of increasing the shelf life of food and minimizing the losses, being known as highly susceptible to bacterial/fungal contamination. The main purpose for the use of polymeric materials in the food industry is the production of packaging that protects food from adverse environmental conditions (dust, gas, light, and moisture), pathogenic micro-organisms, or chemical contamination during storage and distribution. Food packaging should be able to ensure the quality and safety of food throughout the distribution chain, but also during storage, including the shelf storage. In order to be used as food packaging polymeric materials must be safe to have a low production cost, to be inert, easy to dispose of, and reuse. Unfortunately, the bulk of packages used today are not bio-degradable and this presents an increasing unacceptable environmental hazard. In addition, the mechanical, electrical, thermal, optical, and electrochemical properties of these nanostructured materials will differ significantly from those of the component materials. These are essential for assuring the expected shelf life, food quality, and safety parameters [2][3].

    Food packaging is used as a protective barrier in the food industry. In addition, the demand for packaging materials is constantly growing according to the specific requirements request to each type of food. In this sense, the food packaging industry is dynamic and futuristic, which gives rise to the expansion or evolution of new processes and technologies for obtaining superior quality packaging materials.

    According to the European Regulation (EC) —No. 1935/2004, good packaging must have a set of functions such as protection of food from a number of destructive or harmful substances (dirt or dust, oxygen, light, pathogenic microorganisms, moisture), to be inert, cheap to produce, easy to remove, or reuse. An optimal packaging must withstand extreme conditions during processing or filling, impervious to a lot of storage and transport conditions in the environment [4]. Many times, these functions are obtained by using natural or synthetic polymers loaded with nanoparticles and biological active agents.

    Nanomaterials applied in packaging and food safety are in various forms, from bioactive bulk to bioactive coatings. The bioactivity is usually conferred using different active agents: Natural or synthetic biocides including essential oils and natural extracts; nanoparticles including metallic and metal oxide nanoparticles, etc. The antimicrobial activity can be assured by various mechanisms, by contact, or by release. Nanoparticles encapsulation is one of the mechanisms employed and can confer new properties to the surface, such as inducing antimicrobial or even antibiofilm capacity. Due to the excellent physico-chemical properties but also the antimicrobial potential of these nanomaterials, they are widely used against various pathogens (most of the microorganisms, viruses, or fungi) in medicine, water treatment, crop protection, food safety, and food preservation [4][5][6][7][8][9][10]. Usually, the antimicrobial activity of these nanoparticles is considered to be caused by the damage of the microbial membranes, oxidative stress, or the denaturation of the proteins [11]. It is also important to mention that a wide range of biological active agents, synthetic and natural agents (essential oils and natural extracts) are increasingly used in order to develop drug delivery systems or antimicrobial surfaces, and this technology is slowly directed also to create bioactive food packaging materials [4][6][12][13][14][15][16].

    2. Nanostructured Polymers as Packaging Materials

    One of the most practical uses of nanocomposites in food packaging is the addition of nanosized components to traditional packaging materials, such as metals and metal oxides nanoparticles, zeolites, glass, but also organic polymers cellulose, various synthetic plastics such as PE, PP, PS, PVC, etc. The use of nanofillers in the preparation of bioactive packaging films has also been the subject of numerous recent studies [13][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Several types of nanoparticles are exploited in food packaging materials because these can induce some advantages, especially, antimicrobial activity, but also can tailor the mechanical properties, gas and water vapor barrier, etc. [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25]. These properties are strongly correlated with the nature and content of the nanoparticles.

    Kumar et al. [28] used silver nanoparticles in order to obtain biodegradable hybrid nanocomposites based on a chitosan/gelatin/PEG blend. It is important to mention that the proposed composition can be used in protective packaging materials that are able to extend the shelf life of the red grapes by 14 days because of the antimicrobial activity and control of the gas and moisture barrier.

    You et al. [26][29] studied the influence of silver addition in cellulose based materials using a chemical reduction method with NaBH4 and an ultraviolet reduction method. Regardless of the reduction method and consequently regardless of the characteristics of the nanoparticles (28 nm for the UV-reduction method and ~11 nm for the chemical reduction method) these films highlight the antimicrobial activity against E. coli or l. Monocytogenes without affecting the toxicity against Caco-2 and FHC colon cells. It is important to mention that due to the low level of Ag (usually up to 1000 ppm), there are only marginal changes of the other properties of the films, but the slight color change and the important antimicrobial activity lead to an improved shelf life.

