1. Please check and comment entries here.
Table of Contents

    Topic review

    E-Government Service

    View times: 6
    Submitted by: Taqwa Hariguna

    Definition

    Electronic government serves to connect activities between society and the government. People are familiar with the term electronic government and have used other government applications to support their activities, such as searching for regional information, tourism potential, e-filing, and electronic citizen cards. The evolution of electronic government is occurring very quickly to facilitate the complex problems faced today and prepare for changes in the future. The role of government cannot be separated from service activities to the general citizen. One of the digital channels is electronic government, that can be used as a two-way service media that can adapt to changes both technically, as well as in design and strategy. Electronic government quality is an important domain that can influence citizens’ responses to the quality of facilities provided by the government. Connection quality is a user’s concept of what is felt that affects the quality of credence and contentment to the perceived experience.

    1. Concept and Theory of Electronic Government

    The implementation of electronic government has shifted to e-facilities, and it is user oriented [1]. However, today’s scientific discourse still often ignores these shifts, where many studies today focus more on the application of electronic commerce and the use of user-oriented technology in general. More specifically, existing studies often adapt based on literature reviews and web-technology implementation, or commerce approaches related to the context of electronic government, and therefore they use generic abstract designs [2][3]. For example, the technology approval model (TAM) concept is most often used in measuring user approval with the utility and ease of use variables. However, for assessing citizen approval of electronic government, both constructs are not relevant enough and still require other variable constructs. In addition, several previous studies have confirmed that the variable, ease of use, has a positive and significant effect on the variable of perceived utility, which also affects the general motive of electronic government. Some studies that adopted the framework Delone and McLean called (D&M IS Success Model) have mentioned that the system’s quality, information quality, and service quality variables affect the variable of citizens’ motive to use electronic government. However, antithesis to some traditional studies of IS, the variable of system’s quality shows a weak correlation with the variable of intended use [4][5][6]. While based on the concept of innovation diffusion theory (IDT), it is predicted that the compatibility of independent variables, most excellence, complexity, and imagery all correlate with the variable of motives dependently. Therefore, considering multi-theory studies that combine two or more of the theories listed above, in this study, we were more likely to analyze the design of credence in the electronic government and construct credence in the paradigm of internet studies. Moreover, the results explained that variable of credence has a positive influence in describing the application of electronic government.

    Studies using constructs into citizen motive of electronic government, confirmed by some scholars, are still in their early phases and growing; however, they provide some important points of view and concepts for citizens and government sectors. Notwithstanding the fundamental restructuring of citizen administration in the rapid development of information technology and the changing tendency of users of online media, previous studies have analyzed factors that establish that citizen motive usage of electronic government is still not appropriate. One of the reasons is the suitability of information systems and e-commerce models in general that are only technology-oriented [7][8]. This is not following the electronic government domain, because the elements in electronic government are very different from the context of IS study, social media commerce, or electronic commerce study. In addition, the implementation of the variable IS and the variable of e-commerce for the electronic government context is not strong enough to consider specific differences in electronic government systems, facilities, and users. The constructs of IDT theory that are often used, variable usability and variable ease of use, are also not suitable for assessing the motive of using electronic government. The same goes for meta-emotional designs that focus on a user’s emotional status, such as credence on the internet, perceived credibility, social influence, concept of risk, and subjective rules. This design precludes the identification of appropriate management parameters for well-planned user-oriented electronic government.

    2. Concept and Theory of Relationship Quality

    Relationship quality (RQ) represents the collaborative motive, connection, and feedback activity between two parties, as well as the intense communication between the two parties [9][10]. Tajvidi et al. [11] explained that in communicating we must focus on the connection between two parties, namely service providers and service users. Anastasiei et al. [12] mentioned credence as part of the connection quality dimension that depends on the type of message conveyed by the provider. Connection quality is an important factor for developing a positive connection [13], maintaining user faithfulness [14], encouraging purchase or reuse motive [15][16], and motiving continuous engagement in social activities [17].

    RQ is considered to be a composite or multidimensional building because it basically consists of three different components related to credence, contentment, and responsibility [10][18]. However, this study only focuses on credence and contentment, in this case, credence and contentment in the design of connection quality: First, many previous studies have discussed RQ as a secondary form variable of credence and contentment as a measurement [19][20][21][22], if responsibility is removed, then, in design it did not show a significant difference. Second, responsibility is sourced from the results of connection quality [23] which is owned by user faithfulness [24], and in addition, some literature state that actually responsibility is not part of the design of connection quality [25][26][27].

