- Please check and comment entries here.
Antioxidants: Improving Food Shelf Life
Oxidation is the main problem in preserving food products during storage. A relatively novel strategy is the use of antioxidant-enriched edible films. Antioxidants hinder reactive oxygen species, which mainly affect fats and proteins in food.
2. Food Oxidation Processes
3. Naturally Occurring Antioxidants
|||Aa comparative study between different tocopherols and tocotrienols for the inhibition of the oxidation of vegetable oils and animal fats was carried out. It was found that at low concentrations, α-tocopherol is more efficient in scavenging free radicals, while γ-tocopherol was better at relatively high concentrations.||Tocopherols and tocotrienols||Vitamins|
|||α-Tocopherol presented a better antioxidant performance in lipids when it is in the presence of phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine.|
|||The synergistic effect between propylgalate and α-tocopherol was compared. The authors found that the antioxidant properties in oil-in-water emulsions were greater than when only the tocopherol was used. This effect was attributed to a regeneration of the vitamin by the action of propylgalate.|
|||Ascorbic acid not only allows one to maintain the quality of post-harvest vegetables, but also increases their shelf life and improves the properties of vegetables.||Vitamin C or ascorbic acid|
|||The effect of pre-harvest treatment with ascorbic acid and calcium lactate on bell pepper was studied. They found that the appearance and shelf life of the fruit increased with the treatment, also the amount of flavonoids in the fruit, thereby improving its antioxidant capacity.|
|||A decrease in post-harvest enzymatic browning of mango beans of up to 50% when using an ascorbic acid treatment against a control without treatment was reported. They also noted that bean sprouts increased the polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity.|
|||The antioxidant properties of resveratrol from the point of view of its chemical structure were studied. It was found that resveratrol inhibited lipid peroxidation by 89% compared to BHT and propylgalate, which had values of 68 and 83%, respectively.||Resveratrol||Stilbenes|
|||Several resveratrol esters with long chain (C14, C16 and C18) and short chain (C3, C4, and C6) fatty acids were prepared and their antioxidant properties with different free radicals compared. It was that the antioxidant properties of long-chain resveratrol esters was better for the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical. On the other hand, short chain esters showed a better antioxidant properties against 2,2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS).|
|||Recently this antioxidant has received special attention for food preservation, because it imparts an astringent flavor. It is used mainly in acidic juice drinks such as blueberry, and grape juices. Gallic acid esters, such as propylgalate, are used to prevent lipid oxidation.||Gallic acid||Polyphenols|
|||The performance of the synthetic antioxidant tertbutylhydroquinone (TBHQ) was evaluated against gallic acid, and a mixture of methyl gallate with gallic acid, in the thermal oxidation of lipids. During the thermal oxidation, so-called second-stage oxidized species are generated, that is, oxidized products of lipid peroxides. It ws found that at low temperatures TBHQ performs better, but at 120 °C, the gallic acid, and its mixture with methyl gallate, showed a better performance.|
|||The antioxidant effect of quercetin, epicatechin and naringenin on methyl linoleate was studied. They found that naringenin had a poor antioxidant effect compared to quercetin and epicatechin.||Quercetin|
|||The antioxidant properties of quercetin and quercetin with α-tocopherol in chicken meat were studied. Greater preservation of the meat was observed under storage conditions when quercetin was used, in addition to the elimination of odors caused by carbonyl compounds. However, the appearance of a yellow color can be avoided if tocopherol is also used in addition to the quercetin.|
|||The oxidation of lipids and proteins in chicken pate was evaluated in the presence of quercetin and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Quercetin was found to be eight times more efficient in inhibiting lipid oxidative reactions than BHT. However, quercetin was not as efficient in inhibiting protein oxidation.|
The entry is from 10.3390/polysaccharides2030036
- Eça, K.S.; Sartori, T.; Menegalli, F.C. Films and edible coatings containing antioxidants-a review. Braz. J. Food Technol. 2014, 17, 98–112.
- Sánchez-Ortega, I.; García-Almendárez, B.E.; Santos-López, E.M.; Amaro-Reyes, A.; Barboza-Corona, J.E.; Regalado, C. Antimi-crobial edible films and coatings for meat and meat products preservation. Sci. World J. 2014, 2014, 248935.
