- Please check and comment entries here.
Seaweeds are a novel source of potentially active compounds (proteins–lectins, phycobiliproteins, peptides, amino acids, polyphenols, and polysaccharides) to be exploited in human health benefits, such as antiviral, anticancer, anticoagulant, anti-obesity, and diabetes modulator. Shannon and Abu-Ghannam, suggested seaweed as nutraceuticals or functional foods with dietary benefits beyond their fundamental macronutrients, highlighting their significant effect on obesity and dietary related disease. This study also suggested recent developments of seaweed applications for human health from epidemiological and functional food perspectives.
The chemically diversified nature and unique potential of seaweeds are the reason why they have been the focus of interest for the past few years in various cosmetic applications. Seaweed-based protein, polysaccharides, phenolic compounds, and pigment profiles present cosmetic and cosmeceutical potential. This review study gives an overall view of an exploitation of seaweed for cosmetic beneficial activities. Mainly, the role of polysaccharide, protein, phenolic compounds, and pigments in different skin cosmetic beneficial activities are discussed.
Marine macroalgae produce both primary metabolites, including proteins, amino acids, polysaccharides, fatty acids, etc., and secondary metabolites, such as phenolic compounds, pigments, sterols, vitamins, and other bioactive components . Moreover, various types of biological activities expressed by different phycocompounds, such as blood coagulation system, antilipidemic activity, immunomodulating effect, antiviral activity, anticancer activity, antimicrobial activity, antioxidant activity, and other significant activities . Especially in the area of cosmetics, many scientists reported skin beneficial activities, such as antiaging, anti-wrinkle, anti-cellulite, antioxidant, moisturizing, whitening, and photoprotection . Sun and Chavan,  studied Fucus vesiculosis extract to reduce the appearance of dark circles on the skin area by enhancing the expression of hemeoxygenase-1. By removing heme catabolites, it eliminates the heme production on skin. Hagino and Saito  reported some algae species and derived compounds for UV protection benefits, skin moisturization, and inhibition of melanin synthesis. Leyton et al.  identified phlorotannins, pholoroeckol, and phloroglucinol in the extract of brown macroalgae Macrocystis pyrifera . They also reported good antidiabetic and antioxidant activity of phlorotannins, which can prevent skin aging.
There are a wide variety of polysaccharides that are useful in skin cosmetics, such as agar, alginic acid, carrageenan, porphyrin, laminarin, fucoidan, and ulvan. Many genera of agrophytes algae, such as Gelidium sp., Gracilaria sp. , Gelidiela sp. , Pterocladiella sp., etc., are well-known producers of agar-agar . Balboa et al.  suggested use of agar as a major ingredient in creams, as an emulsifier, stabilizer, moisturizer as well as in different cosmetic products such as lotion, deodorants, antiaging treatment, exfoliant, acne treatment, etc. Like agar, alginic acid is derived from several brown algal species (Fucales, Laminariales, Ascophyllum sp., Durvillaea sp., Ecklonia sp., Laminaria sp., Macrocystis sp., Saccharina sp., Sargassum sp., and Turbinaria sp.) . Mafinowska  and Fabrowska et al.  reported its application in the formulation of skin-protective or barrier creams for the treatment of dermatitis, as well as suitable ingredients of beauty masks or facial packs. In addition, Kappa-, Iota-, Lambda-, Beta-carrageenan are extracted from several carrageenophytes, i.e., Betaphycus gelatinum , Chondrus crispus , Eucheuma denticulatum , Gigartina sp., Kappaphycus alvarezii , Hypnea musciformis , Mastocarpus sp., and Mazzaella sp., from the Rhodophyta. It is used in cosmetology for various applications, such as lotion, sun-ray protectors, medicines, deodorant sticks, sprays, and foams .
