1. Please check and comment entries here.
Table of Contents

    Topic review

    Taekwondo Training and Obesity

    View times: 15
    Submitted by: Sang-Seok Nam

    Definition

    Taekwondo training is an effective exercise that can prevent or positively improve obesity. In addition, Taekwondo has value as a lifestyle sport that can contribute to the promotion of human health, not just bounded in the field of martial arts and sports.

    1. Introduction

    Insufficient physical activity was reported as the fourth most important risk factor among the causes of death worldwide [1]. For this reason, Korea has set physical activity goals for all age groups through the 3rd National Health Promotion Plan (HP2020) and is creating various policies and environments to promote physical activity [2]. According to the Korea Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report in 2019, the rate of aerobic exercise among adolescents increased by 3.0% p from 10.9% in 2009 to 13.9% in 2018. On the other hand, the rate of aerobic exercise among adults over the age of 19 and older decreased by 9.8% from 58.3% in 2014 to 48.5% in 2017, and the rate of walking among adults over the age of 19 and older decreased by 6.7% p from 45.7% in 2007 to 39.0% in 2017 [3]. However, according to the study of Guthold et al. [4], a 2016 survey of 298 schools in 146 countries found that 81.0% of 11–17 year olds were not getting enough physical activity. On the other hand, in the case of Korea, 94.2% of adolescents showed insufficient amount of physical activity, which made Korea recognized as the country with the most insufficient amount of physical activity for adolescents in the world. Since such a decrease in physical activity can cause a decrease in physical strength and muscle mass [5] and an increase in body fat mass, thereby causing metabolic diseases [6], efforts to increase physical activity are required.

    Taekwondo is a traditional martial art from Korea and is recognized as a global martial arts and sport with more than 100 million practitioners in 210 countries worldwide [1]. Taekwondo as an exercise has positive effects on the psychological and physiological areas for the growth and development of children and adolescents. In addition, Taekwondo training prevents or positively improves obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes, hypertension, cerebrovascular, and cardiovascular diseases in adults and the elderly [7][8][9][10]. In addition, it is expected to improve various physical strengths, including aerobic capacity, muscle strength, muscular endurance, flexibility, speed, and agility through the physiological effects of Taekwondo practice [11][12][13][14]. For this reason, Taekwondo is considered suitable as an essential exercise for improving the physical activity of Koreans and preventing and improving various diseases.

