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Benefit of Soybean-Derived Bioactive Peptides
Peptides present in foods have a wide range of physiological functions, including as anticancer agents and in lowering blood pressure and serum cholesterol levels, enhancing immunity, and promoting calcium absorption. Soy protein can be partially hydrolyzed enzymatically to physiologically active soy (or soybean) peptides (SPs), which not only exert physiological functions but also help amino acid absorption in the body and reduce bitterness by hydrolyzing hydrophobic amino acids from the C- or N-terminus of soy proteins. They also possess significant gel-forming, emulsifying, and foaming abilities. SPs are expected to be able to prevent and treat atherosclerosis by inhibiting the reabsorption of bile acids in the digestive system, thereby reducing blood cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein, and fat levels.
2. Production of Soy Bioactive Peptide
3. Characteristics of Soybean Peptides
4. Functionality of Soy Peptides
Soybean protein is a vital source of energy and contain essential amino acids for living organisms, including animals and especially humans, and has extensively studied . Recently, there has been an increased interest in identifying bioactive peptides from natural sources such as plants. These peptides exhibit unique properties, such as antioxidative, antithrombotic, antimicrobial, immunoregulatory, opiate-like, mineral-binding, hypocholesterolemic, and antihypertensive effects because of their structure, composition, and amino acid sequence .
4.1. Neuroprotective Effects and Improvement of Cognitive Impairment
In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) treated with the SP VHVV (10 mg/kg/oral administration) and ACE inhibitors (oral administered, 5 mg/kg) for 24 weeks, VHVV-treated animals were shown to have upregulated expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) related to long-term memory and neuronal survival . These results suggest that VHVV may improve long-term memory and neurogenesis by activating cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB)-mediated downstream proteins as a molecular memory pathway.
SPs have also been reported to have positive effects such as cognitive function improvement, brain wave control, and neurotransmitter control in patients with mild cognitive impairment . In a preclinical study using mice, SPs were shown to have a beneficial effect on age-related cognitive decline.
NWGPLV peptide with ACE inhibitory activity, identified from soy protein hydrolysate, decreased systolic blood pressure in a dose-dependent manner (~100 mg/kg) in an SHR model, leading to an antihypertensive effect . Ovokinin (FRADHPFL) from ovalbumin induced vasorelaxation by attenuating bradykinin B1 receptor and prostacyclin as an endothelium-dependent relaxing factor. Ovokinin (2–7) (RADHPF) exhibited antihypertensive activity by regulating the expression of an unknown receptor and nitric oxide. Both peptides reduced blood pressure in the SHR model when administered orally at a dose of 10 mg/kg . IFL and WL from tofu and fermented soybean were also shown to exhibit an ACE inhibitory activity . The peptide HSYNLRQSQVSELKYEGNWGPLVNPESQQGSPRV, produced from soy milk during Lactobacillus plantarum C2-mediated fermentation, exerted ACE inhibitory and antioxidant activity . LLPVFK, RLPKPW , and PGTAVPK  from soybean protein were shown to be associated with antihypertensive effects. It is necessary to further develop technologies that retain or enhance the activity of bioactive peptides in soybean foods. Moreover, it is important to understand the pharmacology of these peptides during their passage through the gastrointestinal tract without causing negative effects.
4.3. Inhibition of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression
4.4. Immunoregulatory Effects
4.5. Inhibition of Cancer Cell Proliferation by SPs
4.6. Anti-Inflammation Properties
4.7. Modulation of Lipid Metabolism
4.8. Antiobesity Effects
4.9. Antiarteriosclerosis Effects
4.10. Antidiabetic Effects
4.11. Skin Protection Effect of Soybean Oligopeptides against Ultraviolet Radiation
4.12. Antioxidative Properties
4.13. Soybean Proteins and Control of Increased Gut Microbial Activity Caused by Probiotics
4.14. Antimicrobial and Antiviral Effects
5. Economic Feasibility and Application of Soybean-Derived Bioactive Peptides
The entry is from 10.3390/ijms22168570
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