- Ayala, F.; Echávarri, J.F.; Olarte, C.; Sanz, S. Quality characteristics of minimally processed leek packaged using different films and stored in lighting conditions. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2009, 44, 1333–1343.
- Lorenzo, J.M.; Pateiro, M.; Fontán, M.C.G.; Carballo, J. Effect of fat content on physical, microbial, lipid and protein changes during chill storage of foal liver pâté. Food Chem. 2014, 155, 57–63.
- Carocho, M.; Morales, P.; Ferreira, I.C. Antioxidants: Reviewing the chemistry, food applications, legislation and role as pre-servatives. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2018, 71, 107–120.
- Takahashi, O. Haemorrhages due to defective blood coagulation do not occur in mice and guinea-pigs fed butylated hydroxy-toluene, but nephrotoxicity is found in mice. Food Chem. Toxicol. 1992, 30, 89–97.
- Wang, W.; Kannan, P.; Xue, J.; Kannan, K. Synthetic phenolic antioxidants, including butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), in resin-based dental sealants. Environ. Res. 2016, 151, 339–343.
- Ceci, C.; Graziani, G.; Faraoni, I.; Cacciotti, I. Strategies to improve ellagic acid bioavailability: From natural or semisynthetic derivatives to nanotechnological approaches based on innovative carriers. Nanotechnology 2020, 31, 382001.
- Ghosh, A.; Ghosh, D.; Sarkar, S.; Mandal, A.K.; Choudhury, S.T.; Das, N. Anticarcinogenic activity of nanoencapsulated quercetin in combating diethylnitrosamine-induced hepatocarcinoma in rats. Eur. J. Cancer Prev. 2012, 21, 32–41.
- Maqsoudlou, A.; Assadpour, E.; Mohebodini, H.; Jafari, S.M. Improving the efficiency of natural antioxidant compounds via different nanocarriers. Adv. Colloid Interface Sci. 2020, 278, 102122.
- Xiong, Y.; Li, S.; Warner, R.D.; Fang, Z. Effect of oregano essential oil and resveratrol nanoemulsion loaded pectin edible coating on the preservation of pork loin in modified atmosphere packaging. Food Control. 2020, 114, 107226.
- Aguiar, J.; Costa, R.; Rocha, F.; Estevinho, B.; Santos, L. Design of microparticles containing natural antioxidants: Preparation, characterization and controlled release studies. Powder Technol. 2017, 313, 287–292.
- Wang, H.; Zhang, Y.; Tian, Z.; Ma, J.; Kang, M.; Ding, C.; Ming, D. Preparation of β-CD-Ellagic Acid Microspheres and Their Effects on HepG2 Cell Proliferation. Molecules 2017, 22, 2175.
- Tapia-Hernández, J.A.; Rodríguez-Felix, F.; Juárez-Onofre, J.E.; Ruiz-Cruz, S.; Robles-García, M.A.; Borboa-Flores, J.; Wong-Corral, F.J.; Cinco-Moroyoqui, F.J.; Castro-Enríquez, D.D.; Del-Toro-Sánchez, C.L. Zein-polysaccharide nanoparticles as matrices for antioxidant compounds: A strategy for prevention of chronic degenerative diseases. Food Res. Int. 2018, 111, 451–471.
- Suhag, R.; Kumar, N.; Petkoska, A.T.; Upadhyay, A. Film formation and deposition methods of edible coating on food products: A review. Food Res. Int. 2020, 136, 109582.
- Jiang, G.; Zhang, Z.; Li, F.; Rui, X.; Aisa, H.A. A comprehensive review on the research progress of vegetable edible films. Arab. J. Chem. 2021, 14, 103049.
- Palkopoulou, S.; Joly, C.; Feigenbaum, A.; Papaspyrides, C.D.; Dole, P. Critical review on challenge tests to demonstrate de-contamination of polyolefins intended for food contact applications. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2016, 49, 110–120.
- Geueke, B.; Groh, K.; Muncke, J. Food packaging in the circular economy: Overview of chemical safety aspects for commonly used materials. J. Clean. Prod. 2018, 193, 491–505.
- Walker, T.R.; McGuinty, E.; Charlebois, S.; Music, J. Single-use plastic packaging in the Canadian food industry: Consumer behavior and perceptions. Humanit. Soc. Sci. Commun. 2021, 8, 1–11.