    2. Taekwondo Training on Body Composition

    Since changes in body composition occur throughout the lifespan due to growth, maturation and aging, as well as factors such as diseases and behaviors, it is a representative indicator for determining the level of body development [15]. Observing changes in body composition is an important factor in determining health, disease, exercise, and nutrition. It is also a very important factor in physique and athletic performance [16].
    In general, Taekwondo training in Korea consists of 5 sessions per week, 1 h per session [17]. The training period is about 12 weeks, which we present in Table 1. Taekwondo exercise consists of 5 min each of warm-up and cool-down routines, followed by 50 min of exercise including basic Taekwondo movements, Poomsae, and Gyeorugi (fighting simulation) as the main exercises. Most taekwondo training centers apply a similar method. Therefore, the effect of taekwondo training in this study has very suitable conditions for meta-analysis.
    Table 1. Characteristics of included studies.
    Study Study Type Frequency (Day/Week) Participants Sex Taekwondo (n, Age) Control (n, Age) Body Composition Method Outcome Variable
    Choi W, 2000 [18] Thesis 3/24 Elementary student, 40% body fat ↑ M 9 11.78 9 11.89 Skinfold % Body fat, BMI, Height, Weight
    Lee SH, 2008 [19] Thesis 5/12 Elementary student M 8 11.1 8 11.1 BIA % Body fat, Height, Lean mass, Muscle mass, Weight
    Lee SW, 2011 [20] Thesis 5/12 Elementary student Mixed 8 11.13 8 10.88 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Height, Lean mass, WC, Weight
    Jung SH, 2012 [21] Thesis 5/12 Elementary student M 10 10.2 10 10.3 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, Muscle mass, Weight
    Lee SJ, 2014 [22] Thesis 3/16 Elementary student, 25% body fat ↑ M 10 12.6 10 12.7 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Weight
    Lee SH, 2015 [23] Thesis 5/12 Elementary student M 9 7.46 9 7.74 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Seo DW, 2019 [24] Thesis 5/12 Elementary student M 23 10 22 9.67 BIA Fat mass, Lean mass, Muscle mass, Weight
    An SW, 2004 [25] Thesis 5/12 Adolescent, 30% body fat ↑ M 10 ND 10 ND BIA % Body fat, Height, Lean mass, Weight, WHR
    Shu DK, 2008 [26] Thesis 5/12 Adolescent. first menstruation M 9 12.18 9 12.73 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Jung HC, 2014 [27] Thesis 3/16 Adolescent M 15 13.9 15 13.9 DXA % Body fat, BMI, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, WC, Weight
    Kang MG, 2014 [28] Thesis 3/12 Adolescent, 30% body fat ↑ F 10 ND 10 ND BIA % Body fat, BMI, Weight
    Moon DS, 2007 [29] Journal article 5/12 Elementary student M 12 12.35 12 12.42 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Height, Lean mass, Weight, WHR
    Kim WK, 2009 [30] Journal article 5/12 Adolescent men, 20% body fat ↑ M 10 14.7 10 15.1 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Height, Lean mass, Weight, WHR
    Kwon YC, 2010 [31] Journal article 3/12 Elementary student, 25% body fat ↑ Mixed 12 11.92 12 12.5 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, WC, Weight, WHR
    Lee SH, 2011 [32] Journal article 4/10 Adolescent M 6 16.8 9 16.4 BIA % Body fat, Muscle mass, Weight
    Cho WJ, 2013 [33] Journal article 3/12 Elementary student, BMI 25 kg/m2 M 12 11.17 12 11.33 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Weight
    Song JK, 2013 [34] Journal article 3/12 Adolescent M 12 14 7 13.9 DXA % Body fat, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Cho WJ, 2014 [35] Journal article 3/12 Elementary student, BMI 25 kg/m2 M 10 11.77 10 11.51 BIA % Body fat, Weight
    Chea SI, 2016 [36] Thesis 3/12 Middle-aged women, obesity F 8 39.25 8 39.7 BIA % Body fat, Weight
    Seo DK, 2016 [37] Thesis 5/12 Middle-aged women F 13 42.77 13 42.54 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Lean mass, Weight
    Han SY, 2007 [38] Journal article 5/14 Middle-aged women, no menopause F 7 41 6 38 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Lean mass, WHR