    Nano-TiO2 can be also used in obtaining nanostructured food packaging materials based on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose with the antimicrobial activity. It is important to mention that the best results were obtained by adding bovine bone collagen, perhaps due to the compatibilizing effect between nano-TiO2 and hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. Due to the higher loading of the nano-TiO2 compared to AgNPs, the addition of the oxide induces also a reinforcing role and thus some mechanical properties, thermal stability, color as well as barrier properties are improved when bovine collagen is used [18].

    Copper oxide is also used to induce bioactivity to the food packaging materials. Starting from sodium alginate, cellulose nanowhiskers and embedding CuO nanoparticles antimicrobial packaging materials can be obtained against a wide range of pathogens such as: S. aureus, E. coli, Salmonella sp., C. albicans, and Trichoderma spp., the inhibition diameter being significant 27.49 ± 0.91, 12.12 ± 0.58, 25.21 ± 1.05, 23.35 ± 0.45, or 5.31 ± 1.16 mm, respectively [19].

    ZnO is extensively used in many applications involving biomaterials and food packaging materials because ZnO is nontoxic at a level that can confer an antimicrobial effect [30][31], the released Zn2+ being even beneficial as an oligoelement that can act as a cofactor for several enzymes. Different polymers or polymer blends were associated with ZnO in order to improve the shelf life of vegetables, fruits, cakes, or other food [20][32]. Again, the higher content of ZnO (1%–5%) usually leads to the change of the moisture balance, oxygen, and water permeability but also mechanical properties of the films. ZnO can be also associated with graphene oxide and the final composite food package membrane exhibits strong antibacterial activity against foodborne pathogenic and spoilage bacteria, leading to safer food products and improved shelf-life [33].

    When considering the food packaging loaded with nanoparticles, it is important to consider the potential associated risks. This is why increasing attention is paid to the safety issues, and in the last years regulations were released in order to protect the consumers against these risks. For instance, the EU regulation 2016/1416 imposes a maximal limit of 5–25 mg Zn/kg food. Moreover, this value should be correlated with the tolerable upper intake limit of 40 mg/day Zn for the human body [34][35]. Taking into account these values, the amount of ZnO added as a food additive or as an antimicrobial agent in food packaging should be well below these values. For instance, alginate based nanocomposites commonly used as food packaging containing up to 0.5 g/L ZnO NPs can be used without a risking of overpassing this limit [36]. When LDPE-ZnO nanocomposite films are used for food packaging, the migration of Zn2+ is much lower so, even 3.5 mg Zn/L can be used without inducing any risks over the human health [37]. Unfortunately, these values are relative because many factors affect the release rate. Some factors are related to the packaging materials themselves, others are related to the food while also the environmental conditions can change the release behavior. For instance, Heydari-Majd et al. [38] highlighted the influence of the presence of essential oils over the migration rate of Zn2+ for the polylactic acid/ZnO systems, the release rate being enhanced. Similar conclusions can be found also for several other nanomaterials usually loaded into the food packaging such as TiO2, Ag NPs, carbon nanoparticles/nanotubes, etc., which after reaching the blood circulation, can be accumulated selectively and induce diseases at the brain, testes, and foetuses (in utero) level [39].

