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Magnetic Material Nanoparticles
Magnetic material nanoparticles (MNPs) have been widely used in the detection and treatment of bacterial infections as detection agents and therapeutics. Infections caused by pathogenic bacteria, especially multidrug-resistant bacteria, have become a serious worldwide public health problem. Early diagnosis and treatment can effectively prevent the adverse effects of such infections. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop effective methods for the early detection, prevention, and treatment of diseases that are caused by bacterial infections.
Bacterial infections, especially those caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria, have become a global public health concern . The emergence of antimicrobial resistance is largely attributed to the indiscriminate and often abusive use of antimicrobials . It was clinically found that due to the abuse of antibiotics, there is a lack of effective antibacterial drugs to treat bacterial infections . It is estimated that deaths due to infectious diseases that are associated with resistant pathogens will lead to 10 million deaths per year by 2050 . Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop non-antibiotic drugs to treat multidrug-resistant bacterial infections .
The early detection and identification of bacterial infections are also major clinical challenges . Moreover, the traditional detection and identification methods are time-consuming and tedious. In order to overcome the shortcomings of traditional antibacterial treatment and detection methods, various metals and metal oxide nanoparticles have been used for bacterial detection and treatment . MNPs have been widely used in the biological field in recent years due to their physical properties, good biocompatibility, and high binding capacity , including in vivo and in vitro bacterial detection and separation imaging , as well as the treatment of pathogenic bacteria. For example, magnetic materials were used to synthesize new structures  and new magnetic material composite nanoparticles with improved structural stability , biological activity , and antibacterial properties  to realize the separability and recyclability of MNPs .
2. MNPs as Antibacterial Therapies
The discovery of penicillin in 1928 by Alexander Fleming  ushered in the “antibiotic era”; penicillin was truly a miracle drug: uniformly fatal infections could be cured. By the mid-1940s after the antibacterial efficacy of penicillin was clinically proven, antibiotics have begun to play a role in various diseases. The discovery of antibiotics has brought effective cures for many diseases to mankind . Yet, as human beings progress, bacteria are constantly evolving. When antibiotics are widely used, they are also constantly losing their antibacterial efficacy, leading to the problem of antibiotic resistance . Therefore, the development of new antibiotic therapies is one of the important strategies that are used to combat super-resistant bacteria. In particular, finding new sterilization mechanisms has become a new hot spot in the development of new therapies for the treatment of infections.
Along with the extensive range of exotic NPs applications, the investigation of MNPs in vitro has ushered modern antibacterial studies into an increasingly attractive research area. The great potential of engineered MNPs in the treatment of various resistant bacteria has reduced the threat of deadly bacterial infections . The properties of MNPs allow them to be guided around the body by a magnetic field or into magnetic implants. This opens up the potential to combine various biological materials with nanoparticles, which can then be directed into the body for treatment .
2.1. Magnetic Hyperthermia
2.2. Multifunctional MNPs for Theranostics
3. Summary and Perspectives
This entry is adapted from 10.3390/magnetochemistry7080112
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