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Attitudes toward Female Genital Mutilation/Circumcision
Understanding the attitudes toward FGM/C held by people who have been involved in this practice can lead to more active interventions to prevent this harmful practice. Circumcised women can play a key role in encouraging the abandonment of FGM/C through educational and cultural campaigns.
2. Current Insights on Attitudes toward Female Genital Mutilation/Circumcision
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/healthcare9091184
- WHO. Female Genital Mutilation; Fact sheet N 241; WHO: Geneva, Switzerland, 2017.
- Bjälkander, O.; Nordenstedt, H.; Brolin, K.; Ekström, A.M. FGM in the time of Ebola-carpe opportunitatem. Lancet Glob. Health 2016, 4, e447–e448.
- World Health Organization. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting. Available online: https://www.who.int/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/female-genital-mutilation (accessed on 15 September 2018).
- Adeniran, A.; Aboyeji, A.; Balogun, O.; Ijaiyai, M. Eradicating Female Genital Mutilation: Case Series Evaluating the Effect of the Interventions. Univ. Maurit. Res. J. 2014, 20, 248–254.
- Berg, R.C.; Underland, V.; Odgaard-Jensen, J.; Fretheim, A.; Vist, G.E. Effects of female genital cutting on physical health outcomes: A systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ Open 2014, 4, e006316.
- The Public Policy Advisory Network on Female Genital Surgeries in Africa. Seven things to know about female genital surgeries in Africa. Hastings Cent. Rep. 2012, 42, 19–27.
- Reig Alcaraz, M.B.M.; Siles Gonzalez, J.B.; Solano Ruiz, C.B. Attitudes towards female genital mutilation: An integrative review. Int. Nurs. Rev. March 2014, 61, 25–34.
- Anuforo, P.O.; Oyedele, L.; Pacquiao, D.F. Comparative study of meanings, beliefs, and practices of female circumcision among three Nigerian tribes in the United States and Nigeria. J. Transcult. Nurs. 2004, 15, 103–113.
- Morgan, J. Working towards an end to FGM. Lancet 2015, 385, 843–844.
- Abolfotouh, S.M.; Ebrahim, A.Z.; Abolfotouh, M.A. Awareness and predictors of female genital mutilation/cutting among young health advocates. Int. J. Women’s Health 2015, 7, 259–269.
- UNICEF. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Statistical Overview and Exploration of the Dynamics of Change; UNICEF: New York, NY, USA, 2013; Available online: https://www.unicef.org/media/files/UNICEF_FGM_report_July_2013_Hi_res.pdf (accessed on 23 August 2021).
- Sakeah, E.; Debpuur, C.; Oduro, A.R.; Welaga, P.; Aborigo, R.; Sakeah, J.K.; Moyer, C.A. Prevalence and factors associated with female genital mutilation among women of reproductive age in the Bawku municipality and Pusiga District of northern Ghana. BMC Women’s Health 2018, 18, 150.
- Daneshkhah, F.; Allahverdipour, H.; Jahangiri, L.; Andreeva, T. Sexual Function, Mental Well-being and Quality of Life among Kurdish Circumcised Women in Iran. Iran J. Public Health 2017, 46, 1265–1274.
- Said, A. Stories and Strategies of Women Living with Female Genital Mutilation in Auckland Communities. Ph.D. Thesis, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland, New Zealand, 2015.
- Gele, A.A.; Bø, B.P.; Sundby, J. Have we made progress in Somalia after 30 years of interventions? Attitudes toward female circumcision among people in the Hargeisa district. BMC Res. Notes 2013, 6, 122.
- UNICEF. Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting: A Global Concern; UNICEF: New York, NY, USA, 2016; pp. 1–4.
- Momoh, C. Female Genital Mutilation. In Female Genital Mutilation: A Clinicians Experience; Gordon, H., Ed.; TJ International: Cornwall, UK, 2005.
- Dalal, K.; Lawoko, S.; Jansson, B. Women’s attitudes towards discontinuation of female genital mutilation in Egypt. J. Inj. Violence Res. 2010, 2, 41–45.
- Allam, M.F.; de Irala-Estevez, J.; Fernandez-Crehuet Navajas, R.; Serrano del Castillo, A.; Hoashi, J.S.; Pankovich, M.B.; Rebollo Liceaga, J. Factors associated with the condoning of female genital mutilation among university students. Public Health 2001, 115, 350–355.
- Odu, B.K. The attitude of undergraduate females toward genital mutilation in a Nigerian University. Res. J. Med Sci. 2008, 2, 295–299.
- Eke, N.; Nkanginieme, K.E. Female Genital Mutilation: A Global bug that should not cross the millennium bridge. World J. Surg. 1999, 23, 1082–1086.
- Desrumaux, A.; Ballo, B. Protect the next generation”: Promote the end of female genital mutilation in the Kayes health district in Mali. Sante Publique 2014, 26 (Suppl. 1), S51–S58.
- Tabrizi, J.; HaghGoshayie, E.; Doshmangir, L.; Yousefi, M. New public management in Iran’s health complex: A management framework for primary health care system. Prim. Health Care Res. Dev. 2018, 19, 264–276.
- Tabrizi, J.S.; Goshayie, E.H.; Doshmangir, L.; Yousefi, M. The barriers to implementation of new public management strategies in Iran’s primary health care: A qualitative study. J. Liaquat Univ. Med Health Sci. 2018, 17, 8–17.
- Shell-Duncan, B.; Wander, K.; Hernlund, Y.; Moreau, A. Dynamics of change in the practice of female genital cutting in Senegambia: Testing predictions of social convention theory. Soc. Sci. Med. 2011, 73, 1275–1283.