    The entry is from 10.3390/coatings10090806

    References

    1. Ray, S.S.; Bousmina, M. Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: In greening the 21st century materials world. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2005, 8, 117. [Google Scholar]
    2. Marsh, K.; Bugusu, B. Food packaging-Roles, materials, and environmental issues. J. Food Sci. 2007, 72, R39–R55. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    3. Rhim, J.W.; Park, H.M.; Ha, C.S. Bio-nanocomposites for food packaging applications. Prog. Polym. Sci. 2013, 38, 1629–1652. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    4. Oprea, O.; Andronescu, E.; Ficai, D.; Ficai, A.; Oktar, F.N.; Yetmez, M. ZnO Applications and Challenges. Curr. Org. Chem. 2014, 18, 192–203. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    5. Ficai, A.; Sonmez, M.; Ficai, D.; Andronescu, E. Graphene based materials for environmental applications. Adv. Mater. Technol. Environ. Appl. 2017, 1, 79–85. [Google Scholar]
    6. Kamran, F.; Reddy, N. Bioactive Peptides from Legumes: Functional and Nutraceutical Potential. Recent Adv. Food Sci. 2018, 1, 134–149. [Google Scholar]
    7. Nedelcu, I.A.; Ficai, A.; Sonmez, M.; Ficai, D.; Oprea, O.; Andronescu, E. Silver Based Materials for Biomedical Applications. Curr. Org. Chem. 2014, 18, 173–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    8. Spoiala, A.; Ficai, D.; Gunduz, O.; Ficai, A.; Andronescu, E. Silver nanoparticles used for water purification. Adv. Mater. Technol. Environ. Appl. 2018, 2, 220–234. [Google Scholar]
    9. Fu, P.P. Introduction to the Special Issue: Nanomaterials-Toxicology and medical applications. J. Food Drug. Anal. 2014, 22, 1–2. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    10. Baranwal, A.; Srivastava, A.; Kumar, P.; Bajpai, V.K.; Maurya, P.K.; Chandra, P. Prospects of Nanostructure Materials and Their Composites as Antimicrobial Agents. Front. Microbiol. 2018, 9, 422. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    11. Brandelli, A. The interaction of nanostructured antimicrobials with biological systems: Cellular uptake, trafficking and potential toxicity. Food Sci. Hum. Wellness 2020, 9, 8–20. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    12. Vasile, C. Polymeric Nanocomposites and Nanocoatings for Food Packaging: A Review. Materials 2018, 11, 1834. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    13. Krasniewska, K.; Galus, S.; Gniewosz, M. Biopolymers-Based Materials Containing Silver Nanoparticles as Active Packaging for Food Applications-A Review. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2020, 21, 698. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    14. Jamroz, E.; Kopel, P. Polysaccharide and Protein Films with Antimicrobial/Antioxidant Activity in the Food Industry: A Review. Polymers 2020, 12, 1289. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    15. Otles, S.; Tetik, I.; Dudys, E. Nanotechnology and its applications in the food industry. Recent Adv. Food Sci. 2020, 3, 247–258. [Google Scholar]
    16. Bajpai, V.K.; Kamle, M.; Shukla, S.; Mahato, D.K.; Chandra, P.; Hwang, S.K.; Kumar, P.; Huh, Y.S.; Han, Y.K. Prospects of using nanotechnology for food preservation, safety, and security. J. Food Drug. Anal. 2018, 26, 1201–1214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    17. Ramos, L.O.; Pereira, R.N.; Cerqueira, M.; Teixeira, J.A. Bio-Based Nanocomposites for Food Packaging and Their Effect in Food Quality and Safety. Handb. Food Bioeng. 2008, 35, 271–306. [Google Scholar]
    18. Shao, X.; Sun, H.; Zhou, R.; Zhao, B.; Shi, J.; Jiang, R.; Dong, Y. Effect of bovine bone collagen and nano-TiO2 on the properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 158, 937–944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    19. Saravanakumar, K.; Sathiyaseelan, A.; Mariadoss, A.V.A.; Xiaowen, H.; Wang, M.H. Physical and bioactivities of biopolymeric films incorporated with cellulose, sodium alginate and copper oxide nanoparticles for food packaging application. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 153, 207–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    20. Sahraee, S.; Milani, J.M.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Hamishehkar, H. Development of emulsion films based on bovine gelatin-nano chitin-nano ZnO for cake packaging. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 8, 1303–1312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    21. Saadat, S.; Pandey, G.; Tharmavaram, M.; Braganza, V.; Rawtani, D. Nano-interfacial decoration of Halloysite Nanotubes for the development of antimicrobial nanocomposites. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 275, 102063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    22. Oun, A.A.; Shankar, S.; Rhim, J.W. Multifunctional nanocellulose/metal and metal oxide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 60, 435–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    23. Azizi-Lalabadi, M.; Ehsani, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Divband, B. Polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin nanocomposite containing ZnO, TiO2 or ZnO/TiO2 nanoparticles doped on 4A zeolite: Microbial and sensory qualities of packaged white shrimp during refrigeration. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2020, 312, 108375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    24. Arroyo, B.J.; Bezerra, A.C.; Oliveira, L.L.; Arroyo, S.J.; Melo, E.A.; Santos, A.M.P. Antimicrobial active edible coating of alginate and chitosan add ZnO nanoparticles applied in guavas (Psidium guajava L.). Food Chem. 2020, 309, 125566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    25. Arezoo, E.; Mohammadreza, E.; Maryam, M.; Abdorreza, M.N. The synergistic effects of cinnamon essential oil and nano TiO2 on antimicrobial and functional properties of sago starch films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 157, 743–751. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    26. Yu, Z.; Wang, W.; Kong, F.; Lin, M.; Mustapha, A. Cellulose nanofibril/silver nanoparticle composite as an active food packaging system and its toxicity to human colon cells. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 129, 887–894. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    27. Lee, J.H.; Jeong, D.; Kanmani, P. Study on physical and mechanical properties of the biopolymer/silver based active nanocomposite films with antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 224, 115159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    28. Kumar, S.; Shukla, A.; Baul, P.P.; Mitra, A.; Halder, D. Biodegradable hybrid nanocomposites of chitosan/gelatin and silver nanoparticles for active food packaging applications. Food Packag. Shelf 2018, 16, 178–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    29. Yu, Z.; Wang, W.; Dhital, R.; Kong, F.; Lin, M.; Mustapha, A. Antimicrobial effect and toxicity of cellulose nanofibril/silver nanoparticle nanocomposites prepared by an ultraviolet irradiation method. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2019, 180, 212–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    30. Neacsu, I.A.; Melente, A.E.; Holban, A.M.; Ficai, A.; Ditu, L.M.; Kamerzan, C.M.; Tihauan, B.M.; Nicoara, A.I.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; et al. Novel hydrogels based on collagen and ZnO nanoparticles with antibacterial activity for improved wound dressings. Rom. Biotech. Lett. 2019, 24, 317–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    31. Lungu, I.I.; Holban, A.M.; Ficai, A.; Grumezescu, A.M. Zinc oxide nanostrucures: New trends in antimicrobial therapy. In Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 503–514. [Google Scholar]
    32. Kumar, S.; Boro, J.C.; Ray, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Dutta, J. Bionanocomposite films of agar incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles as an active packaging material for shelf life extension of green grape. Heliyon 2019, 5, e01867. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    33. Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Ma, D.; Ahmed, S.; Qin, W.; Liu, Y. Effects of ultrasonication duration and graphene oxide and nano-zinc oxide contents on the properties of polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 59, 104731. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    34. Halder, S.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R. Enhanced stability of platinized silicon substrates using an unconventional adhesion layer deposited by CSD for high temperature dielectric thin film deposition. Appl. Phys. Mater. Sci. Process. 2007, 87, 705–708. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    35. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zincexternal Link Disclaimer; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