    Previous studies have stated that the citizen contentment variable has an important influence on citizens’ motives when they use electronic government [28]. Furthermore, the variable of citizen credence also gives a positive value to the motive of citizens to use electronic government [29]. These two variables are the constructor extraction of connection quality. Furthermore, Khan et al. [30] explained that there are two antecedent variables of social media for electronic government facilities, namely credence and contentment.

    Most studies regard RQ as mediating between predecessors and consequences. A study found that the RQ between users and social networking sites can mediate the impact of social engagement and quality value from the website on motive to use. Masri et al. [31] also explained that one’s motive adds value to customer contentment. There is a good connection with contentment, credence, and sustainable motive which are all due to the quality of the information system. Perceived value affects contentment and credence. Tsai and Huang [32] also mentioned faithfulness. The existence of faithfulness is due to the RQ which is influenced by self-conformity, social rules, information based on quality aspect, and interactivity.

    3. Public Behavioral Output

    In the concept of electronic government, there is a commerce concept which states that connections based on building and maintaining RQ with customers can certainly have positive consequences. This can be seen in faithfulness, word-of-mouth (WoM), and implementation. Meyer [33] and Aymagambetov et al. [34] ensured the importance of using sustainable electronic government and maintaining the RQ. People routinely use electronic government facilities, and this can continue because to get attention, people need more time and effort. In addition, service providers or media are the key to success that can provide feedback on these facilities.

    Take for example the application of citizen behavior such as motive and faithfulness. Reuse motive is the society’s desire to reuse a service. Schiffman and Kanuk [35] argued that motive is the likelihood that a person will reuse a particular service, with more substantial considerations than they previously perceived. People use electronic government facilities to seek relevant knowledge that is influenced by their concepts and the surrounding surroundings. After obtaining the knowledge needed, society, then, analyzes, examines, compares, and ends it, based on a prior study showing that motive is the main criterion of people’s behavior [36][37][38].

    The psychological aspect felt by citizens after using electronic government can be seen from the concept of faithfulness. The higher the perceived positive aspects of electronic government facilities, the more the value of citizen faithfulness to electronic government increases [39]. In the perspective of mobile government facilities, citizen motive to use is an inseparable part of the citizen perceived value variable and is also a determining factor for the sustainability of mobile government [40]. Meanwhile, according to Alarabiat et al. [41], citizen motive is a moderating variable for citizens who engage in government social media.

    Faithfulness is the long-term ability of society to reuse the facilities provided. Faithfulness provides long-term merits to service providers and can also provide assurance [42][43][44]. For this reason, citizen responsibility is needed to maintain good relations with service providers [45]. From the commerce side, the motive of citizen participation needs to be considered if you want to achieve good information distribution [46]. The participation motive is society’s desire to engage in activities carried out by the government [47], which, in turn, provide advice and service recommendations [17]. This study uses motive and faithfulness as citizen behavior that reflects the utilization of the combination of electronic government quality with connection quality. Dealing with the construct definition as we explained earlier, here is further explanation about it as it is shown in Table 1 below:

    Table 1. Construct definitions.

    Construct Definition Source
    Relationship Quality (RQ) The level of the whole valuation of the force of a connection between electronic government quality domains to the citizen as the electronic government users. Crosby et al. [9],
    Palmatier et al. [10], and Tajvidi et al. [11]
    Public Intention (PPI) Citizen compliance to use an electronic government after perceiving connection quality and electronic government quality. Dodds et al. [48] and
    Bonsón Ponte et al. [49]
    Public Loyalty (PL) Citizen compliance to be a faithful and
    committed citizen after perceiving electronic government quality and connection quality.
    Flavián et al. [42] and
    Zhang et al. [50]
    Full Online Service (FOS) Citizen concept-related electronic government strategy of modern and their concept when electronic government full online facilities. Assar et al. [51]
    Social Media Integration (SMI) Measuring the citizen social networking activities and understanding their concept towards electronic government service. Bonsón et al. [52]
    Mobile Service Combination (MSI) Measuring citizen concept toward integrated mobile government service and their understanding. Al-Hujran [53], Zamzami and Mahmud [54]
    Personalized User Account (PUA) Measuring and understanding citizen concept related to a personalized user account in electronic government service. Thongpapanl and Rehman Ashraf [55], Liao et al. [56]
    Electronic Participation Service Integration (PSI) Measuring citizen opinion of e-participation service combination in electronic government service. Zheng et al. [57] and Themistocleous et al. [58]
    Currentness of Public Information (CPI) Understanding citizen awareness of the current situation. Lee and Kozar [59], Smith [60], Dragulanescu [61], and Lakeworth [62]