- Chaple, S.; Vishwasrao, C.; Ananthanarayan, L. Edible Composite Coating of Methyl Cellulose for Post-Harvest Extension of Shelf-Life of Finger Hot Indian Pepper (Pusa jwala). J. Food Process. Preserv. 2016, 41, e12807.
- Muller, J.; González-Martínez, C.; Chiralt, A. Combination of Poly(lactic) Acid and Starch for Biodegradable Food Packaging. Materials 2017, 10, 952.
- Thakur, R.; Pristijono, P.; Bowyer, M.; Singh, S.P.; Scarlett, C.J.; Stathopoulos, C.; Vuong, Q.V. A starch edible surface coating delays banana fruit ripening. LWT 2019, 100, 341–347.
- Nazrin, A.; Sapuan, S.M.; Zuhri, M.Y.M.; Ilyas, R.; Syafiq, R.; Sherwani, S.F.K. Nanocellulose Reinforced Thermoplastic Starch (TPS), Polylactic Acid (PLA), and Polybutylene Succinate (PBS) for Food Packaging Applications. Front. Chem. 2020, 8, 213.
- Pinzon, M.I.; Sanchez, L.T.; Garcia, O.R.; Gutierrez, R.; Luna, J.C.; Villa, C.C. Increasing shelf life of strawberries (Fragaria ssp) by using a banana starch-chitosan-Aloe vera gel composite edible coating. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 55, 92–98.
- Zhao, X.; Cornish, K.; Vodovotz, Y. Narrowing the gap for bioplastic use in food packaging: An update. Environ. Sci. Technol. 2020, 54, 4712–4732.
- Estévez, M.; Li, Z.; Soladoye, P.O.; Van-Hecke, T. Health Risks of Food Oxidation. In Advances in Food and Nutrition Research; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 2017; Volume 82, pp. 45–81.
- Umaraw, P.; Munekata, P.E.S.; Verma, A.K.; Barba, F.J.; Singh, V.; Kumar, P.; Lorenzo, J.M. Edible films/coating with tailored properties for active packaging of meat, fish and derived products. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2020, 98, 10–24.
- Jackson, V.; Penumetcha, M. Dietary oxidised lipids, health consequences and novel food technologies that thwart food lipid oxidation: An update. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. 2019, 54, 1981–1988.
- Maldonado-Pereira, L.; Schweiss, M.; Barnaba, C.; Medina-Meza, I.G. The role of cholesterol oxidation products in food toxicity. Food Chem. Toxicol. 2018, 118, 908–939.
- Kato, S.; Shimizu, N.; Hanzawa, Y.; Otoki, Y.; Ito, J.; Kimura, F.; Takekoshi, S.; Sakaino, M.; Sano, T.; Eitsuka, T. Determination of triacylglycerol oxidation mechanisms in canola oil using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. NPJ Sci. Food 2018, 2, 1–11.
- Waraho, T.; McClements, D.; Decker, E.A. Mechanisms of lipid oxidation in food dispersions. Trends Food Sci. Technol. 2011, 22, 3–13.
- Nimse, S.B.; Pal, D. Free radicals, natural antioxidants, and their reaction mechanisms. RSC Adv. 2015, 5, 27986–28006.
- Estévez, M.; Luna, C. Dietary protein oxidation: A silent threat to human health? Crit. Rev. Food Sci. Nutr. 2017, 57, 3781–3793.
- Hellwig, M. The Chemistry of Protein Oxidation in Food. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2019, 58, 16742–16763.
- Papuc, C.; Goran, G.V.; Predescu, C.N.; Nicorescu, V. Mechanisms of Oxidative Processes in Meat and Toxicity Induced by Postprandial Degradation Products: A Review. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2016, 16, 96–123.
- Oroian, M.; Escriche, I. Antioxidants: Characterization, natural sources, extraction and analysis. Food Res. Int. 2015, 74, 10–36.
- Mercola, J. Fat for Fuel: A Revolutionary Diet to Combat Cancer, Boost Brain Power, and Increase Your Energy; Hay House: Carlsbad, CA, USA, 2017.