    36. Aristizabal-Gil, M.V.; Santiago-Toro, S.; Sanchez, L.T.; Pinzon, M.I.; Gutierrez, J.A.; Villa, C.C. ZnO and ZnO/CaO nanoparticles in alginate films. Synthesis, mechanical characterization, barrier properties and release kinetics. LWT 2019, 112, 108217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    37. Bumbudsanpharoke, N.; Ko, S. Nano-Food Packaging: An Overview of Market, Migration Research, and Safety Regulations. J. Food Sci. 2015, 80, R910–R923. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    38. Heydari-Majd, M.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Shahidi-Noghabi, M.; Najafi, M.A.; Hosseini, M. A new active nanocomposite film based on PLA/ZnO nanoparticle/essential oils for the preservation of refrigerated Otolithes ruber fillets. Food Packag. Shelf 2019, 19, 94–103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    39. Sharma, D.; Rajput, J.; Kaith, B.S.; Kaur, M.; Sharma, S. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Thin Solid Films 2010, 519, 1224–1229.
    40. Pour, Z.S.; Makvandi, P.; Ghaemy, M. Performance properties and antibacterial activity of crosslinked films of quaternary ammonium modified starch and poly(vinyl alcohol). Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2015, 80, 596–604. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    41. Wang, B.B.; Yang, X.D.; Qiao, C.D.; Li, Y.; Li, T.D.; Xu, C.L. Effects of chitosan quaternary ammonium salt on the physicochemical properties of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose-based films. Carbohydr. Polym. 2018, 184, 37–46. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    42. Hosseini, S.F.; Gómez-Guillén, M.C. A state-of-the-art review on the elaboration of fish gelatin as bioactive packaging: Special emphasis on nanotechnology-based approaches. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 79, 125–135. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    43. Nowzari, F.; Shabanpour, B.; Ojagh, S.M. Comparison of chitosan-gelatin composite and bilayer coating and film effect on the quality of refrigerated rainbow trout. Food Chem. 2013, 141, 1667–1672. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    44. Feng, X.; Bansal, N.; Yang, H.S. Fish gelatin combined with chitosan coating inhibits myofibril degradation of golden pomfret (Trachinotus blochii) fillet during cold storage. Food Chem. 2016, 200, 283–292. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    45. Hasheminya, S.M.; Dehghannya, J. Novel ultrasound-assisted extraction of kefiran biomaterial, a prebiotic exopolysaccharide, and investigation of its physicochemical, antioxidant and antimicrobial properties. Mater. Chem. Phys. 2020, 243, 122645. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    46. Wang, K.; Niu, M.; Song, D.; Song, X.; Zhao, J.; Wu, Y.; Lu, B.; Niu, G. Preparation, partial characterization and biological activity of exopolysaccharides produced from Lactobacillus fermentum S1. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2020, 129, 206–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    47. Lakra, A.K.; Domdi, L.; Tilwani, Y.M.; Arul, V. Physicochemical and functional characterization of mannan exopolysaccharide from Weissella confusa MD1 with bioactivities. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 143, 797–805. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    48. Moradi, M.; Guimarães, J.T.; Sahin, S. Current applications of exopolysaccharides from lactic acid bacteria in the development of food active edible packaging. Curr. Opin. Food Sci. 2020, 40, 33–39. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    49. Nehal, F.; Sahnoun, M.; Smaoui, S.; Jaouadi, B.; Bejar, S.; Mohammed, S. Characterization, high production and antimicrobial activity of exopolysaccharides from Lactococcus lactis F-mou. Microb. Pathog. 2019, 132, 10–19. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    50. Wang, Y.C.; Mohan, C.O.; Guan, J.; Ravishankar, C.N.; Gunasekaran, S. Chitosan and gold nanoparticles-based thermal history indicators and frozen indicators for perishable and temperature-sensitive products. Food Control 2018, 85, 186–193. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    51. Sganzerla, W.G.; Rosa, G.B.; Ferreira, A.L.A.; da Rosa, C.G.; Beling, P.C.; Xavier, L.O.; Hansen, C.M.; Ferrareze, J.P.; Nunes, M.R.; Barreto, P.L.M.; et al. Bioactive food packaging based on starch, citric pectin and functionalized with Acca sellowiana waste by-product: Characterization and application in the postharvest conservation of apple. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 147, 295–303. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    52. Rukmanikrishnan, B.; Rajasekharan, S.K.; Lee, J.; Ramalingam, S.; Lee, J. K-Carrageenan/lignin composite films: Biofilm inhibition, antioxidant activity, cytocompatibility, UV and water barrier properties. Mater. Today Commun. 2020, 24, 101346. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    53. Sedayu, B.B.; Cran, M.J.; Bigger, S.W. Reinforcement of refined and semi-refined carrageenan film with nanocellulose. Polymers 2020, 12, 1145. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    54. Yadav, M.; Chiu, F.C. Cellulose nanocrystals reinforced κ-carrageenan based UV resistant transparent bionanocomposite films for sustainable packaging applications. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 211, 181–194. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    55. Huang, X.; Luo, X.; Liu, L.; Dong, K.; Yang, R.; Lin, C.; Song, H.; Li, S.; Huang, Q. Formation mechanism of egg white protein/κ-Carrageenan composite film and its application to oil packaging. Food Hydrocoll. 2020, 105, 105780. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    56. Farhan, A.; Hani, N.M. Active edible films based on semi-refined κ-carrageenan: Antioxidant and color properties and application in chicken breast packaging. Food Packag. Shelf 2020, 24, 100476. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    57. Wahjuningsih, S.B.; Rohadi Susanti, S.; Setyanto, H.Y. The effect of k-carrageenan addition to the characteristics of jicama starch-based edible coating and its potential application on the grapevine. Int. J. Adv. Sci. Eng. Inf. Technol. 2019, 9, 405–410. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    58. Chen, H.; Wang, J.; Cheng, Y.; Wang, C.; Liu, H.; Bian, H.; Pan, Y.; Sun, J.; Han, W. Application of protein-based films and coatings for food packaging: A review. Polymers 2019, 11, 2039. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    59. Puscaselu, R.; Gutt, G.; Amariei, S. The use of edible films based on sodium alginate in meat product packaging: An eco-friendly alternative to conventional plastic materials. Coatings 2020, 10, 166. [Google Scholar]
    60. Pinto, C.T.; Pankowski, J.A.; Nano, F.E. The anti-microbial effect of food wrap containing beeswax products. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol. Food Sci. 2017, 7, 145–148. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    61. De Freitas, C.A.S.; de Sousa, P.H.M.; Soares, D.J.; da Silva, J.Y.G.; Benjamin, S.R.; Guedes, M.I.F. Carnauba wax uses in foo—A review. Food Chem. 2019, 291, 38–48. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    62. Gazzotti, S.; Todisco, S.A.; Picozzi, C.; Ortenzi, M.A.; Farina, H.; Lesma, G.; Silvani, A. Eugenol-grafted aliphatic polyesters: Towards inherently antimicrobial PLA-based materials exploiting OCAs chemistry. Eur. Polym. J. 2019, 114, 369–379. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    63. Ray, S.S.; Bousmina, M. Biodegradable polymers and their layered silicate nanocomposites: In greening the 21st century materials world. Prog. Mater. Sci. 2005, 8, 117. [Google Scholar]
    64. Ramos, L.O.; Pereira, R.N.; Cerqueira, M.; Teixeira, J.A. Bio-Based Nanocomposites for Food Packaging and Their Effect in Food Quality and Safety. Handb. Food Bioeng. 2008, 35, 271–306. [Google Scholar]
    65. Shao, X.; Sun, H.; Zhou, R.; Zhao, B.; Shi, J.; Jiang, R.; Dong, Y. Effect of bovine bone collagen and nano-TiO2 on the properties of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 158, 937–944. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    66. Saravanakumar, K.; Sathiyaseelan, A.; Mariadoss, A.V.A.; Xiaowen, H.; Wang, M.H. Physical and bioactivities of biopolymeric films incorporated with cellulose, sodium alginate and copper oxide nanoparticles for food packaging application. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 153, 207–214. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    67. Sahraee, S.; Milani, J.M.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Hamishehkar, H. Development of emulsion films based on bovine gelatin-nano chitin-nano ZnO for cake packaging. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 8, 1303–1312. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    68. Saadat, S.; Pandey, G.; Tharmavaram, M.; Braganza, V.; Rawtani, D. Nano-interfacial decoration of Halloysite Nanotubes for the development of antimicrobial nanocomposites. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 275, 102063. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    69. Oun, A.A.; Shankar, S.; Rhim, J.W. Multifunctional nanocellulose/metal and metal oxide nanoparticle hybrid nanomaterials. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2020, 60, 435–460. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    70. Azizi-Lalabadi, M.; Ehsani, A.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Divband, B. Polyvinyl alcohol/gelatin nanocomposite containing ZnO, TiO2 or ZnO/TiO2 nanoparticles doped on 4A zeolite: Microbial and sensory qualities of packaged white shrimp during refrigeration. Int. J. Food Microbiol. 