Macroalgae is cultivated in a controlled condition to regulate the production of bioactive compounds such as phenolic compounds, pigments, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids, vitamins, and minerals . These algae-based valuable bioactive constituents gained attention in cosmeceutical activities . This algae-derived metabolite can repair early signs of skin-aging, has an anti-wrinkle effect, exerts tightening effects, collagen synthesis, etc., as reported from Arthrospira species (Cyanobacteria) and Chlorella valgaris (Chlorophyta) . Marine algae contain a broad range of photosynthetic pigments chlorophylls, carotenoids (carotenes, xanthophylls, fucoxanthin, and peridinin), and phycobilins (phycocyanin and phycoerythrin) . As suggested by many researchers, red algae contain chlorophyll, phycobilin, carotenoids, β carotene, lutein, phycocyanin, and phycoerythrin Whereas brown algae possess chlorophyll a, c, carotenoids, fucoxanthin, and other pigments. Likewise, Chlorophyta revealed the presence of chlorophyll-a, -b, and -c and carotenoids . Due to the richness of diversified pigments’ profile, it is applied in various applications, such as photoprotection, anti-inflammatory effects, anticancer effects, and the inhibition of cell proliferation . The benefits of seaweed-derived pigments are summarized in Table 1 . According to Takaichi S. , Quilodrán et al. , and Amon and French , algae species are considered as a major source of β-carotene; likewise, some compounds, such as carotenoids, astaxanthin, and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), show antioxidant activity. Hosikian et al.  evaluated the role of green photosynthetic pigments in cosmetic industrial applications for antioxidant and antimutagenic properties. Spears  and La-Mer  suggested role of chlorophyll as natural coloring agents, deodorizing and antibacterial properties. In addition, these chlorophylls have high antioxidant activity and the ability for tissue-growth stimulation, making them useful to the cosmetic industry .
|No.||Species||Potential Pigment/s Studied||Cosmetics Properties and/or Products||References|
|2||Sargassum aquifolium (formerly Sargassum binderi),||Fucoidan||Photoprotection|||
|6||Haematococcus lacustris (formerly Haematococcus pluvialis)||Lutein
|7||Sacharina latissima (formerly Laminaria saccharina)||Chlorophyll||Photo-inhibition|||
2. Current Insights
Cosmetic researchers have focused their attention on marine organisms as an additional source of novel and useful natural ingredients. Diversified marine-algae-derived secondary metabolites are structurally more complex, with unique functionalities and properties. This review surveyed the potential applications of marine-algae-derived compounds for various skin benefits in the cosmetic industry. Though many seaweeds are exploited for their cosmetic properties, the research work on them is still incomplete, and so many species, either in full or in part, have not been explored. Hence, the cost-effective and efficient alternative standardized method to extract the bioactive phyco-constituents with significant productivity and activity is in growing demand. In future perspectives, the responsible molecular mechanism and safety concerns of these compounds are very important for future challenges in cosmeceuticals. Therefore, further investigations to study the precise molecular basis for the beneficial activity of marine algal components should be undertaken. Recently, in silico tools and techniques have been used to select functional materials derived from natural resources quickly and to predict the mechanisms of actions. Thus, this approach will be a helpful strategy for finding and understanding more effective compounds with the novel property.
The overexposure of human skin to different environmental stresses, such as pollutants and sun radiation, as well as chemical cosmeceutical ingredients—it increases the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS)—leads to many skin-damaging problems, such as aging, dullness, carcinogenesis, wrinkles, age spots, dark circles, etc. Marine-algae-based bioactive purified compounds demonstrated highly significant beneficiary applications in cosmetic formulas, as multiple functions, where they can be natural active constituents to the synthetic ingredients. Under different environmental factors, marine algae have the biosynthesis of primary and secondary metabolites for their survival. These biologically active constituents can be used as an active ingredient in the cosmetic industries due to their various skin benefits. It could be used as an antioxidant, antimicrobials, antibacterial, whitening agent, antiaging, anti-wrinkle, anti-acne, moisturizing, UV protection, deodorizing, anti-allergic, anti-inflammatory, sensory enhancer, viscosifying, stabilizer, and also for thickening in cosmetic industries. Sustainable use of marine algae and marine-algae-based molecules is crucial for humankind. Moreover, there are many cosmeceutical industries that already use extracts of marine algae and compounds in the formulation of many products. However, the monitoring of its biochemical profile presents a problem that needs to overcome. This can be solved by the development of seaweed cultivation and green extraction methods that are being analyzed with promising research results. However, many cosmetic companies’ collaboration at the national and international level can improve the analytical methods of its screening for safety, thus enhancing consumer’s safety towards marine-algae-based bioactive compounds in the cosmetic products. All mentioned marine algae in this review, possessing various bioactivities, are considered and utilized as a natural inexhaustible source for different cosmeceutical benefits.