    The entry is from 10.3390/su13137464

    References

    1. Kaisara, G.; Pather, S. The e-Government evaluation challenge: A South African batho Pele-aligned service quality approach. Gov. Inf. Q. 2011, 28, 211–221.
    2. Ozkan, S.; Kanat, I.E. e-Government adoption model based on theory of planned behavior: Empirical validation. Gov. Inf. Q. 2011, 28, 503–513.
    3. Rana, N.P.; Williams, M.D.; Dwivedi, Y.K. Diversity and diffusion of therories, models, and theoretical constructs in eGovernment research. Electron. Gov. 2011, 6846, 1–12.
    4. Sagiyeva, R.; Zhuparova, A.; Ruzanov, R.; Doszhan, R.; Askerov, A. Intellectual input of development by knowledge-based economy: Problems of measuring in countries with developing markets. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2018, 6, 711–728.
    5. Tvaronavičienė, M.; Plėta, T.; Della Casa, S.; Latvys, J. Cyber security management of critical energy infrastructure in national cybersecurity strategies: Cases of USA, UK, France, Estonia and Lithuania. Insights Reg. Dev. 2020, 2, 802–813.
    6. Chen, Y.; Huang, T.; Hung, S. The Charisma of Online Group-Buying: The Moderating Role of Social Motivation. Int. J. Inform. Inf. Syst. 2019, 2, 99–101.
    7. Glotko, A.V.; Polyakova, A.G.; Kuznetsova, M.Y.; Kovalenko, K.E.; Shichiyakh, R.A.; Melnik, M.V. Main trends of government regulation of sectoral digitalization. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2020, 7, 2181–2195.
    8. Chrząścik, M. Modelling promotion strategies in local government units with the application of structural equation modelling (SEM) with an example of Warmia and Mazury region. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2019, 7, 1258–1278.
    9. Crosby, L.A.; Evans, K.R.; Cowles, D. Relationship Quality in Services Selling: An Interpersonal Influence Perspective. J. Mark. 1990, 54, 68–81.
    10. Palmatier, R.W.; Dant, R.P.; Grewal, D.; Evans, K.R. Factors influencing the effectiveness of relationship marketing: A metaanalysis. J. Mark. 2006, 70, 136–153.
    11. Tajvidi, M.; Richard, M.-O.; Wang, Y.; Hajli, N. Brand co-creation through social commerce information sharing: The role of social media. J. Bus. Res. 2018, 121, 1–11.
    12. Anastasiei, B.; Dospinescu, N. Facebook Advertising, Relationship between Types of Message, Brand Attitude and Perceived Buying Risk. Ann. Econ. Ser. 2017, 6, 18–26.
    13. Bejou, D.; Wray, B.; Ingram, T.N. Determinants of relationship quality: An artificial neural network analysis. J. Bus. Res. 1996, 36, 137–143.
    14. Giovanis, A.; Athanasopoulou, P.; Tsoukatos, E. The role of service fairness in the service quality—Relationship quality—Customer loyalty chain: An empirical study. J. Serv. Theory Pract. 2015, 25, 744–776.
    15. Chen, C.-C.; Chang, Y.-C. What drives purchase intention on Airbnb? Perspectives of consumer reviews, information quality, and media richness. Telemat. Inform. 2018, 35, 1512–1523.
    16. Oliveira, T.; Alhinho, M.; Rita, P.; Dhillon, G. Modelling and testing consumer trust dimensions in e-commerce. Comput. Hum. Behav. 2017, 71, 153–164.
    17. Hajli, M.N. The role of social support on relationship quality and social commerce. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2014, 87, 17–27.
    18. Garbarino, E.; Johnson, M.S. The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. J. Mark. 1999, 63, 70–87.
    19. Chen, S.-C.; Jong, D.; Lai, M.-T. Assessing the Relationship between Technology Readiness and Continuance Intention in an E-Appointment System: Relationship Quality as a Mediator. J. Med. Syst. 2014, 38, 76.
    20. Rajaobelina, L.; Bergeron, J. Antecedents and consequences of buyer-seller relationship quality in the financial services industry. Int. J. Bank Mark. 2009, 27, 359–380.
    21. Hsu, C.-L.; Chen, M.-C.; Kikuchi, K.; Machida, I. Elucidating the determinants of purchase intention toward social shopping sites: A comparative study of Taiwan and Japan. Telemat. Inform. 2017, 34, 326–338.
