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Nutrients for Eye-Related Diseases
The risk of macular degeneration can be reduced through the consumption of antioxidant-rich foods, supplements, and nutraceutical formulas. This study focuses on the antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals that have been reported for reducing the risk of macular degeneration and other eye-related diseases. Antioxidants including anthocyanins, carotenoids, flavonoids, and vitamins have been shown to reduce the risk of eye-related diseases. Anthocyanins extracted from berries are powerful antioxidants. Cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin are anthocyanin aglycones detected in berries, currants, and other colored fruits and vegetables. β-Carotene, as well as xanthophyll lutein and zeaxanthin, have been reported to reduce the risk of macular degeneration. Flavonoids from plants help in the prevention of eye-related diseases through anti-inflammatory mechanisms. A combination of these antioxidants, vitamins, and minerals possess a synergistic effect on the prevention or risk reduction of macular degeneration. Formulas have been developed as dietary supplements to cater to the high demand from consumers and patients with eye problems.
2. Antioxidant Nutrients
|Cyanidin 3-glucoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-glucoside, and delphinidin 3-rutinoside||In vitro bioassays: Rod outer segment and opsin membranes of frog||10–50 µM||Positive outcomes: Cyanidin 3-glucoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside stimulated regeneration of rhodopsin|||
|Cyanidin 3-glucoside and delphinidin 3-glucoside||Cell culture: ARPE-19 cells (human retinal pigment epithelial cell line)||5 μM||Positive outcome: Anthocyanins pre-treatment attenuated apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells induced by UVB irradiation.|||
|Bilberry anthocyanin extract||In vivo study: Retinal degeneration model in pigmented rabbits (seven days)||250 and 500 mg/kg/day||Positive outcomes: Attenuated changes caused by light to Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3.
Increased the levels of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and total antioxidant capacity.
Decreased malondialdehyde level in the retinal cells.
Inhibited light-induced elevation in the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and angiogenic parameters (IL-1β and VEGF).
|Anthocyanin supplement||Randomized, parallel study. Postmenopausal, one woman (eight months)||60 mg/day||Negative outcome (compared to baseline): No significant increase in macular pigment optical density|||
|Lutein and zeaxanthin||Cell culture: ARPE-19 cells||5 μM||Positive outcome: Anthocyanins pre-treatment attenuated apoptosis of ARPE-19 cells induced by UVB irradiation.|||
|Lutein and zeaxanthin||Prospective, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled human study (12 months)||10 mg/day lutein and 2 mg/day zeaxanthin||Positive outcomes:
Significantly increased macular pigment optical density for treatment group compared to placebo.
Significantly increased levels of serum lutein and zeaxanthin.
Significantly improved chromatic contrast and photo stress recovery time for treatment group compared to placebo.
|Zeaxanthin-containing spirulina (4–5 g)||Human feeding trials (45 days)||2.6–3.7 mg zeaxanthin||Positive outcome: Increased mean serum zeaxanthin concentration from 0.06 to 0.15 μmol/L.|||
|Lutein, zeaxanthin, and meso-zeaxanthin in sunflower oil suspension||Double-blind, placebo-controlled, block-randomized human trial (12 months)||10 mg lutein, 10 mg meso-zeaxanthin, and 2 mg zeaxanthin||Positive outcomes:
Significantly improved contrast sensitivity of the visual function after 12 months supplementation compared to baseline.
Treatment group had significant increase in serum concentrations of the xanthophylls in retina and macular pigment optical density compared to placebo.
|Lutein vs. α-tocopherol||Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled supplementation study (24 months)||12 mg lutein mixtures and 100 mg α-tocopherol||Positive outcomes:
Significantly increased serum concentration of lutein.
Increased visual performance (visual acuity and glare sensitivity) in lutein group only.