    Kim KT, 2010 [39] Journal article 3/12 Adult M 10 27.3 10 27.4 BIA % Body fat, Lean mass, Muscle mass, Weight
    Lee KK, 2011 [40] Journal article 3/12 Middle-aged F 12 41.44 12 42.16 DXA % Body fat, Fat mass, Lean mass, Weight
    Lee KK, 2015 [41] Journal article 3/12 Middle-aged women, menopause F 20 54.3 20 53.1 DXA % Body fat, Lean mass, WC, Weight, WHR
    Joo SE, 2017 [42] Journal article 3/12 Middle-aged women, 30% body fat ↑ F 15 40.1 15 40.2 BIA % Body fat, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, Weight, WHR
    Lee KS, 2017 [43] Journal article 3/8 Middle-aged M 7 40.85 7 40.71 BIA % Body fat, BMI, BMI, Fat mass, Weight, WHR
    Jung MK, 2018 [44] Journal article 3/24 Middle-aged women, menopause & obese F 8 61.05 9 59.89 BIA % Body fat, Fat mass, Lean mass, WC, Weight, WHR
    Lee JK, 2019 [45] Journal article 3/12 Middle-aged women, 30% body fat ↑ F 12 50.9 12 50.3 BIA % Body fat, Muscle mass
    Kim NS, 2018 [46] Journal article 13/2 University student M 6 21.3 10 22.1 BIA % Body fat, Fat mass, Lean mass, Weight
    Kim NS, 2018 [47] Journal article 3/12 University student M 5 21 9 22 BIA % Body fat, Lean mass, WC, Weight, WHR
    Chea SI, 2011 [48] Thesis 3/12 Elderly women F 8 69.53 8 70 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Weight
    Kang HJ, 2014 [49] Thesis 3/12 Elderly women F 11 69.4 13 70.4 DXA % Body fat, Fat mass, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Shin JD, 2009 [50] Journal article 3/12 Elderly women F 10 69.7 10 71.7 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Fat mass,
    Moon DS, 2010 [51] Journal article 3/12 Elderly women F 15 72.13 15 75.07 BIA % Body fat, BMI, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Shin JD, 2010 [52] Journal article 3/12 Elderly women, 30% body fat ↑ F 7 70.86 7 71.68 BIA % Body fat, Height, Lean mass, Weight
    Cho WJ, 2012 [53] Journal article 3/12 Elderly women, 30% body fat ↑ F 13 69 13 68.62 BIA % Body fat, Weight
    Lim YR, 2017 [54] Journal article 4/12 Elderly women, over Weight F 15 ND 15 ND BIA % Body fat, Fat mass, Muscle mass, Weight
    As a result of analyzing the effect of Taekwondo training on changes in body composition, statistically significant differences were found in body weight, BMI, WC, body fat mass, body fat percentage, lean mass, and muscle mass, excluding height. Especially in the case of students, body weight and body fat percentage decreased significantly, and lean mass and muscle mass also tended to increase. In the elderly, a significant decrease in body fat percentage and an increase in muscle mass were found.
    According to ACSM guidelines, exercise intensity 40–70% VO2R (oxygen uptake reserve) is recommended for overweight and obesity management [55]. Taekwondo’s basic movements, kicks, and Poomsae movements have an exercise intensity of 84% HRmax and 56.8~82.2% VO2max [56]. Taekwondo competition is a high-intensity exercise with an exercise intensity of 10 METs [57]. As such, Taekwondo exhibits anaerobic exercise patterns during matches and competitions and aerobic exercise patterns during taekwondo aerobics, Poomsae, sparring steps, basic movements, and moving kicks.
    Therefore, the type of exercise and intensity of Taekwondo has positive effects on reducing body weight and body fat and increasing lean mass. In addition, there is a disadvantage that long and tedious exercise time is required to obtain meaningful exercise effects with general aerobic exercise such as walking or running [58]. In contrast, Taekwondo is an interval training type that alternates high- and low-intensity exercise repeatedly. In addition, Taekwondo gives interest and has higher exercise effects within the same amount of exercise time than other exercise types such as walking or moderate running [59]. Therefore, the exercise program using Taekwondo will positively improve obesity, the most severe health issue in Korea, and contribute significantly to preventing chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease.

