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Recycled Asphalt Mixtures with Rejuvenators
Rejuvenating agents are materials with certain physical and chemical attributes that may be incorporated into mixtures with high oxidisation level or high RAP content. Studies pertaining to rejuvenators can be traced as far as in the late 1970s. The ASTM D4552 was initiated based on the six grades of rejuvenating agents measured based on viscosity at 60 °C, so as to facilitate the selection of rejuvenators in ensuring good performance in the long run. Martin et al. divided rejuvenators into five general categories, namely: Paraffinic oils, Aromatic extracts, Naphthenic oils, Triglycerides & Fatty Acids, and Tall oils. Based on the chemical composition of asphalt and rejuvenators, Tabatabaee and Kurth classified the latter into three classes; insoluble and soluble softeners, as well as compatibilisers. Insoluble softeners have desirable effects on the rheological attributes of aged asphalt but portray durability and instability issues in the long run. Next, soluble softeners display better compatibility with naphthenic aromatic asphalt that has low polarity. Meanwhile, compatibilisers share some similarities with other numerous fractions found in asphalt.
Reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) has received much attention recently due to its increased use in hot mix asphalt (HMA) pavements to enhance pavement sustainability. The use of aged asphalt in RAP, which is highly oxidised and has lost its properties due to exposure to traffic loads and climatic conditions throughout its lifespan, can cause asphalt mixtures to stiffen and embrittle, thus negatively affecting the behaviour of asphalt mixtures. This issue may be resolved by including rejuvenating agents that can restore both physical and rheological properties of aged asphalt by increasing maltene fractions and decreasing asphaltene. However, the high restoration capacity of any kind of rejuvenating agent does not assure the durability of restored aged asphalt.
Most rejuvenators can restore the physical properties of aged asphalt. However, high restoration capacity of these rejuvenating agents does not assure the durability of restored aged asphalt.
In addition, some rejuvenators can be used in cold regions, but unsuitable in hot regions. Certain rejuvenators have poor resistance to moisture damage.
In attaining a viable solution from technical and practical stances, some rejuvenating agents are not preferred due to their potential rutting damage, poor practicality, and low durability for their medium- to long-term usage.
The negative impact of rejuvenating agents can be minimised by including additives, such as polymers, fibers, and CRM.
The rejuvenators should possess a series of fundamental requirements in terms of performance, availability, and logistics. More importantly, these rejuvenators should have homogeneity in composition.
Early ageing due to certain rejuvenators demands further exploration, particularly for LTA. Thus, it is compulsory to study the ageing effect on the rejuvenators before introducing them to the industry.
The entry is from 10.3390/su13168970
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