The entry is from 10.3390/molecules26175313
- Cotas, J.; Leandro, A.; Monteiro, P.; Pacheco, D.; Figueirinha, A.; Gonçalves, A.M.M.; Da Silva, G.J.; Pereira, L. Seaweed Phenolics: From Extraction to Applications. Mar. Drugs 2020, 18, 384.
- Indergaard, M. The aquatic resource. In Biomass Utilization; Springer: Boston, MA, USA, 1983; pp. 137–168.
- Dias, V.; Bandeira, S.; Chaúque, E.; Lipassula, M.; Mussagy, A. Evaluation of Phytocompounds and Chemical Elements Present in Selected Species of Seaweeds, to Sustain Future Quantitative Analysis for Bioactive Compounds. J. Drug Deliv. Ther. 2020, 10, 232–239.
- Malinowska, P. Algae extracts as active cosmetic ingredients. Zesz. Nauk. 2011, 212, 123–129.
- Pereira, L.; Gheda, S.F.; Ribeiro-Claro, P.J.A. Analysis by Vibrational Spectroscopy of Seaweed Polysaccharides with Potential Use in Food, Pharmaceutical, and Cosmetic Industries. Int. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 2013, 2013, 1–7.
- Costa, L.; Fidelis, G.P.; Cordeiro, S.; Oliveira, R.; Sabry, D.; Câmara, R.; Nobre, L.; Costa, M.; Almeida-Lima, J.; Farias, E.; et al. Biological activities of sulfated polysaccharides from tropical seaweeds. Biomed. Pharmacother. 2010, 64, 21–28.
- Pereira, R.C.; Costa-Lotufo, L.V. Bioprospecting for bioactives from seaweeds: Potential, obstacles and alternatives. Rev. Bras. Farm. 2012, 22, 894–905.
- Bedoux, G.; Hardouin, K.; Burlot, A.S.; Bourgougnon, N. Bioactive components from seaweeds: Cosmetic applications and future development. Adv. Bot. Res. 2014, 71, 345–378.
- Farage, M.A.; Miller, K.W.; Elsner, P.; Maibach, H.I. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors in skin ageing: A review. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2008, 30, 87–95.
- Kang, S.-I.; Ko, H.-C.; Shin, H.-S.; Kim, H.-M.; Hong, Y.-S.; Lee, N.-H.; Kim, S.-J. Fucoxanthin exerts differing effects on 3T3-L1 cells according to differentiation stage and inhibits glucose uptake in mature adipocytes. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2011, 409, 769–774.
- Lotti, T.; Ghersetich, I.; Grappone, C.; Dini, G. Proteoglycans in So-Called Cellulite. Int. J. Dermatol. 1990, 29, 272–274.
- Al-Bader, T.; Byrne, A.; Gillbro, J.; Mitarotonda, A.; Metois, A.; Vial, F.; Rawlings, A.V.; Laloeuf, A. Effect of cosmetic ingredients as anticellulite agents: Synergistic action of actives with in vitro and in vivo efficacy. J. Cosmet. Dermatol. 2012, 11, 17–26.
- Thomas, N.V.; Kim, S.-K. Beneficial Effects of Marine Algal Compounds in Cosmeceuticals. Mar. Drugs 2013, 11, 146–164.
- Nakamura, T.; Nagayama, K.; Uchida, K.; Tanaka, R. Antioxidant Activity of Phlorotannins Isolated from the Brown Alga Eisenia bicyclis. Fish. Sci. 1996, 62, 923–926.