No toxic effect found—no significant changes in hematological and biochemical profiles.
|Oral total daily supplementation of antioxidants (mixture of β-carotene with other vitamins)||Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial (followed up for up to 10 years)||15 mg β-carotene||Positive primary outcome (compared to baseline): Reduced risk of visual acuity lost. Negative secondary outcomes: No significant differences for all the secondary outcomes between the treatment group and placebo.|||
|Nutrient intake (β-carotene, β-cryptoxathin, lutein, zeaxanthin, and lycopene)||Epidemiological study (Self-report data)||-||Positive outcome: Participants with the highest self-reported dietary intake of lutein and zeaxanthin were inversely associated with advancedage-related macular degeneration (AMD).|||
|Total carotenoids (lutein/zeaxanthin, α-carotene, β-carotene, cryptoxanthin, and lycopene||Eye Disease Case-Control Study||-||Positive outcome: Serum carotenoid level significantly associated with the risk of AMD|||
|Xanthophyll supplement||Randomized, parallel study. Postmenopausal women (8 months)||6 mg lutein and 2 mg zeaxanthin daily)||Positive outcome: Dietary supplementation of lutein and zeaxanthin significantly increased the serum lutein and zeaxanthin levels.
Negative outcome (compared to baseline): No significant increase in macular pigment optical density
|Mixture of vitamin C and vitamin E with provitamin A carotenoid||Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (followed-up for up to 10 years)||Vitamin C (500 mg) and vitamin E (400 IU) daily||Positive primary outcomes (compared to baseline):
Increase in nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular opacity grades or cataract surgery.
Moderate visual acuity lost (≥15 letters).
Negative secondary outcomes: No significant differences for all the secondary outcomes between the treatment group and placebo.
|Provitamin A β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E||Age-Related Eye Disease Study||-||Positive outcomes: Increased intake of β-carotene, vitamin C, and vitamin E associated with a reduced risk of neovascular AMD.|||
|Vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E||Systematic review and meta-analysis||-||Positive outcomes: Dietary intake of a mixture of vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E had a larger effect on the reduction of AMD risk than the individual vitamin.|||
|Vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E||Case-control study||-||Positive outcomes: Low dietary intake of vitamin C and vitamin E was associated with neovascular AMD.
Negative outcome: Dietary vitamin A showed no association with neovascular AMD.
|Vitamin E||Randomized controlled trial (four years)||500 IU daily||Negative outcomes: Failed to prevent the development and progression of AMD.|||
|Vitamin E||Randomized placebo controlled 4-arm trial (follow-up of 5.6 ± 1.2 years)||400 IU daily (DL-α-tocopherol acetate)||Negative outcome: Vitamin supplementation showed no protective effect against cataracts among the participants (elderly men).|||
|Vitamin A, vitamin C, and vitamin E||Multicenter eye disease case-control study (Epidemiological study)||-||Negative outcomes: Vitamins A, C, and E consumptions were not associated with the reduced risk of AMD.|||
|Vitamin A (retinol), vitamin C (ascorbic acid), and vitamin E (α-tocopherol)||POLA (Pathologies Oculaires Liées à l’Age) study||-||Negative outcomes:
Plasma vitamin A and vitamin C showed no association with reduction in macular degeneration risk.
Plasma vitamin E was negatively associated with early signs of AMD and late AMD.
|Vitamin C||Cochrane Review||-||Negative outcomes: Vitamin C supplementation did not prevent any AMD or late AMD.|||
|Vitamin C and vitamin E||Eye Disease Case-Control Study||-||Negative outcome: No statistically significant overall association was found between serum vitamin status and neovascular AMD.|||
|Zinc||Case-control study||-||Positive outcome: Low dietary intake of zinc was associated with neovascular AMD.|||
|Zinc||Randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials (followed-up for up to 10 years)||Zinc oxide (80 mg daily)||Positive outcome: Significantly reduced the risk of developing advanced AMD.|||
|Zinc||Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled trials (2 years intervention)||Zinc sulfate (200 mg daily)||Positive outcome: Significantly reduced visual loss in treatment group compared to placebo.|||
|Zinc||Randomized, prospective, placebo-controlled clinical trial (three and six months intervention)||Zinc monocysteine (25 mg daily)||Positive outcomes:
Significantly improved visual acuity and contrast sensitivity.
Significantly shortened macular light flash recovery time both at three months and at six months.
|Zinc||Randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled study (two years intervention)||Zinc sulfate (200 mg daily)||Positive outcome: Significantly increased serum zinc.
Negative outcome: No significant improvement of eye conditions for patients with AMD.
|Selenium||Randomized, placebo-controlled, 4-arm trial (follow-up of 5.6 ± 1.2 years)||200 μg daily (from l-selenomethionine)||Negative outcome: Selenium supplementation did not show significant effect in reducing risk of cataracts among the participants (elderly men).|||
The entry is from 10.3390/antiox8040085
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