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Diagnosis Using Urine Samples
Urine is a by-product of kidney metabolism and is rich in many nitrogen-containing substances, including urea, uric acid and creatinine, which are excreted from the body as water-soluble chemicals during urination. The urine volume of normal healthy adults ranges from 0.6 to 2.6 L per day, where approximately 91–96% of this urine is composed of water. However, urine also contains various inorganic salts and organic compounds, such as proteins, hormones, and metabolites. The chemical composition of fresh urine mainly consists of nitrogen, ammonium, ammonia nitrogen, nitrate, nitrite, phosphorus, potassium, sulfate, sodium, magnesium, chloride, and calcium. Moreover, the urine of healthy individuals is clear or light yellow in color. However, in the presence of certain diseases or disorders, such as hematuria, diabetes, or kidney stones, distinct changes in the color, composition or smell of urine may occur. Therefore, urine serves as an important bio-rich resource for health monitoring.
In recent years, microfluidic lab-on-paper devices have emerged as a rapid and low-cost alternative to traditional laboratory tests. Additionally, they were widely considered as a promising solution for point-of-care testing (POCT) at home or regions that lack medical infrastructure and resources. This review describes important advances in microfluidic lab-on-paper diagnostics for human health monitoring and disease diagnosis over the past five years. The review commenced by explaining the choice of paper, fabrication methods, and detection techniques to realize microfluidic lab-on-paper devices. Then, the sample pretreatment procedure used to improve the detection performance of lab-on-paper devices was introduced. Furthermore, an in-depth review of lab-on-paper devices for disease measurement based on an analysis of urine samples was presented. The review concludes with the potential challenges that the future development of commercial microfluidic lab-on-paper platforms for human disease detection would face.
The entry is from 10.3390/bios11080260
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