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Antibiotics Prescribing during COVID-19 Pandemic
It is axiomatic that hospital admissions increase risks of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), leading to a noticeable increase in antibiotic consumption. A recent study conducted on ICU patients in 88 countries highlighted that 70% of hospitalized patients receive at least one antibiotic during acute admission; of this cohort 54% developed a secondary bacterial infection that necessitated antibiotic therapy. In patients with severe disease, the WHO recommends the provision of antimicrobial therapy to prevent furthers infection complications, leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure.
In December 2019, an outbreak of novel coronavirus was first detected in Wuhan City, the capital of Hubei province in Central China. The virus spread rapidly to other parts of the world, and by 11 March 2020, COVID-19, as it is commonly known, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO) . Statistics from the WHO indicate that as of May 2021, more than 165 million persons were infected with COVID-19, and more than 3 million patients died . The ambiguity of this serious disease over the first wave swept worldwide, posing considerable challenges, including diagnosis, management, provision of resources, and ethical consideration to all global healthcare institutions. Therefore, the catastrophic situation resulted in many patients with a wide range of clinical manifestations ranging from asymptomatic to fatal diseases that required critical care, including ICU admission . Furthermore, in critical care settings, research indicates that COVID-19 is associated with increased mortality of up to 50% with pre-existing comorbidities, such as diabetes, hypertension, and renal and cardiovascular complications, in critical care settings .
It is axiomatic that hospital admissions increase risks of healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs), leading to a noticeable increase in antibiotic consumption . A recent study conducted on ICU patients in 88 countries highlighted that 70% of hospitalized patients receive at least one antibiotic during acute admission; of this cohort 54% developed a secondary bacterial infection that necessitated antibiotic therapy . In patients with severe disease, the WHO recommends the provision of antimicrobial therapy to prevent furthers infection complications, leading to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multi-organ failure . Despite that, scientific literature still has many gaps and uncertainties regarding the impact of antimicrobial therapy during the pandemic, particularly in critical care settings, which needs to be assessed and evaluated for the sake of global health as well as humanity. Therefore, this review aims to determine the prevalence of COVID-19 patients admitted to the ICUs that have been exposed to antimicrobial therapy correlated against isolated pathogens, comorbidities, and clinical outcomes.
2. Current Insights
|Antibiotic||Frequency Amongst Included Studies||Percentage Amongst Reporting Studies (n = 38) (%)|
|Third generation cephalosporin||14||36.8|
|Fourth generation cephalosporin||2||5.3|
|Penicillin and Penicillin β-lactamase inhibitor combinations|
|Beta lactam-beta lactamase inhibitor||1||2.6|
|Folate pathway inhibitors|
|Others Antibiotic (unspecified)||16||42.1|
The entry is from 10.3390/antibiotics10080935
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