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Training on Cardiopulmonary Fitness
Heart failure (HF) is a common disease with an increasing prevalence worldwide and it is characterized by a low five-year survival of 35–55%, which affects cardiac function, exercise tolerance, and the daily life of patients. Cardiac rehabilitation is defined as a set of activities that aims to provide patients with heart disease with the best physical, mental, and social conditions, therefore, reducing the risk of death and acute events related to their illness. Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiac rehabilitation with physical exercise was beneficial to physical fitness, cardiac function, and quality of life in HF patients.
Heart failure (HF) is a common disease with an increasing prevalence worldwide and it is characterized by a low five-year survival of 35–55% , which affects cardiac function, exercise tolerance, and the daily life of patients . Previous studies have demonstrated that cardiac rehabilitation with physical exercise was beneficial to physical fitness, cardiac function, and quality of life in HF patients . At present, various exercise programs are widely applied to cardiac rehabilitation, in which continuous training (CT) and interval training (IT) are the main forms of exercise . However, there continues to be disagreement on whether or not IT and CT can significantly improve the cardiac function and functional capacity of patients with cardiovascular disease; the effectiveness between the two exercise programs is similar and it cannot be distinguished which exercise program is better .
VO2peak has been considered to be the best predictor of survival in cardiovascular diseases and it has been used in many previous studies to measure patients’ cardiorespiratory fitness . The VE/VCO2 slope is inversely related to cardiac output at peak exercise and is at least partly explained by a decrease in pulmonary perfusion . Bruna (2019) suggested that high intensity interval training was more effective than moderate continuous interval training for improving VO2peak, while the effect was not significant for improving left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between the two exercise programs . Mansueto (2018) suggested that high intensity interval training was superior to moderate continuous interval training for improving VO2peak in HF patients with reduced ejection fraction but the superiority disappeared when they performed a subanalysis .
2. Development and Findings
The entry is from 10.3390/ijerph18136761
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