    3. Conclusions

    Taekwondo training at a frequency of five times per week for more than 12 weeks positively improved the obesity factor. Taekwondo training is an effective exercise that can prevent or positively improve obesity. In addition, Taekwondo has value as a lifestyle sport that can contribute to the promotion of human health, not just bounded in the field of martial arts and sports.

    This entry is adapted from 10.3390/ijerph182111550

    References

    1. World Taekwondo Federation. Vision, Mission, Strategy; World Taekwondo Federation: Seoul, Korea, 2021; Available online: http://www.worldtaekwondo.org/about-wt/about.html (accessed on 10 August 2021).
    2. Ministry of Health and Welfare. The 3rd National Health Plan (2011–2020); Ministry of Health and Welfare: Seoul, Korea, 2011.
    3. Korea Center for Disease Control Trend of Physical Activity Practice Rate, 2007–2017. 2019. Available online: http://www.kdca.go.kr/filepath/boardDownload.es?bid=0034&list_no=364483&seq=1 (accessed on 10 August 2021).
    4. Guthold, R.; Stevens, G.A.; Riley, L.M.; Bull, F.C. Global trends in insufficient physical activity among adolescents: A pooled analysis of 298 population-based surveys with 1· 6 million participants. Lancet Child. Adolesc. Health 2020, 4, 23–35.
    5. Powers, S.K.; Smuder, A.J.; Criswell, D.S. Mechanistic links between oxidative stress and disuse muscle atrophy. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 2011, 15, 2519–2528.
    6. Swift, D.L.; Johannsen, N.M.; Lavie, C.J.; Earnest, C.P.; Church, T.S. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance. Prog. Cardiovasc. Dis. 2014, 56, 441–447.
    7. Byun, J.C. body composition, Cholesterol, Lumbar and femur BMD and bone marker hormones by Taekwondo training in children. Korean J. Growth Dev. 2005, 13, 41–51.
    8. Song, E. The Effects of a 10-Week Taekwon Diet Program on Body Composition, Blood Pressure, Blood Glucose and Physical Self-Description of Obese Women. Ph.D. Thesis, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Korea, 2018.
    9. Lee, D.M. Effects of Taekwondo training on left ventricular function and cardiovascular disease risk factor in hypertensive obese elderly women. Ph.D. Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2013.
    10. Kim, S.B. The effects of Poomsae training of Taekwondo on senile demantia factor and physical fitness in the elderly. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2009.
    11. Marković, G.; Mišigoj-Duraković, M.; Trninić, S. Fitness profile of elite Croatian female taekwondo athletes. Coll. Antropol. 2005, 29, 93–99.
    12. Heller, J.; Peric, T.; Dlouha, R.; Kohlikova, E.; Melichna, J.; Novakova, H. Physiological profiles of male and female taekwon-do (ITF) black belts. J. Sports Sci. 1998, 16, 243–249.
    13. Bouhlel, E.; Jouini, A.; Gmada, N.; Nefzi, A.; Abdallah, K.B.; Tabka, Z. Heart rate and blood lactate responses during Taekwondo training and competition. Sci. Sports 2006, 21, 285–290.
    14. Hwang, S.D. Easy-to-Understand Meta-Analysis; Hakjisa Publishing: Seoul, Korea, 2014.
    15. Zemel, B. Body composition during growth and development. In Human Growth and Development; Elsevier Science: Orando, FL, USA, 2002; pp. 271–294.
    16. Bouchard, C.E.; Shephard, R.J.; Stephens, T.E. Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health: International Proceedings and Consensus Statement. International Consensus Symposium on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health, 2nd, Toronto, ON, Canada, May 1992; Human Kinetics Publishers: Champaign, IL, USA, 1994.
    17. Nam, S.; Lim, K. Effects of Taekwondo training on physical fitness factors in Korean elementary students: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J. Exerc. Nutr. Biochem. 2019, 23.
    18. Choi, W. The Effect of Taekwondo Training Activity on the Development of Physical Strength toward Obesity Children. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2000.
    19. Lee, S.H. Effect of Taekwondo Program and Calcium Intake on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, Growth Hormone, and IGF-1 in Elementary School Male Students. Master’s Thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, 2008.
