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Dyes, Minerals, and Vitamins Used in Cosmetics
Most minerals and vitamins are beneficial when it comes to the improvement of the condition of the skin, hair or nails, and as they are mostly safe for use, they are valued raw materials and cosmetic ingredients. Dyes and pigments, due to the potential negative impact on human health of many of them, are often controversial components of cosmetic preparations. The constantly growing awareness of consumers makes cosmetics manufacturers strive to eliminate potentially harmful substances and use safe raw materials and ingredients of natural origin.
The cosmetics market of the European Union, as well as the world cosmetics market, develop strongly together with consumers’ awareness. Producers and consumers are becoming more open to using natural cosmetics. A variety of natural raw materials is used by the cosmetics industry. Consumers more often choose natural or ecological cosmetics, free from preservatives, unnecessary dyes, fragrances, and contaminants. It forces cosmetic manufacturers to constantly improve the safety and quality of cosmetic products . The human body and its proper functioning depend on several dozen chemical elements. The human skin requires about 30 elements for the proper course of its processes . The body itself cannot synthesize them, so they should be taken with food. Scientists try to find ways to provide these essential nutrients other than the food route. Therefore, more and more often, the elements become the active ingredients of creams, masks, and other cosmetic preparations. For example, cosmetics with minerals are part of a new trend in natural cosmetics . The global mineral cosmetics market size was valued at USD 2.05 billion in 2021 and is expected to achieve USD 2.94 billion by 2026 . Clay minerals have exceptional qualities, among others, high bio-compatibility and low or no toxicity. The history of the cosmetic usage of minerals dates back to ancient times . As a result, the manufacturers have been introducing make-up products made of natural minerals, including zinc oxide, iron oxides, titanium dioxide, organic oils, and mica powder . While many other cosmetic active agents experience their ups and downs, vitamins are one of the most commonly used active ingredients, and their role in skin care have been increasing . They are essential components of natural and physiological cosmetics. Moreover, cosmeceuticals rich in vitamins are becoming more and more popular . Vitamins have a positive effect on the condition of the skin and improve its health and appearance. They are invaluable in the fight against the effects of skin aging, support the normalization of disturbed skin balance, and stimulate tissue renewal. Dyes are essential ingredients of cosmetic products and have a long history of usage . They influence consumer senses, increase the quality of cosmetics, and ensure their better functionality; however, many of them are presently considered as controversial cosmetic ingredients. Application of cosmetics compounds include dermal, oral, or ocular routes, depending on the form, physical–chemical properties, and intended use of the product . There are three possible pathways for penetration of cosmetic ingredients through the skin . These are transappendageal penetration through the hair follicle or via the sebaceous and/or sweat glands, intracellular (transcellular) permeation through the corneocytes, and intercellular through the lipid matrix. The intercellular route allows a straight path through the skin into the lower levels of the epidermis and the dermis.
The safety of cosmetics usage is very important. Some minerals used in cosmetics may negatively affect human health, for example, due to the content of heavy metals, which presence in cosmetics is not banned in many countries. In recent years, the safety of using talcum powder and mica in cosmetics and care products has been particularly discussed. Most minerals and vitamins are beneficial when it comes to the improvement of the condition of the skin, hair, or nails, and as they are mostly safe for use, they are valued raw materials and cosmetic ingredients. Dyes, due to the potential negative impact on human health of many of them, are often controversial components of cosmetic preparations. The constantly growing awareness of consumers makes cosmetics manufacturers strive to eliminate potentially harmful substances and use safe raw materials and ingredients of natural origin. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on the possible negative effects of dyes, minerals, and vitamins used in cosmetic products, as well as updating the legal provisions on their use.
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/women1040020
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