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Avoid Medication Errors, Reporting Systems
Creating an effective multiple-phase reporting method to lower medication errors can act to identify the baseline rates of prescription errors. Hence, this can enable a recognition of the major types of medication errors and thereby assist in risk-reduction through the application of various preventive measures. A successful strategy to prevent and detect drug-related problems may involve three stages: pre-intervention phase, intervention phase, and post-intervention phase.
Medical errors are described as unintentional mistakes either by omission or commission. Medical errors are classified into an error of execution or an error of planning, which are explained as the unsuccessful process of deliberate action or utilization of an improper plan to attain a goal, respectively, or by deviating from the process of care that may potentially cause harm to the patient . In 2008, the US Department of Health and Human Services Office reported 180,000 deaths by medical errors among hospitalized patients . A high percentage of medical errors is attributed to medications that account for almost 1.5 million victims of medical errors every year . The National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP) defines a medication error as “any preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the health care professional, patient, or consumer.” These events can be linked to procedures, healthcare commodities, professional practice, along with systems consisting of prescription, order communication, dispensing, monitoring, product labeling, distribution, compounding, administration, nomenclature and packaging, education, and use. These events can be linked to healthcare commodities, procedures, professional practice, along with systems started with nomenclature and packaging, storing and distributing, prescribing, transcribing, documenting, reviewing, preparing (or compounding), product labeling, educating, dispensing, and ended with drug administration and monitoring . Medication errors significantly impact the well-being of individuals, organizations, and healthcare systems. According to an NCCMERP report, medication errors are ranked the sixth cause of mortality in the United States, with 5–10% of the reported medication errors classified as harmful . Recently, medication errors have become a challenge facing healthcare systems and are directly linked to hospital mortality and morbidity rates . Specifically, medication errors cause adverse effects on hospitalized patients and weaken the public’s confidence in the healthcare system and the healthcare services being provided . In addition, medication errors negatively impact clinical outcomes such as length of stay (LOS), incurring substantial costs of about USD 2000-2500 per patient . Another issue is the high proportion of underreporting of medication errors (estimated to be 50–60%) across healthcare organizations that is attributed to the lack of medical recording systems in many hospitals . Therefore, different prevention programs were implemented to monitor errors targeting triggers and/or influencing factors of medication errors  through using carefully formulated establishment-wide reporting systems to find the likely sources of medication errors . Although the reporting of medication errors offers usable data for identifying areas of improvement with regard to patient safety, the advancement of patient safety is impeded and the lack of formal reporting is well recognized . A variety of standards at the institutional level and a higher level of government exist for designing an effective medication error reporting system . Simultaneously, the transformation of medication error reporting systems is required to facilitate easily preventable mistakes and their often-severe aftereffects . Thus, understanding what hinders reporting could eventually result in superior patient care . Whilst plentiful reports have studied the contributing factors , rates of prescription errors, and adverse events , insufficient researches have analyzed the characteristics of successful medication error reporting systems.
2. Creating an Effective Reporting Method
3. Recommendations to Improve Medication Errors Reporting Systems
3.1. Blame-Free or Non-Punitive Culture
3.3. Responsive and Productive
3.4. Encourage Involvement
3.6. Create an Environment That Supports Reporting
3.7. Review Summary on a Regular Basis
3.10. Psychological Safety
3.11. Enough Resources
3.12. Physical Wellbeing
The entry is from 10.3390/medicines8090046
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