    22. Chen, S.-C.; Liu, S.-C.; Li, S.-H.; Yen, D.C. Understanding the mediating effects of relationship quality on technology acceptance: An empirical study of E-appointment system. J. Med. Syst. 2013, 37, 9981.
    23. Kim, W.G.; Lee, Y.-K.; Yoo, Y.-J. Predictors of Relationship Quality and Relationship Outcomes in Luxury Restaurants. J. Hosp. Tour. Res. 2006, 30, 143–169.
    24. Liu, C.-T.; Guo, Y.M.; Lee, C.-H. The effects of relationship quality and switching barriers on customer loyalty. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 2011, 31, 71–79.
    25. Boles, J.S.; Johnson, J.T.; Barksdale, H.C. How Salespeople Build Quality Relationships: A Replication and Extension. J. Bus. Res. 2000, 48, 75–81.
    26. Jap, S.D.; Manolis, C.; Weitz, B.A. Relationship Quality and Buyer–Seller Interactions in Channels of Distribution. J. Bus. Res. 1999, 46, 303–313.
    27. Holmlund, M. A definition, model, and empirical analysis of business-to-business relationship quality. Int. J. Serv. Ind. Manag. 2008, 19, 32–62.
    28. Hariguna, T.; Rahardja, U.; Ruangkanjanases, A. The impact of citizen perceived value on their intention to use e-government services: An empirical study. Electron. Gov. 2020, 16, 426–440.
    29. Pérez-Morote, R.; Pontones-Rosa, C.; Núñez-Chicharro, M. The effects of e-government evaluation, trust and the digital divide in the levels of e-government use in European countries. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2020, 154, 11997.
    30. Khan, S.; Umer, R.; Umer, S.; Naqvi, S. Antecedents of trust in using social media for E-government services: An empirical study in Pakistan. Technol. Soc. 2021, 64, 101400.
    31. Masri, N.W.; You, J.-J.; Ruangkanjanases, A.; Chen, S.-C.; Pan, C.-I. Assessing the effects of information system quality and relationship quality on continuance intention in e-tourism. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2020, 17, 174.
    32. Tsai, H.-T.; Huang, H.-C. Determinants of e-repurchase intentions: An integrative model of quadruple retention drivers. Inf. Manag. 2007, 44, 231–239.
    33. Meyer, C. Reinforcing Comparative Monitoring of Smart Specialisation Performance across European Regions: Transnational RIS3 Observatory Model as a Tool for Smart Specialisation Governance. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2020, 8, 1386–1400.
    34. Aymagambetov, Y.; Grazhevskaya, N.; Tyngisheva, A. Estimation the effectiveness of public governance of the health system in the context of sustainable development. Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2020, 7, 3309–3320.
    35. Schiffman, L.G.; Kanuk, L.L. Consumer Behavior, 10th ed.; Prentice Hall: Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA, 2009.
    36. Hee, Y.K.; Jae-Eun, C. Consumer purchase intention for organic personal care products. J. Consum. Mark. 2011, 28, 40–47.
    37. Lu, Y.; Zhao, L.; Wang, B. From virtual community members to C2C e-commerce buyers: Trust in virtual communities and its effect on consumers’ purchase intention. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 2010, 9, 346–360.
    38. Adamczyk, M.; Betlej, A.; Gondek, J.; Ohotina, A. Technology and sustainable development: Towards the future? Entrep. Sustain. Issues 2019, 6, 2003–2016.
    39. Sen Doong, H.; Wang, H.C.; Foxall, G.R. Psychological traits and loyalty intentions towards e-Government services. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 2010, 30, 457–464.
    40. Wang, C.; Teo, T.S.H.; Liu, L. Perceived value and continuance intention in mobile government service in China. Telemat. Inform. 2020, 48, 101348.
    41. Alarabiat, A.; Soares, D.; Estevez, E. Determinants of citizens’ intention to engage in government-led electronic participation initiatives through Facebook. Gov. Inf. Q. 2021, 38, 101537.