- Chandrasekhar, S.; Esterman, M.A.; Hoffman, H.A. Microdetermination of proteoglycans and glycosaminoglycans in the presence of guanidine hydrochloride. Anal. Biochem. 1987, 161, 103–108.
- Sun, Y.; Chavan, M. Cosmetic Compositions Comprising Marine Plants. U.S. Patent 9,603,790, 28 March 2017.
- Hagino, H.; Saito, M. Use of Algal Proteins in Cosmetics. European Patent EP1433463B1, 22 September 2010.
- Leyton, A.; Pezoa-Conte, R.; Barriga, A.; Buschmann, A.; Mäki-Arvela, P.; Mikkola, J.-P.; Lienqueo, M. Identification and efficient extraction method of phlorotannins from the brown seaweed Macrocystis pyrifera using an orthogonal experimental design. Algal Res. 2016, 16, 201–208.
- Yu, P.; Gu, H. Bioactive Substances from Marine Fishes, Shrimps, and Algae and Their Functions: Present and Future. Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2015, 55, 1114–1136.
- Fabrowska, J.; Łęska, B.; Schroeder, G.; Messyasz, B.; Pikosz, M. Biomass and extracts of algae as material for cosmetics. In Marine Algae Extracts; Kim, S.-K., Chojnacka, K., Eds.; Wiley-VCH, Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA: Weinheim, Germany, 2015; pp. 681–706. ISBN 9783527337088.
- Fernando, I.S.; Sanjeewa, K.A.; Kim, S.-Y.; Lee, J.-S.; Jeon, Y.-J. Reduction of heavy metal (Pb2+) biosorption in zebrafish model using alginic acid purified from Ecklonia cava and two of its synthetic derivatives. Int. J. Biol. Macromol. 2017, 106, 330–337.
- Pereira, L.; Amado, A.M.; Critchley, A.T.; van de Velde, F.; Ribeiro-Claro, P.J.A. Identification of selected seaweed polysac-charides (Phycocolloids) by vibrational spectroscopy (FTIR-ATR and FT-Raman). Food Hydrocoll. 2009, 23, 1903–1909.
- Charlier, R.H.; Chaineux, M.-C.P. The Healing Sea: A Sustainable Coastal Ocean Resource: Thalassotherapy. J. Coast. Res. 2009, 254, 838–856.
- Pereira, L. ALGAE. Litoral of Viana do Castelo: Uses in Agriculture, Gastronomy and Food Industry (Bilingual); Câmara Municipal de Viana do Castelo: Viana do Castelo, Portugal, 2010; pp. 7–8. ISBN 978-972-588-218-4.
- Gutiérrez, G. Compositions of Padina Algae or Their Extracts, and Their Pharmaceutical, Food Compositions, or Use for the Culture of Molluscs or Arthropods. European Patent EP 0655250 Al, 31 May 1995. Available online: https://patents.google.com/patent/EP0655250A1/en (accessed on 1 October 2018).
- Villarroel, L.H.; Zanlungo, A.B. Structural studies on the porphyran from Porphyra columbina (Montagne). Carbohydr. Res. 1981, 88, 139–145.
- Lourenço-Lopes, C.; Fraga-Corral, M.; Jimenez-Lopez, C.; Pereira, A.G.; Garcia-Oliveira, P.; Carpena, M.; Prieto, M.A.; Simal-Gandara, J. Metabolites from Macroalgae and Its Applications in the Cosmetic Industry: A Circular Economy Approach. Resources 2020, 9, 101.
- Joshi, S.; Kumari, R.; Upasani, V.N. Applications of algae in cosmetics: An overview. Int. J. Innov. Res. Sci. Eng. Technol. 2018, 7, 1269–1278.
- Kim, M.-S.; Oh, G.-H.; Kim, M.-J.; Hwang, J.-K. Fucosterol Inhibits Matrix Metalloproteinase Expression and Promotes Type-1 Procollagen Production in UVB-induced HaCaT Cells. Photochem. Photobiol. 2013, 89, 911–918.