2020, 312, 108375. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    71. Arroyo, B.J.; Bezerra, A.C.; Oliveira, L.L.; Arroyo, S.J.; Melo, E.A.; Santos, A.M.P. Antimicrobial active edible coating of alginate and chitosan add ZnO nanoparticles applied in guavas (Psidium guajava L.). Food Chem. 2020, 309, 125566. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    72. Arezoo, E.; Mohammadreza, E.; Maryam, M.; Abdorreza, M.N. The synergistic effects of cinnamon essential oil and nano TiO2 on antimicrobial and functional properties of sago starch films. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2020, 157, 743–751. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    73. Yu, Z.; Wang, W.; Kong, F.; Lin, M.; Mustapha, A. Cellulose nanofibril/silver nanoparticle composite as an active food packaging system and its toxicity to human colon cells. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2019, 129, 887–894. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    74. Lee, J.H.; Jeong, D.; Kanmani, P. Study on physical and mechanical properties of the biopolymer/silver based active nanocomposite films with antimicrobial activity. Carbohydr. Polym. 2019, 224, 115159. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef] [PubMed]
    75. Kumar, S.; Shukla, A.; Baul, P.P.; Mitra, A.; Halder, D. Biodegradable hybrid nanocomposites of chitosan/gelatin and silver nanoparticles for active food packaging applications. Food Packag. Shelf 2018, 16, 178–184. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    76. Yu, Z.; Wang, W.; Dhital, R.; Kong, F.; Lin, M.; Mustapha, A. Antimicrobial effect and toxicity of cellulose nanofibril/silver nanoparticle nanocomposites prepared by an ultraviolet irradiation method. Colloids Surf. B Biointerfaces 2019, 180, 212–220. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    77. Neacsu, I.A.; Melente, A.E.; Holban, A.M.; Ficai, A.; Ditu, L.M.; Kamerzan, C.M.; Tihauan, B.M.; Nicoara, A.I.; Bezirtzoglou, E.; Chifiriuc, M.C.; et al. Novel hydrogels based on collagen and ZnO nanoparticles with antibacterial activity for improved wound dressings. Rom. Biotech. Lett. 2019, 24, 317–323. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    78. Lungu, I.I.; Holban, A.M.; Ficai, A.; Grumezescu, A.M. Zinc oxide nanostrucures: New trends in antimicrobial therapy. In Nanostructures for Antimicrobial Therapy; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; pp. 503–514. [Google Scholar]
    79. Kumar, S.; Boro, J.C.; Ray, D.; Mukherjee, A.; Dutta, J. Bionanocomposite films of agar incorporated with ZnO nanoparticles as an active packaging material for shelf life extension of green grape. Heliyon 2019, 5, e01867. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    80. Zhang, R.; Wang, Y.; Ma, D.; Ahmed, S.; Qin, W.; Liu, Y. Effects of ultrasonication duration and graphene oxide and nano-zinc oxide contents on the properties of polyvinyl alcohol nanocomposites. Ultrason. Sonochem. 2019, 59, 104731. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    81. Halder, S.; Schneller, T.; Waser, R. Enhanced stability of platinized silicon substrates using an unconventional adhesion layer deposited by CSD for high temperature dielectric thin film deposition. Appl. Phys. Mater. Sci. Process. 2007, 87, 705–708. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    82. Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zincexternal Link Disclaimer; National Academy Press: Washington, DC, USA, 2001. [Google Scholar]
    83. Aristizabal-Gil, M.V.; Santiago-Toro, S.; Sanchez, L.T.; Pinzon, M.I.; Gutierrez, J.A.; Villa, C.C. ZnO and ZnO/CaO nanoparticles in alginate films. Synthesis, mechanical characterization, barrier properties and release kinetics. LWT 2019, 112, 108217. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    84. Bumbudsanpharoke, N.; Ko, S. Nano-Food Packaging: An Overview of Market, Migration Research, and Safety Regulations. J. Food Sci. 2015, 80, R910–R923. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    85. Heydari-Majd, M.; Ghanbarzadeh, B.; Shahidi-Noghabi, M.; Najafi, M.A.; Hosseini, M. A new active nanocomposite film based on PLA/ZnO nanoparticle/essential oils for the preservation of refrigerated Otolithes ruber fillets. Food Packag. Shelf 2019, 19, 94–103. [Google Scholar] [CrossRef]
    86. Sharma, D.; Rajput, J.; Kaith, B.S.; Kaur, M.; Sharma, S. Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and study of their antibacterial and antifungal properties. Thin Solid Films 2010, 519, 1224–1229.
    More
    1. Please check and comment entries here.