- Wootton-Beard, P.C.; Ryan, L. Improving public health? The role of antioxidant-rich fruit and vegetable beverages. Food Res. Int. 2011, 44, 3135–3148.
- Jiang, J.; Xiong, Y.L. Natural antioxidants as food and feed additives to promote health benefits and quality of meat products: A review. Meat Sci. 2016, 120, 107–117.
- Samoticha, J.; Jara-Palacios, M.J.; Hernández-Hierro, J.M.; Heredia, F.J.; Wojdyło, A. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant ac-tivity of twelve grape cultivars measured by chemical and electrochemical methods. Eur. Food Res. Technol. 2018, 244, 1933–1943.
- Brewer, M.S. Natural Antioxidants: Sources, Compounds, Mechanisms of Action, and Potential Applications. Compr. Rev. Food Sci. Food Saf. 2011, 10, 221–247.
- Apak, R.; Gorinstein, S.; Böhm, V.; Schaich, K.M.; Özyürek, M.; Güçlü, K. Methods of measurement and evaluation of natural antioxidant capacity/activity (IUPAC Technical Report). Pure Appl. Chem. 2013, 85, 957–998.
- Arulselvan, P.; Fard, M.T.; Tan, W.S.; Gothai, S.; Fakurazi, S.; Norhaizan, M.E.; Kumar, S.S. Role of Antioxidants and Natural Products in Inflammation. Oxidative Med. Cell. Longev. 2016, 2016, 5276130.
- Khan, H.; Ullah, H.; Aschner, M.; Cheang, W.S.; Akkol, E.K. Neuroprotective Effects of Quercetin in Alzheimer’s Disease. Biomolecules 2019, 10, 59.
- Seppanen, C.M.; Song, Q.; Csallany, A.S. The Antioxidant Functions of Tocopherol and Tocotrienol Homologues in Oils, Fats, and Food Systems. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2010, 87, 469–481.
- Xu, N.; Shanbhag, A.G.; Li, B.; Angkuratipakorn, T.; Decker, E.A. Impact of phospholipid–tocopherol combinations and en-zyme-modified lecithin on the oxidative stability of bulk oil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2019, 67, 7954–7960.
- Wang, Y.; Wu, C.; Zhou, X.; Zhang, M.; Chen, Y.; Nie, S.; Xie, M. Combined application of gallate ester and α-tocopherol in oil-in-water emulsion: Their distribution and antioxidant efficiency. J. Dispers. Sci. Technol. 2019, 41, 909–917.
- Barzegar, T.; Fateh, M.; Razavi, F. Enhancement of postharvest sensory quality and antioxidant capacity of sweet pepper fruits by foliar applying calcium lactate and ascorbic acid. Sci. Hortic. 2018, 241, 293–303.
- Sikora, M.; Świeca, M. Effect of ascorbic acid postharvest treatment on enzymatic browning, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of stored mung bean sprouts. Food Chem. 2018, 239, 1160–1166.
- Gülçin, İ. Antioxidant properties of resveratrol: A structure–activity insight. Innov. Food Sci. Emerg. Technol. 2010, 11, 210–218.
- Oh, W.Y.; Shahidi, F. Lipophilization of Resveratrol and Effects on Antioxidant Activities. J. Agric. Food Chem. 2017, 65, 8617–8625.
- Farhoosh, R.; Nyström, L. Antioxidant potency of gallic acid, methyl gallate and their combinations in sunflower oil triacyl-glycerols at high temperature. Food Chem. 2018, 244, 29–35.
- Palma, M.; Robert, P.; Holgado, F.; Márquez-Ruiz, G.; Velasco, J. Antioxidant Activity and Kinetics Studies of Quercetin, Epicatechin and Naringenin in Bulk Methyl Linoleate. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc. 2017, 94, 1189–1196.
- Sohaib, M.; Anjum, F.M.; Arshad, M.S.; Imran, M.; Imran, A.; Hussain, S. Oxidative stability and lipid oxidation flavoring vol-atiles in antioxidants treated chicken meat patties during storage. Lipids Health Dis. 2017, 16, 1–10.
- de Carli, C.; Moraes-Lovison, M.; Pinho, S.C. Production, physicochemical stability of quercetin-loaded nanoemulsions and evaluation of antioxidant activity in spreadable chicken pâtés. LWT 2018, 98, 154–161.