- Lorbeer, A.J.; Tham, R.; Zhang, W. Potential products from the highly diverse and endemic macroalgae of Southern Australia and pathways for their sustainable production. Environ. Boil. Fishes 2013, 25, 717–732.
- Ibañez, E.; Herrero, M.; Mendiola, J.A.; Castro-Puyana, M. Extraction and Characterization of Bioactive Compounds with Health Benefits from Marine Resources: Macro and Micro Algae, Cyanobacteria, and Invertebrates. In Marine Bioactive Compounds; Springer: Boston, MA, USA, 2011; pp. 55–98.
- Vo, T.-S.; Ngo, D.-H.; Kim, S.-K. Marine algae as a potential pharmaceutical source for anti-allergic therapeutics. Process Biochem. 2012, 47, 386–394.
- Osório, C.; Machado, S.; Peixoto, J.; Bessada, S.; Pimentel, F.B.; Alves, R.C.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P. Pigments Content (Chlorophylls, Fucoxanthin and Phycobiliproteins) of Different Commercial Dried Algae. Separations 2020, 7, 33.
- Go, H.; Hwang, H.-J.; Nam, T.-J. A glycoprotein from Laminaria japonica induces apoptosis in HT-29 colon cancer cells. Toxicol. Vitr. 2010, 24, 1546–1553.
- Ermakova, S.; Sokolova, R.; Kim, S.-M.; Um, B.-H.; Isakov, V.; Zvyagintseva, T. Fucoidans from Brown Seaweeds Sargassum hornery, Eclonia cava, Costaria costata: Structural Characteristics and Anticancer Activity. Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol. 2011, 164, 841–850.
- Costa, L.S.; Fidelis, G.P.; Telles, C.B.; Dantas-Santos, N.; Camara, R.B.; Cordeiro, S.L.; Costa, M.S.; Almeida-Lima, J.; Melo-Silveira, R.F.; Oliveira, R.M.; et al. Antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of heterofucans from the seaweed Sargassum filipendula. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 952–966.
- Satomi, Y. Fucoxanthin induces GADD45A expression and G1 arrest with SAPK/JNK activation in LNCap human prostate cancer cells. Anticancer Res. 2012, 32, 807–813.
- Kim, J.-Y.; Yoon, M.-Y.; Cha, M.-R.; Hwang, J.-H.; Park, E.; Choi, S.-U.; Park, H.-R.; Hwang, Y.-I. Methanolic Extracts of Plocamium telfairiae Induce Cytotoxicity and Caspase-Dependent Apoptosis in HT-29 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells. J. Med. Food 2007, 10, 587–593.
- Takaichi, S. Distributions, biosyntheses, and functions of carotenoids in algae. Agro Food Ind. Hi-Tech 2013, 24, 55–58.
- Quilodrán, B.; Hinzpeter, I.; Hormazabal, E.; Quiroz, A.; Shene, C. Docosahexaenoic acid (C22: 6n− 3, DHA) and astaxanthin production by Thraustochytriidae sp. AS4-A1 a native strain with high similitude to Ulkenia sp.: Evaluation of liquid residues from the food industry as nutrient sources. Enzym. Microb. Technol. 2010, 47, 24–30.
- Amon, J.P.; French, K.H. Photoresponses of the Marine Protist Ulkenia sp. Zoospores to Ambient, Artificial and Bioluminescent Light. Mycologia 2004, 96, 463.
- Hosikian, A.; Lim, S.; Halim, R.; Danquah, M. Chlorophyll Extraction from Microalgae: A Review on the Process Engineering Aspects. Int. J. Chem. Eng. 2010, 2010, 391632.
- Spears, K. Developments in food colorings: The natural alternatives. Trends Biotechnol. 1988, 6, 283–288.
- La-Mer. My Skin—And What It Needs. 2018. Available online: https://www.la-mer.com/en (accessed on 22 September 2018).
- Lanfer-Marquez, U.M.; Barros, R.M.; Sinnecker, P. Antioxidant activity of chlorophylls and their derivatives. Food Res. Int. 2005, 38, 885–891.