    20. Lee, S.W. Effects of Taekwondo Training on Physical Fitness and Immune System Function in Infantile Obesity. Master’s Thesis, Pusan National University, Busan, Korea, 2011.
    21. Jeong, S.H. Effect of Official Rhythmic Poomsae Training Program on Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Growth Factor in Elementary Students. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2012.
    22. Lee, S.J. The Effect of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Physical Fitness, and Balance Ability in Obese Grade-Schooler. Master’s Thesis, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea, 2014.
    23. Lee, S.H. The effects of Taekwondo training on PAPS, Growth Factor and Attention concentration in Children. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2015.
    24. Seo, D.W. Effect of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Bone Mineral Density and Isokinetic Concentric/Eccentric Contractions of Teenagers for 12 Weeks. Ph.D. Thesis, Woosuk University, Wanju-gun, Korea, 2019.
    25. An, S.W. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Physical Fitness and Insulin in Obese Adolescents. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2004.
    26. Seo, D.K. The Effect of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Growth Factors in Female Students after Menarche. Master’s Thesis, Dong-A University, Busan, Korea, 2008.
    27. Jung, H.C. Effects of 16 Weeks of Taekwondo Training on Abdominal Fat, Adipocytokines, Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover Markers, and Health-Related Fitness in Obese Male Adolescents. Ph.D. Thesis, Kyunghee University, Yongin, Korea, 2014.
    28. Kang, M.G. The Effects of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Blood Lipid, and Adiponectin in Obese Middle School Girls. Ph.D. Thesis, Chosun University, Gwangju, Korea, 2014.
    29. Moon, D.S.; Kim, D.Y. The Effect of Taekwondo on Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Growth Factors in Elderly Women. Korea Sport Res. 2007, 18, 495–506.
    30. Kim, W.K.; Kwon, Y.C. The Effect of Taekwondo Training on Physical Fitness and Growth Hormone, IGF-1 or DHEAs Concentration in Obesity Adolescent. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2009, 18, 1007–1018.
    31. Kwon, Y.C.; Park, S.K.; Kim, E.H.; Park, J.K.; Jang, J.H. Effects of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Physical Fitness and Serum Adiponectin in Children Obesity. J. Korean Alliance Martial Arts 2010, 12, 239–251.
    32. Lee, S.H.; Baek, Y.H. The Effect of Taekwondo and Allium Tuberosum Intake on Body Composition, Blood Lipids and C-Reactive Protein. J. Life Sci. 2011, 21, 265–272.
    33. Cho, W.J.; Jeoung, J.H. Effects of Taekwondo Poomsae Training on Body Composition, Blood Lipid, and Adiponectin in Obese Children. J. Korean Alliance Martial Arts 2013, 15, 57–68.
    34. Song, J.K.; Kim, H.B.; Kang, H.J.; Jung, H.C. Effect of 12 weeks Taekwondo Poomsae training on body composition, health-related fitness and dietary intake in male adolescents. Taekwondo J. Kukkiwon 2013, 4, 61–76.
    35. Cho, W.J.; Yoon, O.N. The Effect of 12Weeks Taekwondo Training Program on Blood Lipid and Growth Hormone in Obese Children. Korean J. Growth Dev. 2014, 22, 267–272.
    36. Chea, S.I. Effects on Lipid Metabolic-related Hormones, Inflammatory Markers and Metabolic Syndrome of Intermittent High Intensity Interval Training Using Taekwondo and Continuous Aerobic Training in Middle-Aged Obese Women. Ph.D. Thesis, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea, 2016.
    37. Seo, D.K. The Effect of Taekwondo Exercise on Body Composition, Neurotransmitter and Brain Nerve Growth Factor in Middle-aged Women. Ph.D. Thesis, Pukyong National University, Busan, Korea, 2016.
    38. Han, S.Y.; Kim, H.; Lee, S.H. Effects of Basic Taekwondo Movement Training on Body Composition, Cardiorespiratory of Middle-aged Women. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2007, 16, 667–681.
    39. Kim, K.T. Influence of Taekwondo and Combined Strength Exercise on Health-Related Physical Fitness and Blood Lipid in Private Security Guards. J. Korean Alliance Martial Arts 2010, 12, 265–276.
    40. Lee, K.K. The Effect of Taekwondo Training on Electrophysiological Stress, Stress Hormone and Body Composition (BIA & CT) in Middle-Aged Women. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2011, 20, 1029–1039.
