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Post-Stroke Psychiatric and Cognitive Symptoms
Stroke survivors in developing countries have been documented to be marked with intransigent and debilitating disabilities. To combat these dire circumstances, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched ‘Rehabilitation 2030′, which aspires to “scale up rehabilitation so that countries can be prepared to address the evolving needs of populations up to 2030” (p. 12). Owing to the suboptimal emergency services, critical care and existing rehabilitation services for individuals sustaining strokes in a majority of developing countries, stroke survivors have shown high mortality as well as disability and dependency rates. Cerebral hypoperfusion among stroke survivors (whether triggered by ischemic or hemorrhagic events, coupled with arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, pericardial effusion, or bleeding) leads to structural and functional changes in the brain resulting from damage. Around 85% of strokes are classified as ischemic and 12% as hemorrhagic. Approximately 75% of stroke survivors experience physical disability, emotional symptoms and cognitive symptoms, or a combination of these.
Recent research has shown that the prevalence of stroke incidents and the number of survivors in developing countries surpass those from developed countries. This study aimed to enumerate the prevalence of post-stroke psychiatric and cognitive symptoms among stroke survivors from West and South Asia and Africa through a systematic review and meta-analysis. Data from each country was systematically acquired from five major databases (PsycINFO, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed/Medline, and Google Scholar (for any missing articles and grey literature)). Meta-analytic techniques were then used to estimate the prevalence of various post-stoke psychiatric and cognitive symptoms. A total of 36 articles were accrued from 11 countries, of which 25 were evaluated as part of the meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of post-stroke depression as per the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Patient Health Questionnaire, Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry (SCAN), Geriatric Depression Scale, and the Montgomery–Asberg Depression Rating Scale ranged from 28.00 to 50.24%. Pooled prevalence of post-stroke anxiety based on the HADS and SCAN was 44.19% and 10.96%, respectively. The pooled prevalence of post-stroke cognitive impairment as per the Mini-Mental Status Examination was 16.76%.
2. Stroke Survivors
The entry is from 10.3390/jcm10163655
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