- Horwitz, B. Role of chlorophyll in proctology. Am. J. Surg. 1951, 81, 81–84.
- Kawata, A.; Murakami, Y.; Suzuki, S.; Fujisawa, S. Anti-inflammatory activity of β-carotene, lycopene and tri-n-butylborane, a scavenger of reactive oxygen species. In Vivo 2018, 32, 255–264.
- Borowitzka, M.A. High-value products from microalgae—Their development and commercialization. J. Appl. Phycol. 2013, 25, 743–756.
- Sies, H.; Stahl, W. Carotenoids and UV protection. Photochem. Photobiol. Sci. 2004, 3, 749–752.
- Spolaore, P.; Joannis-Cassan, C.; Duran, E.; Isambert, A. Commercial applications of microalgae. J. Biosci. Bioeng. 2006, 101, 87–96.
- Peng, J.; Yuan, J.-P.; Wu, C.-F.; Wang, J.-H. Fucoxanthin, a marine carotenoid present in brown seaweeds and diatoms: Me-tabolism and bioactivities relevant to human health. Mar. Drugs 2011, 9, 1806–1828.
- D’Orazio, N.; Gemello, E.; Gammone, M.A.; De Girolamo, M.; Ficoneri, C.; Riccioni, G. Fucoxantin: A Treasure from the Sea. Mar. Drugs 2012, 10, 604–616.
- Kirti, K.; Amita, S.; Priti, S.; Kumar, A.M.; Jyoti, S. Colorful World of Microbes: Carotenoids and Their Applications. Adv. Biol. 2014, 2014, 837891.
- Morabito, K.; Shapley, N.C.; Steeley, K.G.; Tripathi, A. Review of sunscreen and the emergence of non-conventional absorbers and their applications in ultraviolet protection. Int. J. Cosmet. Sci. 2011, 33, 385–390.
- Chinnadurai, S.; Kalyanasundaram, G. Estimation of major pigment content in seaweeds collected from Pondicherry coast. Int. J. Sci. Technol. 2013, 9, 522–525.
- Von, E.; McDowell, R.H. Chemistry and Enzymology of Marine Algal Polysaccharides; Academic Press: London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 1967.
- Ponce, N.M.; Pujol, C.A.; Damonte, E.B.; Flores, M.L.; Stortz, C.A. Fucoidans from the brown seaweed Adenocystis utricularis: Extraction methods, antiviral activity and structural studies. Carbohydr. Res. 2003, 338, 153–165.
- Jayasankar, R.; Ramalingam, J.R. Photosynthetic pigment of marine algae from Mandapam coast. Seaweed Res. Util. 1993, 16, 41–43.
- Sudhakar, M.P.; Ananthalakshmi, J.S.; Nair, B.B. Extraction, purification, and study on antioxidant properties of fucoxanthin from brown seaweeds. J. Chem. Pharm. Res. 2013, 5, 169–175.
- Panjaitan, R.S. Pigment contents of Sargassum polycistum macroalgae lipid from Sayang heulang beach, Indonesia. Sci. Study Res. Chem. Chem. Eng. Biotechnol. Food Ind. 2019, 20, 365–375.
- O’Connor, I.; O’Brien, N. Modulation of UVA light-induced oxidative stress by β-carotene, lutein and astaxanthin in cultured fibroblasts. J. Dermatol. Sci. 1998, 16, 226–230.
- Gevaert, F.; Creach, A.; Davoult, D.; Holl, A.C.; Seuront, L.; Lemoine, Y. Photo-inhibition and seasonal photosynthetic performance of the seaweed Laminaria saccharina during a simulated tidal cycle: Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements and pigment analysis. Plant Cell Environ. 2002, 25, 859–872.
- Pessoa, M.F. Harmful effects of UV radiation in algae and aquatic macrophytes—A review. Emir. J. Food Agric. 2012, 24, 510–526.
- Indriatmoko, M.A.; Indrawati, R.; Limantara, L. Composition of the Main Dominant Pigments from Potential Two Edible Sea-weeds. Philipp. J. Sci. 2018, 147, 47–55.