    41. Lee, K.K. Effects of Taekwondo Training on Body Composition, Blood Lipid and Bone Mineral Density in Postmenopausal Women. J. Sport Leis. Stud. 2015, 61, 539–547.
    42. Joo, S.E.; Jung, H.C.; Kang, H.J.; Jung, S.W.; Seo, M.W.; Kim, S.W.; Song, J.K. Effect of 12 weeks of Taekwondo training on body fatness, health-related fitness and isokinetic muscle strength in obese women aged 35–55 years. Korean Soc. Sports Sci. 2017, 26, 879–891.
    43. Lee, K.S.; An, Y.J.; Kim, T.W.; Son, H.J.; Yang, J.H.; Mo, K.W.; Kim, S.K.; Jang, C.H. The Effect of 8 Weeks Rope-Skipping Exercise and Taekwondo Exercise on Blood lipids, Vascular Compliance, Oxidant Stress and Antioxidant Capacity in Middle Aged Men. Korean J. Phys. Educ. 2017, 56, 651–663.
    44. Jeong, M.K.; Ryu, J.K.; Jung, H.H.; Kim, Y.H.; Park, S.K. Effects of Taekwondo aerobic and Combined Exercise Program on Health-related Physical Fitness and Physical Activity and Depression Scale in Menopausal Obesity Women. Korean Soc. Sports Sci. 2018, 27, 1199–1210.
    45. Lee, J.G.; Lee, S.H. Effects of Taekwondo Exercise on Body Composition, Lipid Profile and Leptin in Obese Middle-aged Women. J. World Soc. Taekwondo Cult. 2019, 10, 147–159.
    46. Kim, N.S.; Lee, J.Y. The Effect of 12 weeks Taekwondo Training on Body-Composition, Blood Irisin, Adiponectin, and Lipids Levels in Obese College Students. Korean Soc. Sports Sci. 2018, 27, 1081–1091.
    47. Kim, N.S.; Lee, J.Y. The Effect of Long-Term Taekwondo Participation on Blood Glucose, Insulin, CRP levels, HOMA-IR, and Body-Composition in Obese Male College Students. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2018, 27, 1011–1019.
    48. Chea, S.I. A Study on the Effect of Functional Fitness, Body composition and Vascular Compliance before and after 12 weeks Taekwondo Training in Elder Women. Master’s Thesis, Hanyang University, Ansan, Korea, 2011.
    49. Kang, H.J. Effects of 12 Weeks of Taekwondo and Resistance Training on Bone Mineral Density, Bone Turnover Markers, Functional Fitness, and Arterial Compliance in Elderly Women. Ph.D. Thesis, Kyunghee University, Yongin, Korea, 2014.
    50. Shin, J.D.; Kim, W.K. Effects of taekwondo poomsae training on body composition, β-amyloid and DHEAs concentration in elderly women. Korean J. Phys. Educ. 2009, 48, 503–511.
    51. Moon, D.S.; Kwon, Y.C. The effect of Taekwondo Exercise on Health-Related Physical Fitness, Cognitive Ability and Dementia-induced Factors in Frail Elderly Women. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2010, 19, 875–887.
    52. Shin, J.D. Effects of Difference Exercise Type on Taekwondo Poomsae Training and Walking exercise on Body Compositon, Serum Cholesterol and Dementia Risk Factors in Elderly Obese Women. Korean J. Sports Sci. 2010, 19, 1069–1080.
    53. Cho, W.J. The Effects of Taekwondo Poomsae Training on Body Composition, hs-CRP, TNF-α and Adiponectin in Old obese Women. Korean J. Sport 2012, 10, 567–578.
    54. Lim, Y.R.; Lee, G.H. The Influence of 12-week Taekwondo Aerobics on Healthy Physical Fitness and Blood Composition in the Middle Ages Woman. Korean J. Sport 2017, 15, 547–555.
    55. Riebe, D.; Ehrman, J.K.; Liguori, G.; Magal, M. American College of Sports Medicine. ACSM’s Guidelines for Exercise Testing and Prescription; Wolters Kluwer: Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands, 2018.
    56. Lee, S.K.; Kong, M.A.; Kang, H.S. Measurement of exercise intensity during basic movement, kicking and Poomsae of Taekwondo. Korean Soc. Exerc. Physiol. 2003, 12, 727–734.
    57. Ainsworth, B.E.; Haskell, W.L.; Herrmann, S.D.; Meckes, N.; Bassett, D.R.; Tudor-Locke, C.; Greer, J.L.; Vezina, J.; Whitt-Glover, M.C.; Leon, A.S. 2011 Compendium of Physical Activities: A second update of codes and MET values. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2011, 43, 1575–1581.
    58. Alkahtani, S. Comparing fat oxidation in an exercise test with moderate-intensity interval training. J. Sports Sci. Med. 2014, 13, 51.
    59. Helgerud, J.; Høydal, K.; Wang, E.; Karlsen, T.; Berg, P.; Bjerkaas, M.; Simonsen, T.; Helgesen, C.; Hjorth, N.; Bach, R. Aerobic high-intensity intervals improve VO2max more than moderate training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2007, 39, 665–671.
    More