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Phytonutrients in Curing Breast Cancer
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common causes of female mortality around the globe. It is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of death from cancer in the world. It accounts for around 25% of all female cancers. The worldwide incidence of BC in 2012 was 1.67 million, which is alarming. The incidence may increase to 3.2 million by 2050. Males may also develop BC, but this is very rare, accounting for <1% of diagnosed BCs worldwide. BC may be of different types, based on various factors including etiology, location, and clinical and molecular characteristics. Based on location, BC may be of two types; namely, non-invasive and invasive. Non-invasive BC does not extend away from the lobules or duct where it is located. Invasive BC, on the other hand, reaches out from the lobules and ducts to the nearby mammary tissue.
Breast cancer (BC) is one of the most common type of cancer and an important contributor to female mortality. Several genes and epigenetic modifications are involved in the development and progression of BC. Research in phytochemistry, nutrigenomics, and nutrigenetics has provided strong evidence that certain phytonutrients are able to modulate gene expression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Such phytonutrients may also be beneficial to prevent and treat BC. In this review, we will focus on the nutrigenomic effects of various phytochemicals including polyphenols, phytosterols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and other compounds from different sources. Overall, these phytonutrients are found to inhibit BC cell proliferation, differentiation, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis, and induce apoptotic cell death by targeting various molecular pathways. They also alter epigenetic mechanisms and enhance the chemosensitivity and radiosensitivity of cancer cells. Such phytochemicals may be used for the effective management of BC patients in the clinical setting in the future. The present article aims to summarize the specific molecular pathways involved in the genetic effects of phytochemicals in BC.
3. Genetics of Breast Cancer
The entry is from 10.3390/biom11081176
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