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Simulation of the Urban Space Thermal Environment
The urban space thermal environment (USTE) is spatially expressed as the horizontal and vertical distributions of the surface temperature and atmospheric temperature fields. With the urban space temperature field as the core, the USTE is the physical environmental system in which the underlying surface, atmospheric transmission and solar radiation are influenced by humans and their interactions with nature. The urban thermal environment has significant impacts on the urban climate and micrometeorology; it is an important indicator used to measure the state of the urban ecological environment, and its temporal and spatial evolution processes are closely related to societal and economic activities.
In recent years, with the acceleration of urbanization and the rapid development of industry, populations have been migrating to cities , resulting in various urban ecological and environmental problems . Among them, the urban thermal environment has become particularly prominent, attracting widespread attention from many scientists . Urban thermal environment issues affect people’s living comfort, the urban climate, the atmospheric environment, and biological habits, often lead to enhanced energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions, and increase the incidence and mortality of thermal environment-related diseases .
The urban space thermal environment (USTE) is spatially expressed as the horizontal and vertical distributions of the surface temperature and atmospheric temperature fields . With the urban space temperature field as the core, the USTE is the physical environmental system in which the underlying surface, atmospheric transmission and solar radiation are influenced by humans and their interactions with nature . The urban thermal environment has significant impacts on the urban climate and micrometeorology; it is an important indicator used to measure the state of the urban ecological environment, and its temporal and spatial evolution processes are closely related to societal and economic activities . Therefore, studying the USTE and spatially quantitatively analyzing the distribution of the urban spatial temperature field, considering the effects of temporally and spatially varying processes, is of great importance to urban ecological security and sustainable development.
The current methods for quantitatively studying three-dimensional USTEs include ground observation, remote sensing, and numerical simulation . USTE research based on ground observations has provided effective estimates of the distribution and spatiotemporal dynamics of station temperatures at different time scales, but the spatial representation of these discretely distributed weather stations is poor. Although USTE research based on remote sensing can retrieve the surface temperature field and the surface ecological parameters, the heat transfer among different underlying surfaces is not considered. Numerical simulation can be used for the three-dimensional simulation of USTEs . Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is one of the most commonly used numerical simulation methods and can be used to simulate the motion of turbulent fluids. Combining the advantages of fluid mechanics and heat transfer, CFD can simulate the physical processes of heat conduction and heat convection among underlying surfaces in a city at a fine scale .
However, few studies have summarized the current status of research on the urban thermal environment based on CFD methods or the integration of CFD and remote sensing. Therefore, a timely review of research on CFD simulations of the USTE is valuable for further understanding the mechanisms of the USTE, improving urban planning and design, mitigating negative changes to the urban thermal environment, and quantitatively evaluating the urban thermal environment and human comfort levels. Thus, we summarize the current research status of CFD-based urban thermal environment problems over the past two decades, the related methods of USTE monitoring based on CFD models, the influential factors and corresponding relationship between CFD and the USTE, and the progress achieved with USTE mitigation measures. Future research directions and research focuses based on CFD methods are proposed.
2. Quantitative Simulations of the USTE Based on CFD Considering the Underlying Surface Dynamics
2.1. Relationship between Changes in LULC and the USTE
2.2. Relationship between the Underlying Surface Structure and the USTE
2.3. Relationship between the USTE and Urban Green Spaces and Waterbodies
3. Anthropogenic Heat Emissions and the USTE
4. Research on Mitigation Measures for USTEs Based on CFD Simulations
|Mitigation Measures||Focus||Typical Reference|
|Waterbodies||Water area and proportion||Tominaga 2015|
|Water morphological characteristics||Montazeri 2017|
|Vegetation and green spaces||Vegetation type||Gülten 2016; Dimitris 2017; Gromke 2015|
|Vegetation form and layout||Liu 2012; Li 2016; Du 2019; Vuckovic 2018; Zhou 2016; Lin 2019|
|Green area and proportion||Wang 2019; Huang 2020; Liu 2019|
|Building layout and materials||Building layout||Schrijvers 2020; Peng 2017; Liu 2020; Allegrini 2017|
|Building materials||Maragkogiannis 2014; Dimitris 2017; Gagliano 2017; Ferrari 2020; Santamouris 2018; Allegrini 2017; Dimoudi 2014; Priyadarsini 2008|
|Planning of the underlying surface||Chen 2018; Li 2008; Hsieh 2016; Kubilay 2019; Yi 2018; Zhou 2018|
|Planning and design of ventilation corridors||Planning and design of urban ventilation corridors||Ashie 2011; Hsieh 2016; Wu 2009; Tominaga 2008; Antoniou 2017; Allegrini 2014|
4.1. Water Bodies for Controlling Heat in the USTE
4.2. Green Space and Vegetation for Controlling the USTE
4.3. Building Layout for Controlling the USTE
4.4. Green Building Materials for Controlling the USTE
4.5. Ventilation Corridors for Controlling the USTE
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/s21206898
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