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Benefits of Online Tourism Sources
Online sources of information are a matter of special interest in tourism research. In particular, they are key elements in the formation of destination image. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship between online sources of information and destination image and to analyze the mediating role of motivation to co-create in that relationship. A research model was developed, and hypotheses were tested on data collected from 394 usable responses about the World Heritage city of Cuenca (Spain). The results show that online commercial sources have a direct positive impact on the conative, affective and cognitive dimensions of the tourist image, in this order. Additionally, this study supports the view that motivation to co-create mediates the relationship between online information sources and destination image. Finally, motivation to co-create was also found to have a positive and direct impact, in this order, on conative, cognitive and affective image. The main value of our research is that it underlines the essential influence of motivation to co-create in the relationship between online information sources and destination image. This study also provides a critical review of the existing literature by positing a conceptual theoretical framework that links three types of online sources of information (social media sources, online commercial sources and online non-commercial sources) and destination image.
2. Analysis on Results
2.1. Measurement Model
|Scheme 95.||FIV||Weights||Student’s t-Test||p-Value||95% Confidence
(Generic social networks)
|Online commercial sources||FIV||Weights||Student’s t-test||p-Value||95% Confidence
(Official website of the city and province)
(Reservation websites with user ratings)
(Tourist providers’ websites)
|Online non-commercial sources||FIV||Weights||Student’s t-test||p-Value||95% Confidence
(Pictures and media websites)
|Cogni5. Good reputation of the destination||0.698|
|Cogni6. Natural environment without pollution||0.748|
|Cogni7. Relaxed environment||0.806|
|Cogni8. Safe place to travel||0.777|
|Cogni9. Accessibility from accommodation||0.566|
|Cogni10. Family-oriented destination||0.753|
|Cogni11. Good quality-price relationship||0.783|
|Cogni12. Satisfactory customer service||0.671|
|Cogni13. Interesting activities||0.693|
|Cogni15. Interesting cultural attractions||0.706|
|Cogni16. Interesting historical monuments and important events||0.734|
|Cogni17. Opportunities for cycling, climbing and other sports||0.670|
|Cogni18. Good weather||0.592|
|Cogni19. Magnificent landscapes||0.753|
|Cogni20. Beautiful nature||0.755|
|Conat1. It has always been a dream destination to visit at some point in my life.||0.817|
|Conat2. I think it is an appropriate vacation option.||0.756|
|Conat3. It helps enhance my knowledge about certain subjects (for example, history or geography).||0.675|
|Conat4. I have always considered it a personal goal to have a vacation in the city.||0.836|
|Conat5. It is a personal need of mine that has to be fulfilled.||0.833|
|Conat6. I have always had a permanent desire to visit it.||0.869|
|Conat7. It has positive attributes that improve my personality.||0.821|
|Conat8. It makes me believe that my holidays are the best reward or gift that I can give myself.||0.858|
|1. Social media sources||3.18||0.95||---||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.|
|2. Online commercial sources||2.96||0.83||0.540 **||----||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.|
|3. Online non-commercial sources||3.03||0.98||0.352 **||0.420 **||----||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.||n.a.|
|4. Motivation to co-create||3.33||1.23||0.226 **||0.292 **||0.181 **||0.82||0.552
|5. Affective image||4.01||0.67||0.225 **||0.170 **||0.270 **||0.389 **||0.72||0.840
|6. Cognitive image||4.18||0.63||0.165 **||0.150 **||0.243 **||0.406 **||0.607 **||0.77||0.677
|7. Conative image||3.38||1.01||0.182 **||0.123 *||0.272 **||0.435 **||0.752 **||0.624 **||0.81|
|Construct Reliability||Convergent Validity|
|Second-Order Construct||First-Order Construct||Weight||Loading||Composite Reliability||Cronbach’s
2.2. Hypothesis Testing
|Hypothesis||Original Sample||Student’s t-Test||p-Value||Supported|
|H1a||Social media sources -> Cognitive image||0.033||0.371||0.355||No|
|H1b||Social media sources -> Affective image||0.001||0.016||0.494||No|
|H1c||Social media sources -> Conative image||−0.068||1.120||0.131||No|
|H2a||Online commercial sources -> Cognitive image||0.147 **||2.416||0.008||Yes|
|H2b||Online commercial sources -> Affective image||0.156 **||2.826||0.002||Yes|
|H2c||Online commercial sources -> Conative image||0.178 ***||3.478||0.000||Yes|
|H3a||Online non-commercial sources -> Cognitive image||−0.010||0.116||0.454||No|
|H3b||Online non-commercial sources -> Affective image||0.068||0.951||0.171||No|
|H3c||Online non-commercial sources -> Conative image||0.047||0.943||0.173||No|
|H4a||Motivation to co-create -> Cognitive image||0.450 ***||8.163||0.000||Yes|
|H4b||Motivation to co-create -> Affective image||0.427 **||7.832||0.000||Yes|
|H4c||Motivation to co-create -> Conative image||0.494 ***||11.852||0.000||Yes|
|Effects on Dependent Variables||Direct Effects
(R2 = 0.255)
|Motivation to co-create||0.450 *** (8.20)||---||0.450|
|Online non-commercial sources||−0.010 ns (0.12)||0.042 † (Yes)||0.032|
|Social media sources||0.033 ns (0.37)||0.069 * (Yes)||0.102|
|Online commercial sources||0.147 **(2.40)||0.051 * (Yes)||0.198|
(R2 = 0.254)
|Motivation to co-create||0.427 *** (7,77)||---||0.427|
|Online non-commercial sources||0.068 ns (0.94)||0.040 † (Yes)||0.108|
|Social media sources||0.001 ns (0.02)||0.065 * (Yes)||0.066|
|Online commercial sources||0.156 **(2.80)||0.049 * (Yes)||0.205|
(R2 = 0.299)
|Motivation to co-create||0.494 *** (11.98)||---||0.494|
|Online non-commercial sources||0.047 ns (0.93)||0.046 † (Yes)||0.093|
|Social media sources||−0.068 ns (1.12)||0.076 * (Yes)||0.008|
|Online commercial sources||0.178 ***(3.50)||0.057 * (Yes)||0.235|
|Independent–Dependent Variable Relationship||Variance Explained||Size of the
|Unmediated Relationship||Mediated Relationship||ΔVariance
|Online sources of information—cognitive image||0.083||0.255||0.172||0.23
|Unmediated relationship||Mediated Relationship||ΔVariance
|Online sources of information—affective image||0.097||0.254||0.157||0.21
|Online sources of information—conative image||0.072||0.299||0.227||0.32
3. Current Insights
The entry is from 10.3390/jtaer16060115
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