    42. Flavián, C.; Guinalíu, M.; Gurrea, R. The role played by perceived usability, satisfaction and consumer trust on website loyalty. Inf. Manag. 2006, 43, 1–14.
    43. Shevyakova, A.; Munsh, E.; Arystan, M.; Petrenko, Y. Competence development for Industry 4.0: Qualification requirements and solutions. Insights Reg. Dev. 2021, 3, 124–135.
    44. Chehabeddine, M.; Tvaronavičienė, M. Securing regional development. Insights Reg. Dev. 2020, 2, 430–442.
    45. Hapsari, R.; Clemes, M.D.; Dean, D. The impact of service quality, customer engagement and selected marketing constructs on airline passenger loyalty. Int. J. Qual. Serv. Sci. 2017, 9, 21–40.
    46. Algesheimer, R.; Dholakia, U.M.; Herrmann, A. The Social Influence of Brand Community: Evidence from European Car Clubs. J. Mark. 2005, 69, 19–34.
    47. Chen, S.-C.; Lin, C.-P. Understanding the effect of social media marketing activities: The mediation of social identification, perceived value, and satisfaction. Technol. Forecast. Soc. Chang. 2019, 140, 22–32.
    48. Dodds, W.B.; Monroe, K.B.; Grewal, D. Effects of Price, Brand, and Store Information on Buyers’ Product Evaluations. J. Mark. Res. 1991, 28, 307–319.
    49. Bonsón, E.; Carvajal-Trujillo, E.; Escobar-Rodríguez, T. Escobar-Rodríguez, Influence of trust and perceived value on the intention to purchase travel online: Integrating the effects of assurance on trust antecedents. Tour. Manag. 2015, 47, 286–302.
    50. Zhang, K.Z.; Benyoucef, M.; Zhao, S.J. Building brand loyalty in social commerce: The case of brand microblogs. Electron. Commer. Res. Appl. 2016, 15, 14–25.
    51. Assar, S.; Boughzala, I.; Boydens, I. Practical studies in e-Government: Best Practices from around the World; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2011.
    52. Bonsón, E.; Royo, S.; Ratkai, M. Citizens’ Engagement on Local Governments’ Facebook sites. An empirical analysis: The Impact of Different Media and Content Types in Western Europe. Gov. Inf. Q. 2015, 32, 52–62.
    53. Al-Hujran, O. Toward the Utilization of m-Government Services in Developing Countries: A Qualitative Investigation. Int. J. Bus. Soc. Sci. 2012, 3, 155–160.
    54. Zamzami, I.; Mahmud, M. Mobile interface for m-Government services: A framework for information quality evaluation. Int. J. Sci. Eng. Res. 2012, 3, 1–5.
    55. Thongpapanl, N.; Rehman, A.A. Enhancing Online Performance through Website Content and Personalization. J. Comput. Inf. Syst. 2011, 52, 3–13.
    56. Liao, S.S.; Li, Q.; Xu, D.J. A Bayesian Network-based Framework for Personalization in Mobile Commerce Applications. Commun. Assoc. Inf. Syst. 2005, 15, 494–511.
    57. Zheng, Y.; Schachter, H.L.; Holzer, M. The Impact of Government form on E-Participation: A Study of New Jersey Municipalities. Gov. Inf. Q. 2014, 31, 653–659.
    58. Themistocleous, M.; Azab, N.A.; Kamal, M.M.; Ali, M.; Morabito, V. Location-based Services for Public Policy Making: The Direct and Indirect Way to E-Participation. Inf. Syst. Manag. 2012, 29, 269–283.
    59. Lee, Y.; Kozar, K.A. Investigating the Effect of Website Quality on E-Business Success: An Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) Approach. Decis. Support Syst. 2006, 42, 1383–1401.
    60. Smith, A.G. Applying Evaluation Criteria to New Zealand Government Websites. Int. J. Inf. Manag. 2001, 21, 137–149.
    61. Dragulanescu, N.-G. On the Definition and Evaluation of Web Sites Quality. Stud. Infrom. Control 2001, 10. Available online: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/340778659_On_the_Definition_and_Evaluation_of_Web_Sites_Quality (accessed on 2 July 2021).
    62. Lakeworth, S. How Important Is Branding to Your Marketing Strategy; ASYSS: Boston, MA, USA, 2008; Available online: https://proceedings.informingscience.org/InSITE2010/InSITE10p001-007Erkollar694.pdf (accessed on 8 January 2021).
    More